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Growth of the Old Swiss Confederacy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Part of a series on the
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The Old Swiss Confederacy began as a late medieval alliance between the communities of the valleys in the Central Alps, at the time part of the Holy Roman Empire, to facilitate the management of common interests such as free trade and to ensure the peace along the important trade routes through the mountains. The Hohenstaufen emperors had granted these valleys reichsfrei status in the early 13th century. As reichsfrei regions, the cantons (or regions) of Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden were under the direct authority of the emperor without any intermediate liege lords and thus were largely autonomous.

With the rise of the Habsburg dynasty, the kings and dukes of Habsburg sought to extend their influence over this region and to bring it under their rule; as a consequence, a conflict ensued between the Habsburgs and these mountain communities who tried to defend their privileged status as reichsfrei regions. The three founding cantons of the Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft, as the confederacy was called, were joined in the early 14th century by the city states of Lucerne, Zürich, and Bern, and they managed to defeat Habsburg armies on several occasions. They also profited from the fact that the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, for most of the 14th century, came from the House of Luxembourg and regarded them as potential useful allies against the rival Habsburgs. By 1460, the confederates controlled most of the territory south and west of the Rhine to the Alps and the Jura mountains. At the end of the 15th century, two wars resulted in an expansion to thirteen cantons (Dreizehn Orte): in the Burgundian Wars of the 1470s, the confederates asserted their hegemony on the western border, and their victory in the Swabian War in 1499 against the forces of the Habsburg emperor Maximilian I ensured a de facto independence from the empire. During their involvement in the Italian Wars, the Swiss brought the Ticino under their control.

Two similar federations sprung up in neighboring areas in the Alps in the 14th century: in the Grisons, the federation of the Three Leagues (Drei Bünde) was founded, and in the Valais, the Seven Tenths (Sieben Zenden) were formed as a result of the conflicts with the Dukes of Savoy. Neither federation was part of the medieval Eidgenossenschaft but both maintained very close connections with it.

1550 illustration for the Sempacherbrief of 1393, one of the major alliance contracts of the Old Swiss Confederacy
1550 illustration for the Sempacherbrief of 1393, one of the major alliance contracts of the Old Swiss Confederacy

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Transcription

NORTHWEST Music: Main Title and waves against shore Eric Hemenway and waves against shore Eric Hemenway Native people in the Great Eric Hemenway Native people in the Great Lakes had been battling to Native people in the Great Lakes had been battling to stay in the Great Lakes for Lakes had been battling to stay in the Great Lakes for almost a hundred years prior part of the bigger picture that these being moved out. They were fighting to out. They were fighting to stay in their homelands: the homelands of their fathers, stay in their homelands: the homelands of their fathers, their grandmothers, their homelands of their fathers, their grandmothers, their grandfathers, where their their grandmothers, their grandfathers, where their ancestors are buried. So it grandfathers, where their ancestors are buried. So it was very important to them ancestors are buried. So it was very important to them that they not be relocated; was very important to them that they not be relocated; that they stay in the Great e been here for thousands of years so we have e supposed to be, and within, supposed to be, and within, you know, a couple centuries, your whole world changes. you know, a couple centuries, your whole world changes. Announcer:In 1812, a very your whole world changes. Announcer:In 1812, a very young United States already Announcer:In 1812, a very young United States already had its sights set on young United States already had its sights set on expansion to the north and the had its sights set on expansion to the north and the west. But the British Empire, expansion to the north and the west. But the British Empire, the global superpower of the west. But the British Empire, the global superpower of the age, wanted to keep its former the global superpower of the age, wanted to keep its former colony tightly contained. In age, wanted to keep its former colony tightly contained. In the balance were the lands of colony tightly contained. In the balance were the lands of the Northwestern Frontier. the balance were the lands of the Northwestern Frontier. Douglas Brinkley History is the Northwestern Frontier. Douglas Brinkley History is about waterways and Douglas Brinkley History is about waterways and transportation. The Great about waterways and transportation. The Great Lakes means