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Italian Canadians in the Greater Toronto Area

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Toronto has a large Italian Canadian community, with 32.2 per cent of the ethnic Italians in Canada living in the Greater Toronto Area as of 2016.[1] Toronto is home to the fourth largest population of people of Italian descent after São Paulo, Buenos Aires and New York City, respectively. As of the Canada 2016 Census, there were 511,680 Italian Canadians located in the Greater Toronto Area, with 484,360 located within the Toronto CMA.[2][note 1]

Italian immigration to Toronto started as early as the mid 19th century. By 1860, over a dozen "Soldiers of fortune" and "men of letters" lived in Toronto. Italians arrived in Toronto in large numbers during the early 20th century, first settling in an area then known as The Ward, centred on University Avenue and College Street. By the 1920s, most Italians had moved west of Bathurst Street and the College-Clinton area had emerged as the city's major Little Italy. Italian immigration continued into the post-World War II era, where approximately 20,000 to 30,000 Italians immigrated to Canada each year between the early 1950s and the mid 1960s, many of the men working in the construction industry upon settling. In the late 1960s, the Italian economy experienced a period of growth and recovery, removing one of the primary incentives for emigration.

As early as 1961, the presence of new immigrants had already started changing Little Italy. Since the 1970s, Italian immigrants from Little Italy moved northward to Corso Italia on St. Clair Avenue West. As early as the 1990s, Italian immigrants moved to northwestern parts of the city such as Pelmo Park-Humberlea and Maple Leaf, as well as to the suburbs northwest of Toronto, in particular, York and Peel, and their respective communities, in particular, Woodbridge in Vaughan, Nobleton in King, and Bolton in Caledon.

History

"Soldiers of fortune" and "men of letters" from Italy immigrated to Toronto prior to the 1850s. Toronto absorbed pedlars and craftspeople from northern Italy until the 1880s. By 1860, 17 Italians lived in Toronto. Additional tradespeople arrived by 1870. After the 1880s many came from northern Italy, with most being from Genoa. The occupations tended to be craftspeople, service tradespeople, and pedlars.[3] Italians arrived in Toronto in large numbers during the early 20th century. Italians first settled in an area then known as The Ward, centred on University Avenue and College Street.[3] Approximately 40,000 Italians came to Canada during the interwar period of 1914 to 1918, predominantly from southern Italy where an economic depression and overpopulation had left many families in poverty.[4] By the 1920s, most Italians had moved west of Bathurst Street and the College-Clinton area had emerged as the city's major Little Italy.[3][5] They mainly immigrated to Toronto—increasing from 4,900 Italians in 1911, to 9,000 in 1921, constituting almost two per cent of Toronto's population.[5]

Italian immigration continued into the post-World War II era, where approximately 20,000 to 30,000 Italians immigrated to Canada each year between the early 1950s and the mid 1960s.[4] By the 1960s, more than 15,000 Italian men worked in Toronto's construction industry, representing one third of all construction workers in the city at that time.[4] 90 per cent of the Italians who immigrated to Canada after World War II remained in Canada, and decades after that period, the community still had fluency in the Italian language.[6] In the late 1960s, the Italian economy experienced a period of growth and recovery, removing one of the primary incentives for emigration.[4]

As early as 1961, the presence of new immigrants had already started changing Little Italy.[7] That year, 15,000 Italians, 12,000 being immigrants, lived in Little Italy (35 per cent of the population), declining to 8,000 in 1971, and further to 3,600 in 1991 (13 per cent of the population).[7] Since the 1970s, Italian immigrants from Little Italy moved northward to Corso Italia on St. Clair Avenue West.[7] In 1981, about 35,000 Italians lived in this area, however, by 1991, had dropped to 20,000.[7] Much of the Italian population subsequently moved to the northwestern part of the city, such as Pelmo Park-Humberlea and Maple Leaf, as well as to the suburbs northwest of Toronto, in particular, York and Peel, and their respective communities, in particular, Woodbridge in Vaughan, Nobleton in King, and Bolton in Caledon.[8][9] Although the character of Toronto's two Italian enclaves (which later also included Palmerston-Little Italy and Corso Italia-Davenport) still has several Italian restaurants and bakeries, the demographics of these neighbourhoods have changed drastically with a smaller Italian population than it had originally.

