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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers.

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  • ✪ Ancient & Medieval Medicine: Crash Course History of Science #9
  • ✪ Foundations For Medicine: The Four Humors - By Hakim Archuletta (Natural Health Series: Session 3)
  • ✪ What are the Four Humors? part 2 of 3
  • ✪ BBC In Our Time: The Four Humours
  • ✪ What are the Four Humors? part 3 of 3

Transcription

We’ve seen how, from around 400 BCE to CE 1300, ideas in astronomy, math, and engineering were traded all the way from Beijing to Delhi, and from Baghdad to Constantinople. In the next episodes, we’re going to dive into how some specific kinds of knowledge evolved over time. First up: healing. The history of medicine is about two of our big questions: one, what is life? What makes it so special, so fragile, so… goopy!? Two, how do we know what we know? Why should I take my doctor’s advice? Why are deep-fried Oreos bad for me? It may be tempting to look at medicine as a science that has simply progressed over time—that medicine used to be bad, and its history is a story of how it got better. And don’t get me wrong: we love modern medicine! You’ll have to take my word for it until “Crash Course: Deep-Fried Everything” drops, but the science behind lipid transport is just fascinating. Focusing on progress, though, obscures what worked in the past. Ancient and medieval medicine worked for millions of people. They understood their bodies as bounded by rules. And regardless of what worked, early medical systems allowed people to make sense of bodies and health. You may think that medicine is a technē, or practically oriented knowledge. But today, we’re going to focus on systems of medicine as world-ordering theories, or epistēmē. These theories were built up into a textual tradition, in which doctors wrote down what they saw and cited earlier doctors when explaining their treatments. So let’s turn to medical education. What textbooks would a would-be doctor read in a given place and time? [Intro Music Plays] Let’s say you lived in Song Dynasty China: you’d study machine-printed textbooks on traditional Chinese medicine, or TCM. In this system, humans are small pieces of one vast organism called the Entire Dang Universe. All things within this system are composed of five elements: fire, earth, metal, water, and wood. In TCM, health means a balance between two forces, yin and yang, representing dark and light, femininity and masculinity, hot and cold, and so on. Disease means imbalance. Thus healthcare means restoring balance, in TCM, by manipulating the energy that flows through living bodies, called qi. You, the would-be doc, would learn all about how to move qi around using acupuncture and acupressure, herbal therapies, exercise, and prescription diets. If you lived in Gupta Dynasty India, you’d also get down with a five-element theory of matter. But you would study the science of life, Ayurveda. You’d probably pick up the popular textbook Charaka Samhita, or one of the other samhita—or “collections”—that could help you memorize hundreds of named body parts. In addition to anatomy, the samhitas would also teach you etiology, or what causes different diseases, and symptomatology, or what diseases look like. When it came to treatment, your samhita would have information on the eight specialites: the diseases of children, those of the elderly, mental diseases, diseases of the sense organs, surgery, poisons and antidotes, and aphrodisiacs. You would learn the five karmas or actions that were used for removal of toxins from body tissues. And, to prepare treatments, you’d learn a lot about plants, minerals, and animals. But treating patients is only part of Ayurveda. The science of life concerns healthful living in general, including how to prevent disease and influence hygiene and diet. What if you lived in, say, fourteenth-century Bologna, Italy—home to one of the oldest universities in the world, which opened in CE 1088! You would attend lectures, and you’d have a hand-copied textbook, not made by a press as in Song China. The medical theories in your textbook would be founded on Aristotelian biology and physics. Bodies are composed of four special