we can ship transportation. The Great Lakes means we can ship anything from Michigan or Ohio Lakes means we can ship anything from Michigan or Ohio into the Great Lakes and anything from Michigan or Ohio into the Great Lakes and eventually to the world. So it into the Great Lakes and eventually to the world. So it makes the Great Lakes a world eventually to the world. So it makes the Great Lakes a world port and so you start having makes the Great Lakes a world port and so you start having the birth of modern America. port and so you start having the birth of modern America. Remember, the founding fathers the birth of modern America. Remember, the founding fathers grew up as British subjects Remember, the founding fathers grew up as British subjects who revolted, but the grew up as British subjects who revolted, but the generation of the war of 1812 who revolted, but the generation of the war of 1812 were the first true American generation of the war of 1812 were the first true American bred heroes.Announcer:The War were the first true American bred heroes.Announcer:The War of 1812 would decide who bred heroes.Announcer:The War of 1812 would decide who controlled the lands of the of 1812 would decide who controlled the lands of the Northwestern Frontier, and the controlled the lands of the Northwestern Frontier, and the future of a continent.WindThe Northwestern Frontier, and the future of a continent.WindThe War of 1812 in the Old future of a continent.WindThe War of 1812 in the Old Northwest is made possible, in War of 1812 in the Old Northwest is made possible, in part, by the Ohio Humanities Northwest is made possible, in part, by the Ohio Humanities Council, a state affiliate of part, by the Ohio Humanities Council, a state affiliate of the National Endowment for the Council, a state affiliate of the National Endowment for the Humanities. WavesAnd, in part the National Endowment for the Humanities. WavesAnd, in part by, Buckeye CableSystem. Humanities. WavesAnd, in part by, Buckeye CableSystem. Explore new worlds and new by, Buckeye CableSystem. Explore new worlds and new ideas through programs like Explore new worlds and new ideas through programs like this, made available for ideas through programs like this, made available for everyone through contributions this, made available for everyone through contributions to your PBS station from everyone through contributions to your PBS station from viewers like you. Thank you. to your PBS station from viewers like you. Thank you. Music: 1812 ThemeAnnouncer:In viewers like you. Thank you. Music: 1812 ThemeAnnouncer:In August of 1810, two great Music: 1812 ThemeAnnouncer:In August of 1810, two great adversaries met face to face mansion of the Indiana mansion of the Indiana Territory. William Henry Harrison was a rising star in Territory. William Henry Harrison was a rising star in the leadership of the new Harrison was a rising star in the leadership of the new American nation, a territorial the leadership of the new American nation, a territorial governor who would become a American nation, a territorial governor who would become a commanding general and governor who would become a commanding general and President of the United commanding general and President of the United States. Tecumseh was a new President of the United States. Tecumseh was a new kind of Native American leader States. Tecumseh was a new kind of Native American leader - building a tribal kind of Native American leader - building a tribal confederation that rejected - building a tribal confederation that rejected the treaties and agreements of confederation that rejected the treaties and agreements of the past. He focused instead land and their pride, from decades and their pride, from decades of white conflict and settlement.Randall Buchman compromise was no longer any treaties between longer any treaties between individual chiefs, chiefs of lesser significance. When you individual chiefs, chiefs of lesser significance. When you have to deal with the Indians, lesser significance. When you have to deal with the Indians, you deal with all of us. have to deal with the Indians, you deal with all of us. Harrison felt, no, that he the chief who was willing to get chief who was willing to get along and give up more land. So finally that got to be a along and give up more land. So finally that got to be a confrontation in one of their So finally that got to be a confrontation in one of their meetings and almost broke into confrontation in one of their meetings and almost broke into outright violence. Music: meetings and almost broke into outright violence. Music: Tecumseh Theme and water outright violence. Music: Tecumseh Theme and water ripplesDavid SkaggsWell, Tecumseh Theme and water ripplesDavid SkaggsWell, Tecumseh arrives in Vincennes ripplesDavid SkaggsWell, Tecumseh arrives in Vincennes with several hundred braves Tecumseh arrives in Vincennes with several hundred braves coming down the Wabash river with several hundred braves coming down the Wabash river in canoes, and, he camps coming down the Wabash river in canoes, and, he camps outside of the town, and, at in canoes, and, he camps outside of the town, and, at the same time, Harrison has