By 2001, 79,835 Italian Canadians lived in Vaughan, accounting for 44.0 per cent of the population.[10] As the presence of new immigrants significantly bolstered the population, the concentration of Italian Canadians has steadily decreased, with 94,725 Italian Canadians accounting for 31.1 per cent of the population in 2016.[11] That year, the community of Woodbridge within Vaughan is home to 55,960 of these Italian Canadians, accounting for 53.5 per cent of the population—the largest in Canada.[12] The concentration of Italian Canadians has started increasing further north and westward, with concentrations of Italian Canadians in King and Caledon as compared to 2001 and 2016 were 22.6 per cent vs 34.5 per cent, and 22.3 per cent vs 27.3 per cent, respectively.[10][11]

Demographics

Ethnicity

Canadians of Italian ethnicity in the Greater Toronto Area by census division (1991–2006)
Census division Population (1991)[13] % of ethnic population (1991) Population (1996)[14][15] % of ethnic population (1996) Population (2001)[16] % of ethnic population (2001) Population (2006)[17] % of ethnic population (2006)
Toronto 212,665[note 2] 9.4% 203,220[note 3] 8.5% 185,230[note 4] 7.5% 180,660 7.3%
York 86,755 17.2% 103,935 17.5% 126,740 17.4% 150,245 16.9%
Peel 67,585 9.2% 78,765 9.2% 85,020 8.6% 93,200 8.1%
Halton 17,440 5.6% 22,900 6.7% 26,345 7.1% 35,525 8.2%
Durham 16,610 4.1% 21,250 4.6% 25,235 5.0% 31,200 5.6%
Greater Toronto Area (total) 401,055 9.1% 430,070 9.3% 448,570 8.9% 490,830 8.9%
Toronto CMA[note 1] N/A N/A 414,310 9.8% 429,380 9.2% 466,155 9.2%
Canadians of Italian ethnicity in the Greater Toronto Area by census division (2011–2016)
Census division Population (2011)[1] % of ethnic population (2011) Population (2016)[19] % of ethnic population (2016)
Toronto 177,065[note 5] 6.9% 182,495[note 6] 6.8%
York 159,950 15.6% 159,465 14.5%
Peel 89,665 7.0% 88,110 6.4%
Halton 40,495 8.2% 44,695 8.3%
Durham 33,415 5.6% 36,915 5.8%
Greater Toronto Area (total) 500,590 8.4% 511,680 8.1%
Toronto CMA[note 1] 475,090 8.6% 484,360 8.3%
Canadians of Italian ethnicity in the Greater Toronto Area by census subdivision (1991–2006)
Census subdivision Population (1991)[13] % of ethnic population (1991) Population (1996)[14] % of ethnic population (1996) Population (2001)[10] % of ethnic population (2001) Population (2006)[20] % of ethnic population (2006)
Vaughan 51,605 46.3% 60,125 45.4% 79,835 44.0% 91,325 38.4%
Mississauga 42,630 9.2% 47,365 8.7% 48,035 7.9% 49,025 7.4%
Brampton 20,610 8.8% 24,345 9.1% 25,775 8.0% 28,850 6.7%
