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List of life sciences

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The life sciences concern a variety of natural sciences such as  microorganisms, plants, and animals.
The life sciences concern a variety of natural sciences such as microorganisms, plants, and animals.

This list of life sciences comprises the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings. This science is one of the two major branches of natural science, the other being physical science, which is concerned with non-living matter. Biology is the overall natural science that studies life and living organisms, with the other life sciences its sub-disciplines.

Some life sciences focus on a specific type of organism. For example, zoology is the study of animals, while botany is the study of plants. Other life sciences focus on aspects common to all or many life forms, such as anatomy and genetics. Some focus on the micro-scale (e.g. molecular biology, biochemistry) other on larger scales (e.g. cytology, immunology, ethology, pharmacy, ecology). Another major branch of life sciences involves understanding the mind – neuroscience. Life sciences discoveries are helpful in improving the quality and standard of life and have applications in health, agriculture, medicine, and the pharmaceutical and food science industries.

Basic life science branches

  • Biology – study of living organisms with respect to their morphologic and anatomic traits as well as behavior and development[1]
  • Anatomy – study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans[2]
  • Astrobiology – the study of the formation and presence of life in the universe[3]
  • Bacteriology – study of bacteria
  • Biotechnology – study of combination of both the living organism and technology[4]
  • Biochemistry – study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level[5]
  • Bioinformatics – developing of methods or software tools for storing, retrieving, organizing and analyzing biological data to generate useful biological knowledge[6]
  • Biolinguistics – the study of the biology and evolution of language.
  • Biological anthropology – the study of humans, non-human primates, and hominids. Also known as physical anthropology.
  • Biological oceanography- the study of life in the oceans and their interaction with the environment.
  • Biomechanics – the study of the mechanics of living beings[7]
  • Biophysics – study of biological processes by applying the theories and methods that have been traditionally used in the physical sciences[8]
  • Botany – study of plants[9]
  • Cell biology (cytology) – study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell[10]
  • Developmental biology – the study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure
  • Ecology – study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment[11]
  • Ethology – the study of behavior[12]
  • Evolutionary biology – study of the origin and descent of species over time[13]
  • Evolutionary developmental biology – the study of the evolution of development including its molecular control
  • Genetics – the study of genes and heredity
  • Histology – the study of tissues
  • Immunology – the study of the immune system[14]
  • Microbiology – the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living organisms
  • Molecular biology – the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry, genetics, and microbiology
  • Neuroscience – the study of the nervous system
  • Paleontology – the study of prehistoric organisms
  • Pathology - the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury
  • Pharmacology – the study of drug action
  • Phycology – the study of algae[15]
  • Physiology – the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms
  • Population biology – the study of groups of conspecific organisms
  • Quantum biology – the study of quantum phenomena in organisms
  • Structural biology – a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macro-molecules
  • Synthetic biology – the design and construction of new biological entities such as enzymes, genetic circuits and cells, or the redesign of existing biological systems (LY)
  • Systems biology – the study of the integration and dependencies of various components within a biological system, with particular focus upon the role of metabolic pathways and cell-signaling strategies in physiology
  • Theoretical biology – the use of abstractions and mathematical models to study biological phenomena
  • Toxicology – the nature, effects, and detection of poisons
  • Virology - the study of viruses like submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents
  • Zoology - the study of animals
  • (Enzymology)- the study of enzymes.

Applied life science branches and derived concepts

See also


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  2. ^ "anatomy | Definition, History, & Biology". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
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  4. ^ "biotechnology | Definition, Examples, & Applications". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
  5. ^ "biochemistry | Definition, History, Examples, Importance, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
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Further reading

  • Magner, Lois N. (2002). A history of the life sciences (Rev. and expanded 3rd ed.). New York: M. Dekker. ISBN 0824708245.
This page was last edited on 17 February 2021, at 05:31
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