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Italian New Zealanders

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Italian New Zealanders are New Zealanders of Italian descent or Italian-born people who reside in New Zealand. The 2013 Census counted 3,795 New Zealanders of Italian descent.[1] Italian-New Zealander culture is prominent across New Zealand, with the culture influencing New Zealand's art, food and drink, and film industry- similar to that of Italian Australian culture.

Demographics

Italians live in all regions of New Zealand, with the two most common regions being the Auckland Region and the Wellington Region. 80.7 percent of Italian New Zealanders live in the main urban areas, populations of 30,000 or more. Most Italians live in the North Island (83.5 percent) and the rest in the South Island (16.4 percent). The population increased by 21.8 percent between 2006 and 2013. The 2006 Census had counted 3,114 New Zealanders of Italian descent.[2]

As of the 2013 Census, 1,464 speak Italian at home. English is the most widely spoken language by Italian New Zealanders, with 95.9% being able to speak the language.[3]

As of 2016, there were 3,217 registered Italian citizens (including those with dual citizenship) living in New Zealand according to the Italian constitutional referendum, 2016.[4]

Historical overview

The early years

Italians have been arriving in New Zealand in a limited number since the mid-decades of the 18th century. The first Italian to set foot on New Zealand soil was Antonio Ponto, which occurred in 1769. Ponto was part of the crew on Captain James Cook's ship, the Endeavour. Nevertheless, it is only since 1860 that the country witnessed the arrival of a number of educated individuals who had left Italy for non-economic reasons, such as missionaries, musicians, artists, professionals and businesspeople. During the 1860s, friars from Italy arrived in New Zealand and they set up a Catholic mission for the Māoris. It was not successful and in 1873, the friars returned to Italy.[5][6]

The number of Italians who arrived in New Zealand remained small during the whole of the nineteenth century. The voyage was costly and complex, as no direct shipping link existed between the two countries until the late 1890s. The length of the voyage was over two months before the opening of the Suez Canal. Italian migrants who intended to leave for New Zealand had to use German shipping lines that called at the ports of Genoa and Naples no more than once a month. Therefore, other overseas destinations such as The United States, Canada, Australia, Brazil, Argentina, The United Kingdom, The United Arab Emirates, and Singapore, proved to be much more attractive, thus allowing the establishment of migration patterns more quickly and drawing far greater numbers. The New Zealand gold rush of the 1860s attracted a group of Italians to New Zealand. When the gold rush ended, some of the Italians returned home to their country, some migrated to Australia, while others look for work in the cities. During the 1870s, a new group of Italian migrants arrived, mostly single men from northern Italy, who later sent for other family members such as their wives and children in what is referred to as chain migration.[5][7][8]

The shape of New Zealand was used as a marketing tool to attract Italian migrants with a 19th-century promoter of Italian immigration showing how New Zealand bears a resemblance to Italy, by turning it upside down with "the foot end facing up".[9] In 1882, Wellington's Garibaldi Club was founded, with the club still being active in the 2000s, which they host activities such as social events, folk dancing and card games.[5]

In 2013, most Italian immigrants were living in the main urban centers, with over half living in Auckland or Wellington.

Culture

Italians brought with them their language, food and customs to New Zealand. In 1882, Club Garibaldi was established in Wellington by Italian settlers. It is one the oldest Italian clubs in the Southern Hemisphere.[10] Club Garibaldi published in 1992 a book titled Alla Fine Del Mondo – To the Ends of the Earth authored by Paul Elenio.[11] Also in Wellington, there is the Circolo Italiano di Wellington.[12] The Auckland Dante Alighieri Italian Society provides Italian language courses for people, cultural events, food, lectures and discussions, and a celebration of the Italian language and culture.[13] The Festival Italiano is organized by the Dante Alighieri Society and is celebrated yearly in Auckland. The festival includes Italian food, drink, live music and entertainment.[14]

Notable Italian New Zealanders

See also

References

  1. ^ a b 2013 Census ethnic group profiles: Italian
  2. ^ "2013 Census ethnic group profiles: Italian - Population and Geography".
  3. ^ "2013 Census ethnic group profiles: Italian - Languages spoken".
  4. ^ "Riepilogo estero".
  5. ^ a b c "Italians In New Zealand". Retrieved February 23, 2017.
  6. ^ Parati, Graziella; Tamburri, Anthony Julian (16 July 2011). The Cultures of Italian Migration. ISBN 9781611470383.
  7. ^ "Immigration 1860–1880 - Italians - Te Ara".
  8. ^ Parati, Graziella; Tamburri, Anthony Julian (16 July 2011). The Cultures of Italian Migration. ISBN 9781611470383.
  9. ^ "T-Shirt - Island Bay Little Italy".
  10. ^ "History - Club Garibaldi". Retrieved February 23, 2017.
  11. ^ "The New Zealand Italians: Books On Their Stories". Retrieved February 23, 2017.
  12. ^ "Circolo Italiano di Wellington". Retrieved February 23, 2017.
  13. ^ "Dante Alighieri Auckland - Home". Retrieved February 23, 2017.
  14. ^ "Dante Alighieri Auckland - Festival Italiano". Retrieved February 23, 2017.
This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 02:30
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