bodily humors. Each of these corresponds to one of the four elements of Empedocles: blood, made of air, phlegm, made of water, yellow bile, made of fire, and black bile, made of earth. Illness is an imbalance in the humors. Too much black bile, for example, causes depression. Treatment means restoring the right humoral balance—like, with bloodletting. When too much of one humor built up in the body, one way to restore a balance was to let some of the excess drain off. But the most common treatment, then as now, was simply offering good dietary advice. Aristotle linked the four elements with the humors, but he wasn’t a doctor. The oldest nuggets of humoral wisdom in Western Eurasian medical textbooks were attributed to a physician named Hippocrates of Cos, which means “Gregory House” in classical Greek. We know something of his life—he died when Aristotle was in his teens—but we don’t have many surviving works by him. What we do have is a collection of texts of various age and unknown authorship called the Hippocratic corpus. According to the corpus, Hippocrates I was a fan of the Pythagoreans. (Remember, the secret math cult?) But his skepticism—or doubt that certain knowledge is possible—set Hippocratic medicine apart from a lot of Greek natural philosophy. Hippocrates emphasized reason, observation, and medical prediction. He emphasized that diet and the environment influence health, not the direct will of the gods. And his oath—“do no harm”—still underpins medical education. Hippocrates was the Jimi Hendrix of Eurasian and North African medicine, innovating a new style that challenged traditional ideas. But Hippocratic physicians had to compete among many schools of healers. It was a Roman named Galen who became medicine’s Michael Jackson—the popularizer of a standard humorism that would last until the 1800s. Galen’s system absorbed the smaller, uneven Hippocratic corpus. Galen was born around CE 130 in Pergamon. But he made his career in Rome, treating gladiators. This gave him lots of experience peeking into the body while sewing up wounds. Eventually he got the offer of a lifetime: court physician to Emperor Marcus Aurelius, who was a battle-hardened general, Stoic philosopher, and all-around hardcore dude. Galen wrote a huge number of influential texts—supposedly five hundred! Though only eighty-three survive today. These show that Galen built on the systems of Hippocrates and Aristotle, but also made detailed notes on human anatomy drawn from experience. He accurately observed how the larynx works and demonstrated the the lungs fill up with air. Oh ya, and he innovated cataract surgery. But Galen definitely got some things wrong. One reason is that human dissection was illegal in imperial Rome and the states that succeeded it. So a lot of anatomy was still guesswork based on observations of animals. For example, dissecting sheep heads, Galen identified a circulatory organ called a rete mirabile or “wonderful net” that is found in animals like sheep and dolphins… but doesn’t actually exist in humans. After Galen, the most notable medical theorists in the Greater Mediterranean weren’t Greeks or Romans, but Arabs or Persians who had access to both Greek and Indian sciences. First among was the Persian polymath Abū Bakr al-Rāzī —whose name also means “Gregory House.” Born in CE 854, al-Rāzī was prolific: he wrote dozens of books, including detailed accounts of his cases. He is considered by many historians to be one of the founders of several disciplines, from psychology to opthamology. And he was the first to describe smallpox and measles as distinct diseases. Al-Rāzī also wrote for general audiences, educating them about health and disease. Many of his works were encyclopedias based on Greek humoral medicine and natural philosophy. His big one, al-Hawi al-Kabir or The Virtuous Life, was a large, influential medical encyclopedia. Al-Rāzī was a unique dude who did exactly what he wanted. Although he was one of the most scientific doctors of his time, he also wrote works of Islamic prophetic medicine, al-tibb al-nabawi. This discipline, an alternative to the Hippocratic–Galenic system, advocated traditional medical practices mentioned in the Qur’an. Al-Rāzī also influenced medicine by becoming the first fan of