Oshawa CMA 9,770[note 7] 4.1% 11,675[note 8] 4.4% 13,990[note 9] 4.8% 18,225[note 10] 5.6%
Richmond Hill 12,705 15.9% 15,765 15.5% 16,360 12.4% 20,830 12.9%
Caledon 4,345 12.4% 7,055 17.7% 11,215 22.3% 15,330 27.0%
Oakville 7,775 6.8% 10,615 8.3% 12,280 8.6% 15,195 9.2%
Burlington 6,325 4.9% 7,715 5.6% 9,520 6.4% 11,430 7.0%
Markham 11,395 7.4% 12,160 7.0% 11,830 5.7% 14,110 5.4%
King 3,320 18.3% 3,880 21.3% 4,175 22.6% 5,105 26.3%
Milton 2,085 6.5% 2,470 7.7% 2,355 7.6% 4,730 8.9%
Newmarket 2,505 5.5% 4,250 7.4% 5,825 9.0% 6,705 9.1%
Aurora 1,915 6.5% 3,605 10.3% 4,030 10.1% 5,455 11.6%
Pickering 3,615 5.3% 4,970 6.3% 5,820 6.7% 6,100 7.0%
Ajax 2,380 4.2% 3,370 5.2% 3,990 5.4% 4,805 5.4%
Whitchurch-Stouffville 1,320 7.2% 1,440 7.3% 1,500 6.9% 2,880 12.0%
Halton Hills 1,255 3.4% 2,095 4.9% 2,195 4.6% 4,165 7.5%
Georgina 1,075 3.6% 1,610 4.6% 2,105 5.4% 2,200 5.3%
East Gwillimbury 875 4.8% 1,090 5.5% 1,085 5.4% 1,605 7.8%
Uxbridge 405 2.9% 525 3.3% 660 3.8% 1,100 5.8%
Scugog 360 2.0% 510 2.7% 630 3.2% 675 3.2%
Brock 70 0.63% 300 2.6% 155 1.3% 300 2.6%
Canadians of Italian ethnicity in the Greater Toronto Area by census subdivision (2011–2016)
Census subdivision Population (2011)[21] % of ethnic population (2011) Population (2016)[11] % of ethnic population (2016)
Vaughan 94,970 33.2% 94,725[note 11] 31.1%
Mississauga 46,101 6.5% 44,840 6.3%
Brampton 27,780 5.3% 25,185 4.3%
Oshawa CMA 20,265[note 12] 5.8% 22,870[note 13] 6.1%
Richmond Hill 21,570 11.7% 19,210 9.9%
Caledon 15,875 26.9% 18,095[note 14] 27.3%
Oakville 16,970 9.4% 16,900 8.8%
Burlington 12,755 7.4% 14,235 7.9%
Markham 13,130 4.4% 12,060 3.7%
King 6,340 32.1% 8,405[note 15] 34.5%
Milton 6,530 7.8% 8,345 7.7%
Newmarket 7,880 10.0% 8,045 9.7%
Aurora 6,795 13.0% 6,835 12.5%
Pickering 6,065 6.9% 5,940 6.5%
Ajax 5,405 5.0% 5,390 4.5%
Whitchurch-Stouffville 4,680 12.6% 5,325 11.7%
Halton Hills 4,245 7.3% 5,215 8.7%
Georgina 2,880 6.7% 2,815 6.3%
East Gwillimbury 1,695 7.7% 2,045 8.7%
Uxbridge 845 4.1% 1,205 5.7%
Scugog 620 2.9% 1,035 4.9%
Brock 215 1.9% 470 4.1%
Canadians of Italian ethnicity in the Greater Toronto Area by federal electoral districts (10 per cent or more of population, 2016)[24]
Riding Population % of ethnic population
Vaughan—Woodbridge 55,960 53.5%
King—Vaughan 40,955 31.2%
Dufferin—Caledon 22,020 17.3%
Etobicoke Centre 17,545 15.1%
York Centre 13,880 13.4%
Humber River—Black Creek 13,800 12.8%
York South—Weston 14,710 12.8%
Aurora—Oak Ridges—Richmond Hill 14,160 12.4%
Davenport 11,875 11.1%
Newmarket—Aurora 11,955 10.3%

