To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Headroom (audio signal processing)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In digital and analog audio, headroom refers to the amount by which the signal-handling capabilities of an audio system can exceed a designated nominal level.[1] Headroom can be thought of as a safety zone allowing transient audio peaks to exceed the nominal level without damaging the system or the audio signal, e.g., via clipping. Standards bodies differ in their recommendations for nominal level and headroom.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    5 452
    28 221
    3 367
  • What is Headroom for Mastering?
  • Apa Itu Headroom - Belajar Audio
  • Why headroom for mastering is BS! The truth for BETTER MASTERS


Digital audio

In digital audio, headroom is defined as the amount by which digital full scale (FS) exceeds the nominal level in decibels (dB). The European Broadcasting Union (EBU) specifies several nominal levels and resulting headroom for different applications.[citation needed]

Application Headroom
FM broadcasts −9 dBFS
Digital broadcasts and ordinary digital recordings −18 dBFS
Original master recordings −24 dBFS

Analog audio

In analog audio, headroom can mean low-level signal capabilities as well as the amount of extra power reserve available within the amplifiers that drive the loudspeakers.

Alignment level

Alignment level is an anchor point 9 dB below the nominal level,[citation needed] a reference level that exists throughout the system or broadcast chain, though it may imply different voltage levels at different points in the analog chain. Typically, nominal (not alignment) level is 0 dB, corresponding to an analog sine wave of voltage of 1.23 volts RMS (+4 dBu or 3.47 volts peak to peak). In the digital realm, alignment level is −18 dBFS.

  • AL = analog level
  • SPL = sound pressure level

See also


  1. ^ "Q. What exactly is 'headroom' and why is it important?". Sound on Sound. February 2010.

Further reading

  • BS.1726 "Signal level of digital audio accompanying television in international programme exchange" (2005)
  • BS.1864 "Operational practices for loudness in the international exchange of digital television programmes" (2010)
  • BS.1770-3 "Algorithms to measure audio programme loudness and true-peak audio level" (2012)

External links

This page was last edited on 1 June 2023, at 19:45
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.