Greco-Roman humoral medicine to beef with Galen! He wrote a book called Shukuk ‘ala alinusor—Doubts About Galen—in which he said that his own observations contradicted some of Galen’s claims. Remember nullius in verba—“on the word of no one”—the motto of the Royal Society of London, founded in 1660? Al-Rāzī advocated this approach to medicine circa the year 900, over seven hundred years earlier! But, if you were really a medieval Italian medical student, the book you’d read probably wouldn’t be by Hippocrates, Galen, or al-Rāzī. Instead, you’d read a translated encyclopedia featuring all of them. In doing so, you’d participate in the scientific wonder called Scholasticism—or learning through close readings of approved texts that recorded the observations and theories of earlier thinkers. Take it away, Thought Bubble! One of the all-time greatest hits of medical education was al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb, or The Canon of Medicine. The Canon was written by another Persian polymath, Ibn Sina, born in 980. Ibn Sina was widely seen as the best writer to summarize and comment on the Greco-Roman doctors. His Canon became one of the most important medical textbooks—and introductions to Aristotle’s physics—for six hundred years. Your textbook is really a mashup of several different books. Each page is like an onion: at its heart, one punctum or big idea by Aristotle, or Hippocrates or Galen. These are surrounded by layer upon layer of annotatio, or notes, by famous physicians from distant cities such as Baghdad. Your main throughline are the summaries by Ibn-Sina, whose name has been latinized as “Avicenna”. But there are notes by Latin translators such as Gerard de Cremona or Constantinus Africanus, plus outer layers of notes by other medical students. Maybe you even jot down your own. Thus—way before WebMD—you’re in conversation with doctors from all across space! And time! In universities such as Bologna or Salerno, you might also have access to another textbook, this one by… wait for it… a lady! Trota of Salerno wrote Practical Medicine According to Trota and Treatments of Women, one of books of the The Trotula Ensemble. This group of three texts from around 1200 traveled widely throughout medieval Europe. The Trotula became foundational to gynecology and all other topics related to women’s health. But you might not know that this foundational text on women’s health was written by a woman, because her identity was systematically written out of history until the late twentieth century. Because of course it was. Thanks Thought Bubble! So what was “life” for many educated people in Asia and North Africa between roughly 400 BCE to CE 1300? Life was a universal property of which humans were just interesting examples. Life was linked to the movements of special fluids, which were the objects of medical treatments. Life was ultimately built out of a smaller number of elements, and good health meant balancing fluids and elements in the right way. How did we know what life is? For some physicians in classical Greece or imperial Rome, careful observation and comparison to animals were crucial methods. Persian doctors, influenced by both Greek and Indian ideas, synthesized earlier ideas, expanded evidence for them, and challenged and reworked them. Why did you, medieval citizen, trust this information? Because books told you to! And with that, dear student, we leave you to deal with… the Black Plague of 1347. Bummer! Next time—we’ll deep-dive into the eternal question of “what is stuff” with a group of thinkers who tried to “science” lead into gold—the alchemists. Crash Course History of Science is filmed in the Dr. Cheryl C. Kinney studio in Missoula, Montana and it’s made with the help of all this nice people and our animation team is Thought Cafe. Crash Course is a Complexly production. If you wanna keep imagining the world complexly with us, you can check out some of our other channels like Scishow Psych, Animal Wonders, and The Art Assignment. And, if you’d like to keep Crash Course free for everybody, forever, you can support the series at Patreon; a crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love. Thank you to all of our patrons for making Crash Course possible with their continued support.