a outside of the town, and, at the same time, Harrison has a few soldiers with him. The the same time, Harrison has a few soldiers with him. The confrontation becomes so few soldiers with him. The confrontation becomes so tension filled that Harrison confrontation becomes so tension filled that Harrison has his soldiers beside him tension filled that Harrison has his soldiers beside him threatening to kill Tecumseh has his soldiers beside him threatening to kill Tecumseh if he makes any kind of threatening to kill Tecumseh if he makes any kind of threatening effort against if he makes any kind of threatening effort against Harrison. Announcer:Tecumseh threatening effort against Harrison. Announcer:Tecumseh insisted that recent treaties Harrison. Announcer:Tecumseh insisted that recent treaties were illegitimate because not insisted that recent treaties were illegitimate because not all tribes were in agreement. were illegitimate because not all tribes were in agreement. Harrison rejected Tecumseh's all tribes were in agreement. Harrison rejected Tecumseh's claims, saying that the "Great Harrison rejected Tecumseh's claims, saying that the "Great Spirit would have made all the claims, saying that the "Great Spirit would have made all the tribes speak one language if Spirit would have made all the tribes speak one language if they were to be one nation." tribes speak one language if they were to be one nation." Randall Buchman And Tecumseh they were to be one nation." Randall Buchman And Tecumseh really realized the role of Randall Buchman And Tecumseh really realized the role of Harrison. And what he tried to really realized the role of Harrison. And what he tried to do, I think, to counteract Harrison. And what he tried to do, I think, to counteract that role, was to get the do, I think, to counteract that role, was to get the Indians to agree that we will that role, was to get the Indians to agree that we will not sell, we will not sign any Indians to agree that we will not sell, we will not sign any treaties unless we are in not sell, we will not sign any treaties unless we are in concurrence with one another. treaties unless we are in concurrence with one another. Announcer:Both sides drew concurrence with one another. Announcer:Both sides drew their weapons, and Tecumseh Announcer:Both sides drew their weapons, and Tecumseh informed Harrison that if he nullify the treaties, the Indian Confederation would the Indian Confederation would broker an alliance with the British. Tecumseh is reported broker an alliance with the British. Tecumseh is reported to have made an impassioned British. Tecumseh is reported to have made an impassioned speech that: No tribe has the to have made an impassioned speech that: No tribe has the right to sell, even to each speech that: No tribe has the right to sell, even to each other, much less to strangers. right to sell, even to each other, much less to strangers. Sell a country?! Why not sell other, much less to strangers. Sell a country?! Why not sell the air, the great sea, as Sell a country?! Why not sell the air, the great sea, as well as the earth? Did not the the air, the great sea, as well as the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them all for well as the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them all for the use of his children? Great Spirit make them all for the use of his children? Tecumseh gathered his warriors the use of his children? Tecumseh gathered his warriors and left.David SkaggsThis is Tecumseh gathered his warriors and left.David SkaggsThis is considered one of the great and left.David SkaggsThis is considered one of the great confrontations. There are all considered one of the great confrontations. There are all kinds of depictions of this in confrontations. There are all kinds of depictions of this in 19th century history books. a very important meeting. Announcer:The life journey Announcer:The life journey that both men took to meet each other that day was filled that both men took to meet each other that day was filled with obstacles and honor. each other that day was filled with obstacles and honor. Harrison and Tecumseh with obstacles and honor. Harrison and Tecumseh represented the hopes and Harrison and Tecumseh represented the hopes and desires of each of their represented the hopes and desires of each of their nations. Music: Harrison desires of each of their nations. Music: Harrison ThemeDavid SkaggsThe principal nations. Music: Harrison ThemeDavid SkaggsThe principal major character is, of course, ThemeDavid SkaggsThe principal major character is, of course, William Henry Harrison, whose major character is, of course, William Henry Harrison, whose father was a member of the William Henry Harrison, whose father was a member of the Continental Congress, a signer father was a member of the Continental Congress, a signer of the Declaration of Continental Congress, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a Governor of of the Declaration of Independence and a Governor of Virginia. Needless to say, Independence and a Governor of Virginia. Needless to say, the Harrison's were a Virginia. Needless to say, the Harrison's were a prominent Virginian family. the