To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Hard Scrabble and Snow Town

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hard Scrabble
Former neighborhood
Broadside ridiculing victims of the 1824 Hard Scrabble riot and promising similar treatment to other African Americans settling in the city
Broadside ridiculing victims of the 1824 Hard Scrabble riot and promising similar treatment to other African Americans settling in the city
Hard Scrabble is located in Rhode Island
Hard Scrabble
Hard Scrabble
Coordinates: 41°49′57″N 71°24′40″W / 41.8325°N 71.4111°W / 41.8325; -71.4111
CountryUnited States
StateRhode Island
Establishedcirca 1800

Hard Scrabble (Addison Hollow) and Snow Town were two African American neighborhoods located in Providence, Rhode Island in the nineteenth century. They were also the sites of race riots in which working-class whites destroyed multiple black homes in 1824 and 1831, respectively.[1][2]

Hard Scrabble

Hard Scrabble was a predominantly black neighborhood in northwestern Providence in the early 19th century. Away from the town center, its inexpensive rents attracted working class free blacks, poor people of all races and marginalized businesses such as saloons and houses of prostitution. Tensions developed between the residents of Hard Scrabble and other residents of Providence.[1][3] Hard Scrabble was one of several similar neighborhoods in urban centers in the Northeast where free blacks gathered to further themselves socially and economically. Other African American communities created in cities with growing job markets in the same time period include the northern slope of Boston’s Beacon Hill, Little Liberia in Bridgeport, Connecticut and Sandy Ground on New York’s Staten Island.[4]

On October 18, 1824, a white mob attacked black homes in Hard Scrabble, after a black man refused to get off the sidewalk when approached by some whites. Although the mob claimed to be targeting places of ill-repute, it destroyed buildings indiscriminately. Hundreds of whites destroyed approximately 20 black homes. Four people were tried for rioting, but only one was found guilty.[1][3][5]

Snow Town

After the Hard Scrabble riot, the Snow Town neighborhood rose in roughly the same area. It was another interracial neighborhood where free blacks and poor whites lived among crime and marginal businesses. In 1831 more riots took place in Snow Town, one triggered by the shooting death of a sailor. Once again, the mob destroyed many homes, targeting black homes even though the people living in them had no apparent ties to the shooting, spilling over into nearby Olney Street. This time, the militia was called out, and it killed four white rioters.[2][6]

Political fallout

The Hardscrabble Riot had engendered little media sympathy for its victims. But by the time of the Snow Town riot, leading citizens and journalists took the problem far more seriously.[7] After the Snow Town riot, written opinion approved of suppressing rioters to maintain order, and Providence voters approved a charter for a city government containing strong police powers.[6]

Location and memorialization

A memorial plaque in the Roger Williams National Memorial, erected by the Rhode Island Black Heritage Society
A memorial plaque in the Roger Williams National Memorial, erected by the Rhode Island Black Heritage Society

The exact location of the Hard Scrabble and Snow Town neighborhoods within northwestern Providence has been a matter of some dispute, which complicated efforts to memorialize Hard Scrabble. Richard Lobban, professor at Rhode Island College and the Naval War College, believed the riot took place on what is now the State House lawn while Ted Sanderson, executive director of the Rhode Island Historical Preservation and Heritage Commission said his research showed that the Hard Scrabble neighborhood was located around the base of Olney Street. In 2006, a memorial plaque was installed in a grass-covered traffic island at the corner of North Main and Canal Streets near the State House.[5] A memorial for the Snow Town riot is located nearby at the Roger Williams National Memorial.[6]

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Hardscrabble". Brown University. Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
  2. ^ a b "Snow Town Riot". Brown University. Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
  3. ^ a b John Wood Sweet (2006). Bodies Politic: Negotiating Race in the American North, 1730-1830. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 353ff. ISBN 978-0-8122-1978-4.
  4. ^ Stephanie Reitz (2009-11-23). "Group tries to preserve 2 historic Conn. homes". Associate Press. Boston Globe. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
  5. ^ a b Erica Sagrans (2006-05-31). "Memorializing the 1824 hardscrabble race riot takes a long route/". Boston Phoenix. Archived from the original on 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
  6. ^ a b c Edward Fitzpatrick (2009-07-07). "Obscure marker recalls shameful 1800s episode". Providence Journal. Retrieved 2010-08-03.
  7. ^ Crouch, "Providence Newspapers and the Racist Riots of 1824 and 1831" Archived 2011-11-18 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 20:13
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.