Contents

Origin

The concept of "humors" (i.e. chemical systems regulating human behaviour) became more prominent from the writing of medical theorist Alcmaeon of Croton (C. 540–500BC). His list of humours was longer than just four liquids and included fundamental elements described by Empedocles, such as water, air, earth, etc. Some authors suggest that the concept of "humours" may have origins in Ancient Egyptian medicine[1] or Mesopotamia,[2] though it was not systemized until ancient Greek thinkers. The word humor is a translation of Greek χυμός,[3] chymos (literally juice or sap, metaphorically flavor). At around the same time, ancient Indian Ayurveda medicine had developed a theory of three humors, which they linked with the five Hindu elements.[4]

Hippocrates is the one usually credited with applying this idea to medicine. In contrast to Alcmaeon, Hippocrates suggested that humours are the vital bodily fluids, such as blood, bile, phlegm and "black bile" (he probably referred to blood composites in patients with bleeding internal organs). Alcmaeon and Hippocrates posited that an extreme excess or deficiency of any of the humours bodily fluid in a person can be a sign of illness. Hippocrates and then Galen suggested that a moderate imbalance in the mixture of these fluids produces temperament (behavioural) type [5]. One of the treatises attributed to Hippocrates, On the Nature of Man, describes the theory as follows:

The Human body contains blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. These are the things that make up its constitution and cause its pains and health. Health is primarily that state in which these constituent substances are in the correct proportion to each other, both in strength and quantity, and are well mixed. Pain occurs when one of the substances presents either a deficiency or an excess, or is separated in the body and not mixed with others.[6]

Although the theory of the four humors does appear in some Hippocratic texts, some Hippocratic writers only accepted the existence of two humors, while some even refrained from discussing the humoral theory at all.[7] Humoralism, or the doctrine of the four temperaments, as a medical theory retained its popularity for centuries largely through the influence of the writings of Galen (129–201 AD). Hippocrates theory of four humours was linked it with the popular theory of the four elements: earth, fire, water and air proposed by Empedocles but this link wasn't proposed by Hippocrates or Galen who referred primarily to bodily fluids. While Galen thought that humors were formed in the body, rather than ingested, he believed that different foods had varying potential to be acted upon by the body to produce different humors. Warm foods, for example, tended to produce yellow bile, while cold foods tended to produce phlegm. Seasons of the year, periods of life, geographic regions and occupations also influenced the nature of the humors formed.

The four temperaments as depicted in an 18th-century woodcut: phlegmatic, choleric, sanguine and melancholic.
The four temperaments as depicted in an 18th-century woodcut: phlegmatic, choleric, sanguine and melancholic.

The imbalance of humors, or dyscrasia, was thought to be the direct cause of all diseases. Health was associated with a balance of humors, or eucrasia. The qualities of the humors, in turn, influenced the nature of the diseases they caused. Yellow bile caused warm diseases and phlegm caused cold diseases. In On the Temperaments, Galen further emphasized the importance of the qualities. An ideal temperament involved a balanced mixture of the four qualities. Galen identified four temperaments in which one of the qualities, warm, cold, moist or dry, predominated and four more in which a combination of two, warm and moist, warm and dry, cold and dry or cold and moist, dominated. These last four, named for the humors with which they were associated—that is, sanguine, choleric, melancholic and phlegmatic, eventually became better known than the others. While the term temperament came to refer just to psychological dispositions, Galen used it to refer to bodily dispositions, which determined a person's susceptibility to particular diseases as well as behavioral and emotional inclinations.

Disease could also be the result of the "corruption" of one or more of the humors, which could be caused by environmental circumstances, dietary changes, or many other factors.[8] These deficits were thought to be caused by vapors inhaled or absorbed by the body. Greeks and Romans, and the later Muslim and Western European medical establishments that adopted and adapted classical medical philosophy, believed that each of these humors would wax and wane in the body, depending on diet and activity. When a patient was suffering from a surplus or imbalance of one of these four fluids, then said patient's personality and or physical health could be negatively affected.

Four humors

Even though humorism theory had several models that used 2, 3 and 5 components, the most famous model consists of four-humors described in Hippocrates writings and then developed further by Galen. The four humors of Hippocratic medicine are black bile (Greek: μέλαινα χολή, melaina chole), yellow bile (Greek: ξανθη χολή, xanthe chole), phlegm (Greek: φλέγμα, phlegma), and blood (Greek: αἷμα, haima), and each corresponds to one of the traditional four temperaments. A humor is also referred to as a cambium (pl. cambia or cambiums).[9] Based on Hippocratic medicine, it was believed that the four humors were to be in balanced proportions with regard to amount and strength of each humor for a body to be healthy.[10]

These terms only partly correspond to the modern medical terminology, in which there is no distinction between black and yellow bile, and in which phlegm has a very different meaning. These "humors" may have their roots in the appearance of a blood sedimentation test made in open air, which exhibits a dark clot at the bottom ("black bile"), a layer of unclotted erythrocytes ("blood"), a layer of white blood cells ("phlegm") and a layer of clear yellow serum ("yellow bile"). It was believed that these were the basic substances from which all liquids in the body were made.[11][need quotation to verify]

Blood

The blood was believed to be produced exclusively by the liver. It was associated with a sanguine nature (enthusiastic, active, and social).[12][13]:103–105