Harrison's were a prominent Virginian family. His father dies when William prominent Virginian family. His father dies when William Henry Harrison is 19 years His father dies when William Henry Harrison is 19 years old, and the Harrison family Henry Harrison is 19 years old, and the Harrison family was largely living in what we old, and the Harrison family was largely living in what we might call gentil poverty was largely living in what we might call gentil poverty because their plantation had might call gentil poverty because their plantation had been ravaged by the British because their plantation had been ravaged by the British during the British invasion of been ravaged by the British during the British invasion of Virginia in 1781. Announcer: during the British invasion of Virginia in 1781. Announcer: Harrison convinced a family Virginia in 1781. Announcer: Harrison convinced a family friend, Virginia Governor Harrison convinced a family friend, Virginia Governor Henry Lee, to speak with friend, Virginia Governor Henry Lee, to speak with President Washington to give Henry Lee, to speak with President Washington to give him a commission in the United President Washington to give him a commission in the United States Army. This results in him a commission in the United States Army. This results in Harrison becoming an Aide de States Army. This results in Harrison becoming an Aide de Camp to General Anthony Wayne. Harrison becoming an Aide de Camp to General Anthony Wayne. David Skaggs By the time he Camp to General Anthony Wayne. David Skaggs By the time he was 23; he was considered to David Skaggs By the time he was 23; he was considered to be an extraordinarily capable was 23; he was considered to be an extraordinarily capable young officer and had been be an extraordinarily capable young officer and had been highly praised for his conduct young officer and had been highly praised for his conduct during the battle of Fallen highly praised for his conduct during the battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.Music: during the battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.Music: Kentucky ThemeLarry Nelson At Timbers in 1794.Music: Kentucky ThemeLarry Nelson At Fallen Timbers Anthony Wayne Kentucky ThemeLarry Nelson At Fallen Timbers Anthony Wayne and the legion of the United Fallen Timbers Anthony Wayne and the legion of the United States meet the confederation and the legion of the United States meet the confederation of Indian tribes that band States meet the confederation of Indian tribes that band together to stop US settlement of Indian tribes that band together to stop US settlement north and west of the Ohio together to stop US settlement north and west of the Ohio River.G. Michael Pratt The north and west of the Ohio River.G. Michael Pratt The British and Americans meet and River.G. Michael Pratt The British and Americans meet and draw a boundary after the British and Americans meet and draw a boundary after the revolution through the Great draw a boundary after the revolution through the Great Lakes where it is now and the revolution through the Great Lakes where it is now and the native Americans find that all Lakes where it is now and the native Americans find that all the lands they thought they native Americans find that all the lands they thought they had been promised by the the lands they thought they had been promised by the British are now given away to had been promised by the British are now given away to the Americans.Larry Nelson The battle lasts only a short time as a matter of fact such a battle lasts only a short time as a matter of fact such a short amount of time that as a matter of fact such a short amount of time that Wayne, after the battle is short amount of time that Wayne, after the battle is over, is convinced that he has Wayne, after the battle is over, is convinced that he has only gone through a over, is convinced that he has only gone through a preliminary skirmish and halts only gone through a preliminary skirmish and halts his army before following up preliminary skirmish and halts his army before following up his victory, convinced that he his army before following up his victory, convinced that he is being lured into a trap, his victory, convinced that he is being lured into a trap, but the battle was actually is being lured into a trap, but the battle was actually over with enormous but the battle was actually over with enormous consequences for the history over with enormous consequences for the history of the United States. G. consequences for the history of the United States. G. Michael Pratt Fallen Timbers of the United States. G. Michael Pratt Fallen Timbers led to the creation of the Michael Pratt Fallen Timbers led to the creation of the Greenville treaty which led to the creation of the Greenville treaty which allowed there to be settlement Greenville treaty which allowed there to be settlement of those parts of southern allowed there to be settlement of those parts of southern Ohio which eventually led to of those parts of southern Ohio which eventually led to the creation of the state of Ohio which eventually led to the creation of the state of Ohio, then after that Indiana, the