Language and immigration

Italian mother tongue speakers in the Greater Toronto Area by census division (1991–2006)
Census division Population (1991)[25] % of non-official language
mother tongue speakers (1991)
Population (1996)[26] % of non-official language
mother tongue speakers (1996)
Population (2001)[27] % of non-official language
mother tongue speakers (2001)
Population (2006)[28] % of non-official language
mother tongue speakers (2006)
Toronto 115,660 15.4% 114,095 11.5% 99,230 9.0% 85,055 7.3%
York 40,915 32.7% 49,040 25.5% 57,535 20.9% 60,800 15.6%
Peel 26,875 14.9% 31,465 11.4% 30,995 8.4% 30,920 6.1%
Halton 4,600 12.5% 5,835 12.5% 6,050 11.0% 7,120 8.8%
Durham 4,685 12.8% 6,110 12.8% 6,385 11.9% 6,825 9.7%
Greater Toronto Area (total) 192,735 17.7% 206,545 14.7% 200,195 12.2% 190,720 9.5%
Toronto CMA 218,120[29] 17.3% 202,440[29] 13.3% 195,960[30] 10.8% N/A N/A
Italian mother tongue speakers in the Greater Toronto Area by census division (2011–2016)
Census division Population (2011)[31] % of non-official language
mother tongue speakers (2011)
Population (2016)[32] % of non-official language
mother tongue speakers (2016)
Toronto 71,725 6.2% 62,640 5.3%
York 58,305 12.6% 54,685 10.3%
Peel 27,015 4.7% 24,420 3.9%
Halton 7,215 6.9% 7,060 5.2%
Durham 6,265 8.2% 6,140 6.2%
Greater Toronto Area (total) 183,200 7.7% 154,945 6.2%
Toronto CMA 166,415 7.2% 151,415 6.0%
Italian immigrant population in the Greater Toronto Area by census division
Census division Population (2011)[1] % of immigrants (2011) Population (2016)[33] % of immigrants (2016)
Toronto 53,485 4.3% 45,515 3.6%
York 38,100 8.2% 36,040 7.0%
Peel 17,780 2.7% 16,575 2.3%
Halton 3,780 2.9% 3,785 2.4%
Durham 3,955 2.6% 3,860 2.6%
Greater Toronto Area (total) 117,100 4.5% 105,775 3.8%
Toronto CMA[note 16] 115,060 4.5% 103,620 3.8%

Media

Italian newspapers, television, and radio have existed throughout Toronto's history.[6] Son to Italian immigrants, Johnny Lombardi was born in The Ward in 1915, and went on to found one of the first multilingual radio stations in Canada, CHIN in 1966, in Palmerston–Little Italy.[37][38]