Yellow bile

Excess of yellow bile was thought to produce aggression, and reciprocally excess anger to cause liver derangement and imbalances in the humors.[citation needed]

Black bile

The word "melancholy" derives from Greek μέλαινα χολή (melaina kholé) meaning 'black bile'. Excess of black bile was understood to cause depression, and inversely a decline of feeling or opinion cause the liver to produce blood contaminated with black bile.[citation needed]

Phlegm

Phlegm was thought to be associated with apathetic behavior, as preserved in the word "phlegmatic".[14] The phlegm of humorism is far from the same thing as phlegm as it is defined today. Nobel laureate Charles Richet MD, when describing humorism's "phlegm or pituitary secretion" in 1910 asked rhetorically, "...this strange liquid, which is the cause of tumours, of chlorosis, of rheumatism, and cacochymia—where is it? Who will ever see it? Who has ever seen it? What can we say of this fanciful classification of humours into four groups, of which two are absolutely imaginary?"[15]

Robin Fåhræus (1921), a Swedish physician who devised the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, suggested that the four humours were based upon the observation of blood clotting in a transparent container. When blood is drawn in a glass container and left undisturbed for about an hour, four different layers can be seen. A dark clot forms at the bottom (the "black bile"). Above the clot is a layer of red blood cells (the "blood"). Above this is a whitish layer of white blood cells (the "phlegm"). The top layer is clear yellow serum (the "yellow bile").[16]

Unification of humorism with Empedocles model

Empedocles theory suggested that four elements: earth, fire, water, and air; earth produce the natural systems. Since this theory was influential for centuries, later scholars paired qualities associated with each humour as described by Hippocrates-Galen with seasons and "basic elements" as described by Empedocles [17].

The following table shows the four humors with their corresponding elements, seasons, sites of formation, and resulting temperaments:[18]

Humour Season Ages Element Organ Qualities Temperament
Blood spring infancy air liver moist and warm sanguine
Yellow bile summer youth fire gallbladder warm and dry choleric
Black bile autumn adulthood earth spleen dry and cold melancholic
Phlegm winter old age water brain/lungs cold and moist phlegmatic

Influence and legacy

Islamic medicine

Medieval medical tradition in the "Golden Age of Islam" adopted the theory of humorism from Greco-Roman medicine, notably via the Persian polymath Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine (1025). Avicenna summarized the four humors and temperaments as follows:[19]

Avicenna's (ibn Sina) four humors and temperaments
Evidence Hot Cold Moist Dry
Morbid states Inflammations become febrile Fevers related to serious humor, rheumatism Lassitude Loss of vigour
Functional power Deficient energy Deficient digestive power Difficult digestion
Subjective sensations Bitter taste, excessive thirst, burning at cardia Lack of desire for fluids Mucoid salivation, sleepiness Insomnia, wakefulness
Physical signs High pulse rate, lassitude Flaccid joints Diarrhea, swollen eyelids, rough skin, acquired habit rough skin, acquired habit
Foods and medicines Calefacients harmful, infrigidants[20] beneficial Infrigidants harmful, calefacients beneficial Moist articles harmful Dry regimen harmful, humectants beneficial
Relation to weather Worse in summer Worse in winter Bad in autumn

Perso-Arabic and Indian medicine

The Unani school of medicine, practiced in Perso-Arabic countries, and in India and Pakistan, is based on Galenic and Avicennian medicine in its emphasis on the four humors as a fundamental part of the methodologic paradigm.

Western Medicine

The humoralist system of medicine was highly individualistic, for all patients were said to have their own unique humoral composition.[21] From Hippocrates onward, the humoral theory was adopted by Greek, Roman and Islamic physicians, and dominated the view of the human body among European physicians until at least 1543 when it was first seriously challenged by Andreas Vesalius. Vesalius mostly criticized Galen's theories of human anatomy and not the chemical hypothesis of beharioural regulation (temperament). However, some believe that theory of humours was cast into the underside of science in 1628 by the findings of William Harvey (also criticising mostly anatomy theory of Galen) and by Rudolf Virchow's theories of cellular pathology in 1858.