creation of the state of Ohio, then after that Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio, then after that Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, all of whom were part of the Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, all of whom were part of the northwest territory.Larry all of whom were part of the northwest territory.Larry Nelson The US will attempt to northwest territory.Larry Nelson The US will attempt to acquire that land by Nelson The US will attempt to acquire that land by negotiation and diplomacy, acquire that land by negotiation and diplomacy, when diplomacy fails it negotiation and diplomacy, when diplomacy fails it threatens and then applies when diplomacy fails it threatens and then applies military force. After threatens and then applies military force. After military force, Indians are military force. After military force, Indians are bargained with and then military force, Indians are bargained with and then removed from the land by the bargained with and then removed from the land by the US, taking that land in its removed from the land by the US, taking that land in its own name.Announcer:As younger US, taking that land in its own name.Announcer:As younger men, Harrison and Tecumseh own name.Announcer:As younger men, Harrison and Tecumseh fought at Fallen Timbers. men, Harrison and Tecumseh fought at Fallen Timbers. Now, decades later, they fought at Fallen Timbers. Now, decades later, they commanded armies, and would Now, decades later, they commanded armies, and would battle again at the rapids of commanded armies, and would battle again at the rapids of the Maumee River.Music: battle again at the rapids of the Maumee River.Music: Tecumseh ThemeDouglas Brinkley the Maumee River.Music: Tecumseh ThemeDouglas Brinkley Tecumseh's got a long rich Tecumseh ThemeDouglas Brinkley Tecumseh's got a long rich history. He was considered the Tecumseh's got a long rich history. He was considered the major enemy and a tool being history. He was considered the major enemy and a tool being used by Britain. The reason major enemy and a tool being used by Britain. The reason why the British started used by Britain. The reason why the British started employing Native people was why the British started employing Native people was because they didn't have employing Native people was because they didn't have anybody to send. They were because they didn't have anybody to send. They were engaged in war- in Napoleonic anybody to send. They were engaged in war- in Napoleonic wars in Europe, and so this engaged in war- in Napoleonic wars in Europe, and so this was the only way to really get wars in Europe, and so this was the only way to really get recruits.Eric Hemenway was the only way to really get recruits.Eric Hemenway The real, i think, recruits.Eric Hemenway The real, i think, beauty of what Tecumseh was The real, i think, beauty of what Tecumseh was doing was he was unifying all beauty of what Tecumseh was doing was he was unifying all these tribes who were so doing was he was unifying all these tribes who were so different. He was able to these tribes who were so different. He was able to bring all these tribes different. He was able to bring all these tribes together to fight for this bring all these tribes together to fight for this common cause, which is the together to fight for this common cause, which is the land. And Tecumseh referred to ne dish with one ch is the spoon this is all native spoon this is all native land. We all have to take care of it.Randall Buchman We land. We all have to take care of it.Randall Buchman We know that Tecumseh, in his of it.Randall Buchman We know that Tecumseh, in his early childhood, probably was know that Tecumseh, in his early childhood, probably was born down in southern Ohio in early childhood, probably was born down in southern Ohio in the paint valley, to the son born down in southern Ohio in the paint valley, to the son of a very prominent Shawnee the paint valley, to the son of a very prominent Shawnee warrior.Announcer:The name ecumseh, birth, his father stared up and saw a father stared up and saw a meteor travel across the night sky, leaving a trail of white meteor travel across the night sky, leaving a trail of white flame. The elders said this sky, leaving a trail of white flame. The elders said this child has the spirit of the flame. The elders said this child has the spirit of the Panther within him, and shall child has the spirit of the Panther within him, and shall be named Tecumseh.Randall Panther within him, and shall be named Tecumseh.Randall Buchman He very early be named Tecumseh.Randall Buchman He very early in life demonstrated qualities Buchman He very early in life demonstrated qualities and abilities as a warrior and in life demonstrated qualities and abilities as a warrior and a hunter and all at once and abilities as a warrior and a hunter and all at once started to become the center a hunter and all at once started to become the center of attention of other people, started to become the center of attention of other people, which made him a natural of attention of other people, which made him a natural leader among the young Shawnee. which made him a