Notable residents

The Italian Walk of Fame acknowledges ethnic Italians. It is located in Little Italy.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Unlike the Greater Toronto Area, the Toronto CMA does not include the Halton municipality of Burlington, and some Durham municipalities, those being Scugog and Brock, as well as those within the Oshawa CMA (Oshawa, Whitby, and Clarington). It does, however, include some municipalities outside the Greater Toronto Area, those being the Dufferin County municipalities of Mono and Orangeville, and the Simcoe County municipalities of Bradford West Gwillimbury and New Tecumseth. The Greater Toronto Area, comprises the whole of the Regional Municipality of York, Regional Municipality of Durham, Regional Municipality of Halton, Regional Municipality of Peel and the City of Toronto.
  2. ^ Includes pre-amalgamated Metropolitan Toronto (North York (83,710, 14.9% of total population), Old Toronto (38,960, 6.1% of total population), Etobicoke (36,660, 11.8% of total population), Scarborough (26,160, 5.0% of total population), York (22,795, 16.3% of total population), East York (4,380, 4.3% of total population))
  3. ^ Includes pre-amalgamated Metropolitan Toronto (North York (79,745, 13.5% of total population), Old Toronto (37,295, 5.7% of total population), Etobicoke (35,660, 10.9% of total population), Scarborough (25,045, 4.5% of total population), York (20,365, 13.9% of total population), East York (5,115, 4.7% of total population))
  4. ^ Includes post-amalgamated Metropolitan Toronto. The top concentrations of Italian Canadians in Toronto neighbourhoods: Pelmo Park-Humberlea (41.3%), Humber Summit (41.2%), Maple Leaf (40.6%), Yorkdale-Glen Park (36.2%), Rustic (29.7%), Corso Italia-Davenport (29.3%), Downsview (28.7%), York University Heights (18.5%), Palmerston-Little Italy (14.5%), Humber Heights-Westmount (N/A), Willowridge-Martingrove-Richview (N/A)[18]
  5. ^ The top concentrations of Italian Canadians in Toronto neighbourhoods: Maple Leaf (34.8%), Pelmo Park-Humberlea (34.0%), Humber Summit (30.2%), Yorkdale-Glen Park (28.2%), Downsview (26.3%), Rustic (24.3%), Humber Heights-Westmount (23.2%), Corso Italia-Davenport (19.9%), Willowridge-Martingrove-Richview (19.2%), York University Heights (14.6%), Palmerston-Little Italy (N/A)[18]
  6. ^ The top concentrations of Italian Canadians in Toronto neighbourhoods: Maple Leaf (35.2%), Yorkdale-Glen Park (27.4%), Pelmo Park-Humberlea (26.6%), Humber Summit (24.0%), Rustic (22.6%), Downsview (23.4%), Humber Heights-Westmount (21.0%), Corso Italia-Davenport (20.7%), Willowridge-Martingrove-Richview (19.3%), York University Heights (12.5%), Palmerston-Little Italy (11.7%)[18]
  7. ^ Includes Oshawa (5,060, 3.9% of total population), Whitby (2,960, 4.8% of total population), and Clarington (1,750, 3.5% of total population).
  8. ^ Includes Oshawa (5,335, 4.0% of total population), Whitby (4,175, 5.7% of total population), and Clarington (2,165, 3.6% of total population).
  9. ^ Includes Oshawa (6,050, 4.3% of total population), Whitby (5,350, 6.2% of total population), and Clarington (2,590, 3.8% of total population).
  10. ^ Includes Oshawa (6,850, 4.9% of total population), Whitby (7,515, 6.8% of total population), and Clarington (3,850, 5.0% of total population).
  11. ^ A location to note within Vaughan, is the community of Woodbridge, which has the largest concentration of Italian Canadians in Canada (55,960, 53.5% of total population).[12]
  12. ^ Includes Oshawa (7,400, 5.0% of total population), Whitby (9,405, 7.5% of total population), and Clarington (3,825, 4.6% of total population).
  13. ^ Includes Oshawa (8,705, 5.5% of total population), Whitby (9,385, 7.4% of total population), and Clarington (4,775, 5.2% of total population).
  14. ^ A location to note within Caledon, is the population centre of Bolton (11,900, 45.5% of total population).[22]
  15. ^ A location to note within King, is the population centre of Nobleton (2,170, 46.8% of total population).[23]
  16. ^ 159,225 (12.9%) in 1986;[34] 154,670 (10.5%) in 1991;[34] 146,515 (8.3%) in 1996;[34] 138,995 (6.8%) in 2001;[35] 130,685 (5.6%) in 2006[36]