The four humors and their qualities
The four humors and their qualities

Typically "eighteenth-century" practices such as bleeding a sick person or applying hot cups to a person were, in fact, based on the humoral theory of imbalances of fluids (blood and bile in those cases). Ben Jonson wrote humor plays, where types were based on their humoral complexion. Methods of treatment like bloodletting, emetics and purges were aimed at expelling a surfeit of a humor. Other methods used herbs and foods associated with a particular humor to counter symptoms of disease, for instance: people who had a fever and were sweating were considered hot and wet and therefore given substances associated with cold and dry. Paracelsus further developed the idea that beneficial medical substances could be found in herbs, minerals and various alchemical combinations thereof. These beliefs were the foundation of mainstream Western medicine well into the 17th century.

Central to the treatment of unbalanced humors was the use of herbs. Specific herbs were used to treat all ailments simple, common and complex etc., from an uncomplicated upper respiratory infection to the plague. For example, chamomile was used to decrease heat, and lower excessive bile humor. Also, arsenic was used in a poultice bag to 'draw out' the excess humor(s) that led to symptoms of the plague. Philip Moore, who wrote on the hope of health, and Edwards, who wrote Treatise concerning the Plague discuss how these herbs are helpful in curing physical disease. They also discuss the importance of maintaining an herb garden. Apophlegmatisms, in pre-modern medicine, were medications chewed in order to draw away phlegm and humours.

Although advances in cellular pathology and chemistry criticized humoralism by the seventeenth century, the theory had dominated Western medical thinking for more than 2,000 years.[22][23] Only in some instances did the theory of humoralism wane into obscurity. One such instance occurred in the sixth and seventh centuries in the Byzantine Empire when traditional secular Greek culture gave way to Christian influences. Though the use of humoralist medicine continued during this time, its influence was diminished in favor of religion.[24] The revival of Greek humoralism, owing in part to changing social and economic factors, did not begin until the early ninth century.[25] Use of the practice in modern times is pseudoscience.[26]

Modern use

There are still remnants of the theory of the four humors in the current medical language. For example, modern medicine refers to humoral immunity or humoral regulation when describing substances such as hormones and antibodies that circulate throughout the body. It also uses the term blood dyscrasia to refer to any blood disease or abnormality.

The associated food classification survives in adjectives that are still used for food, as when some spices are described as "hot", and some wines as "dry". When the chili pepper was first introduced to Europe in the sixteenth century, dieticians disputed whether it was hot or cold.[citation needed]

The concept of humorism has not been used in medicine since then.[when?][22][23] There were no studies performed to prove or disprove the impact of dysfunction in known bodily organs producing named fluids (humors) on temperament traits simply because the list of temperament traits were not defined up until the end of 20th century.

Culture

Theophrastus and others developed a set of characters based on the humors. Those with too much blood were sanguine. Those with too much phlegm were phlegmatic. Those with too much yellow bile were choleric, and those with too much black bile were melancholic. The idea of human personality based on humors contributed to the character comedies of Menander and, later, Plautus. Through the neo-classical revival in Europe, the humor theory dominated medical practice, and the theory of humoral types made periodic appearances in drama.

Because people believed that the quantity of humors in the body could not be replenished, there were folk-medical beliefs that the loss of fluids was a form of death.[citation needed]

The humors can be found in Elizabethan works, such as in Taming of the Shrew, in which the character Petruchio pretends to be irritable and angry to show Katherina what it is like being around a disagreeable person. He yells at the servants for serving mutton, a "choleric" food, to two people who are already choleric.