References

  • Harney, Nicholas DeMaria. "Ethnicity, Social Organization, and Urban Space: A Comparison of Italians in Toronto and Montreal" (Chapter 6). In: Sloan, Joanne (editor). Urban Enigmas: Montreal, Toronto, and the Problem of Comparing Cities (Volume 2 of Culture of Cities). McGill-Queen's Press (MQUP), January 1, 2007. ISBN 0773577076, 9780773577077. Start p. 178.
  • Stanger-Ross, Jordan. Staying Italian: Urban Change and Ethnic Life in Postwar Toronto and Philadelphia (Historical Studies of Urban America). University of Chicago Press, January 15, 2010. ISBN 0226770761, 9780226770765.
  • Zucchi, John E. Italians in Toronto: Development of a National Identity, 1875-1935 (Volume 3 of McGill-Queen's studies in ethnic history, ISSN 0846-8869). McGill-Queen's Press, 1990. ISBN 0773507825, 9780773507821.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Census Divisions". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2020-02-23. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  2. ^ "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 2017-10-28. Retrieved 2017-10-27.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Zucchi, p. 36.
  4. ^ a b c d "History - Pier 21". www.pier21.ca. Archived from the original on 2017-07-21. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  5. ^ a b Sturino, Franc (1990). Forging the chain: a case study of Italian migration to North America, 2000-1930. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario. p. 168. ISBN 0-919045-45-6.
  6. ^ a b Stanger-Ross, p. 30.
  7. ^ a b c d Jordan Stanger-Ross (2010). Staying Italian: Urban Change and Ethnic Life in Postwar Toronto and Philadelphia (Historical Studies of Urban America). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226770765.
  8. ^ "The littlest Little Italy slowly fades away". theglobeandmail.com. 26 August 2005.
  9. ^ Perin, Roberto (York University). "Staying Italian: Urban Change and Ethnic Life in Post-war Toronto and Philadelphia." Urban History, 12/2010, Volume 37, Issue 3. Cited: p. 493. "[...]whereas in Toronto, Little Italy became a jumping-off point: houses were later purchased in the northwestern part of the city and beyond, notably in the famous or infamous ‘ethnoburb’ of Vaughan."
  10. ^ a b c "Census Subdivisions". Statistics Canada.
  11. ^ a b c "Census subdivisions with 5,000-plus population". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2020-01-11. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  12. ^ a b "Census Profile, 2016 Census Woodbridge-Vaughan". Statistics Canada. 2016. Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  13. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (1993-06-01). "1991 Census of Canada: Data tables – Population by Ethnic Origin (188) and Sex (3), Showing Single and Multiple Responses (3), for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas, 1991 Census (20% Sample Data)". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
  14. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (1998-02-17). "1996 Census of Canada: Data tables – Population by Ethnic Origin (188) and Sex (3), Showing Single and Multiple Responses (3), for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas, 1996 Census (20% Sample Data)". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 2019-08-12. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
  15. ^ contenu, English name of the content author / Nom en anglais de l'auteur du. "English title / Titre en anglais". Archived from the original on 2018-09-23. Retrieved 2020-06-24.
  16. ^ "Census Divisions". Statistics Canada.
  17. ^ "Census Divisions". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2016-09-24. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  18. ^ a b c "Neighborhood Profiles". City of Toronto. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  19. ^ "Census Divisions". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2017-10-28. Retrieved 2017-10-27.
  20. ^ "Census Subdivisions". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  21. ^ "Census Subdivisions". Statistics Canada.
  22. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Census Profile, 2016 Census Bolton [Population centre], Ontario and Ontario [Province]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  23. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  24. ^ "Census subdivisions with 5,000-plus population". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2020-01-11. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  25. ^ "Census Divisions". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2020-01-08. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  26. ^ "Census Divisions". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2020-01-08. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  27. ^ "Census Divisions". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2020-01-08. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  28. ^ "Census Divisions". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2020-01-08. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  29. ^ a b Topic-based tabulations|Detailed Mother Tongue (103), Knowledge of Official Languages, 1996 Census of Canada
  30. ^ Topic-based tabulations|Detailed Mother Tongue (103), Knowledge of Official Languages, 2001 Census of Canada
  31. ^ "Census Divisions". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2020-01-08. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  32. ^ "Census Divisions". Statistics Canada.
  33. ^ "Census Divisions". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2020-01-11. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  34. ^ a b c Immigrant Population by Selected Places of Birth (84) and Sex (3), for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas, 1986-1996 Censuses (20% Sample Data), 1996 Census of Canada
  35. ^ Place of birth for the immigrant population by period of immigration, 2006 counts and percentage distribution, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data, 2001 Census of Canada
  36. ^ Topic-based tabulations|Place of birth for the immigrant population by period of immigration, 2006 counts and percentage distribution, for census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations - 20% sample data Archived 2018-09-23 at the Wayback Machine, 2006 Census of Canada
  37. ^ "Media legend Johnny Lombardi dies at 86". CTV News. 19 March 2002. Archived from the original on 2005-12-04. Retrieved 2010-04-11. Prime Minister Jean Chretien praised Lombardi's accomplishments upon hearing of his death. "I think he's done a lot to establish multiculturalism in Toronto and he will be missed by a lot of people," Chretien said.
  38. ^ User, Super. "Johnny Lombardi". www.chinradio.com. Archived from the original on 2019-05-02. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  39. ^ Thurmond, Alexandra (May 2015). "Sound Scout: Alessia Cara is the 18-year-old Singer-Songwriter We Cant Get Enough Of". Teen Vogue. Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
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Further reading

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