Foods in Elizabethan times were all believed to have an affinity with one of these four humors. A person showing signs of phlegmatism might have been served wine (a choleric drink and the direct opposite humor to phlegmatic) to balance this.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ van Sertima, Ivan (1992). The Golden Age of the Moor. Transaction Publishers. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-56000-581-0.
  2. ^ Sudhoff, Karl (1926). Essays in the History of Medicine. Medical Life Press, New York City. pp. 67, 87, 104.
  3. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, χυ_μ-ός".
  4. ^ Magner, A History of the Life Sciences, p. 6, at Google Books
  5. ^ Hippocrates (c. 460 – c. 370 BC): in Hippocratic Corpus, On The Sacred Disease.
  6. ^ W.N. Mann (1983). G.E.R. Lloyd (ed.). Hippocratic writings. Translated by J Chadwick. Harmondsworth: Penguin. p. 262. ISBN 978-0140444513.
  7. ^ Lindberg, David C. (2007). The Beginnings of Western Science : the European Scientific Tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context, prehistory to A.D. 1450 (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226482057.
  8. ^ Lindemann, Mary (2010). Medicine and Society in Early Modern Europe. University Printing House. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-521-27205-6.
  9. ^ Burton, Bk. I, p. 147
  10. ^ Jackson, William A (2001). "A short guide to humoral medicine". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 22 (9): 487–489. doi:10.1016/s0165-6147(00)01804-6.
  11. ^ Johansson, Ingvar; Lynøe, Niels (2008). Medicine and Philosophy: A Twenty-First Century Introduction. Walter de Gruyter. p. 27. ISBN 9783110321364. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  12. ^ Medical Blood Page accessed Feb 15, 2015
  13. ^ Byron Good. Medicine, Rationality and Experience: An Anthropological Perspective Cambridge University Press, 1994 ISBN 9780521425766
  14. ^ <http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/142540>; accessed 27 May 2012.
  15. ^ Richet C (1910). "An Address ON ANCIENT HUMORISM AND MODERN HUMORISM: Delivered at the International Congress of Physiology held in Vienna, September 27th to 30th". Br Med J. 2 (2596): 921–6. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.2596.921. PMC 2336103. PMID 20765282.
  16. ^ Hart GD (December 2001). "Descriptions of blood and blood disorders before the advent of laboratory studies" (PDF). Br. J. Haematol. 115 (4): 719–28. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.2001.03130.x. PMID 11843802. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-08.
  17. ^ Wittendorff, Alex (1994). Tyge Brahe. G.E.C. Gad. p45
  18. ^ Lewis-Anthony, Justin (2008). Circles of Thorns: Hieronymus Bosch and Being Human. Bloomsbury. p. 70. ISBN 9781906286217.
  19. ^ Lutz, Peter L. (2002). The Rise of Experimental Biology: An Illustrated History. Humana Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-89603-835-6.
  20. ^ "Infrigidate - The Free Dictionary". Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 2012-01-11.
  21. ^ Bynum, edited by W.F.; Porter, Roy (1997). Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine (1st pbk. ed.). London: Routledge. p. 281. ISBN 978-0415164184.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  22. ^ a b NY Times Book Review Bad Medicine
  23. ^ a b "Humoralism" entry, p 204 in Webster's New World Medical Dictionary, 3rd Edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009 ISBN 9780544188976
  24. ^ al.], Lawrence I. Conrad ... [et (1998). The Western medical tradition, 800 BC to AD 1800 (Reprinted. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0521475648.
  25. ^ al.], Lawrence I. Conrad ... [et (1998). The Western medical tradition, 800 BC to AD 1800 (Reprinted. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0521475648.
  26. ^ Williams, William F. (December 3, 2013). Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Routledge. ISBN 978-1135955298.

Bibliography

  • Edwards. "A treatise concerning the plague and the pox discovering as well the meanes how to preserve from the danger of these infectious contagions, as also how to cure those which are infected with either of them". 1652.
  • Moore, Philip. "The hope of health wherin is conteined a goodlie regimente of life: as medicine, good diet and the goodlie vertues of sonderie herbes, doen by Philip Moore." 1564.
  • Burton, Robert. 1621. The Anatomy of Melancholy, Book I, New York 2001, p. 147: "The radical or innate is daily supplied by nourishment, which some call cambium, and make those secondary humours of ros and gluten to maintain it [...]".

External links

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