natural leader among the young Shawnee. Announcer:Tecumseh's younger leader among the young Shawnee. Announcer:Tecumseh's younger brother grew up in the Announcer:Tecumseh's younger brother grew up in the warrior's shadow. Tenskwatawa brother grew up in the warrior's shadow. Tenskwatawa was an unlikely candidate for warrior's shadow. Tenskwatawa was an unlikely candidate for greatness, having grown up was an unlikely candidate for greatness, having grown up with a reputation for telling greatness, having grown up with a reputation for telling wild stories, drinking a with a reputation for telling wild stories, drinking a getting into trouble. Eric wild stories, drinking a getting into trouble. Eric Hemenway Tenskwatawa was getting into trouble. Eric Hemenway Tenskwatawa was such a.such an odd character. really the opposite of Tecumseh, even in appearance. Tecumseh, even in appearance. And he, you know, suffered this injury as a child with a And he, you know, suffered this injury as a child with a gun and he had a kind of a no picture of Tecumseh but by all picture of Tecumseh but by all accounts he was very striking, very handsome individual and accounts he was very striking, very handsome individual and his brothernot so much.Music: very handsome individual and his brothernot so much.Music: Prophet ThemeAnnouncer:A his brothernot so much.Music: Prophet ThemeAnnouncer:A near-fatal accident would Prophet ThemeAnnouncer:A near-fatal accident would change the course of near-fatal accident would change the course of Tenskwatawa's fortune, and the change the course of Tenskwatawa's fortune, and the course of Indian affairs in Tenskwatawa's fortune, and the course of Indian affairs in the Old Northwest.Randall course of Indian affairs in the Old Northwest.Randall Buchman They were the Old Northwest.Randall Buchman They were preparing him for a burial and Buchman They were preparing him for a burial and all at once he awoke and tells preparing him for a burial and all at once he awoke and tells the story how he had been to all at once he awoke and tells the story how he had been to the happy hunting grounds and the story how he had been to the happy hunting grounds and the stages that he went the happy hunting grounds and the stages that he went through and all of this and the stages that he went through and all of this and this vision of this, okay through and all of this and this vision of this, okay maybe it is a spiritualistic e seeing is this is a vehicle by which is this is a vehicle by which he is gaining attention that he has never had before he is gaining attention that he has never had before Announcer:Soon the younger he has never had before Announcer:Soon the younger brother stepped out of Announcer:Soon the younger brother stepped out of Tecumseh's shadow and became brother stepped out of Tecumseh's shadow and became famous amongst the tribes as Tecumseh's shadow and became famous amongst the tribes as "The Prophet." The visionary famous amongst the tribes as "The Prophet." The visionary who would show them the way. "The Prophet." The visionary who would show them the way. They gathered around him in a who would show them the way. They gathered around him in a village they called "Prophet's They gathered around him in a village they called "Prophet's Town" near the Tippecanoe village they called "Prophet's Town" near the Tippecanoe Creek in the Indiana Territory. Town" near the Tippecanoe Creek in the Indiana Territory. Larry NelsonNative Americans Creek in the Indiana Territory. Larry NelsonNative Americans who lived within the region Larry NelsonNative Americans who lived within the region began to congregate around a who lived within the region began to congregate around a charismatic Indian prophet by began to congregate around a charismatic Indian prophet by the name of Tenskwatawa, the charismatic Indian prophet by the name of Tenskwatawa, the open door, the open door the name of Tenskwatawa, the open door, the open door preached a message that is open door, the open door preached a message that is very similar to what preached a message that is very similar to what evangelical Christian very similar to what evangelical Christian preachers give today, that evangelical Christian preachers give today, that message of repent, turn away preachers give today, that message of repent, turn away from sin, and embrace a new message of repent, turn away from sin, and embrace a new spirituality, although what from sin, and embrace a new spirituality, although what Tenskwatawa was telling his spirituality, although what Tenskwatawa was telling his people was turn away from the Tenskwatawa was telling his people was turn away from the white influences into our people was turn away from the white influences into our culture. Turn away from white influences into our culture. Turn away from liquor turn away from alcohol. culture. Turn away from liquor turn away from alcohol. Randall Buchman Harrison liquor turn away from alcohol. Randall Buchman Harrison challenged the authenticity of such a powerful person with such a powerful person with his visions and his communication with the powers, he make the sun stop shining. And in reality, stop shining. And in reality, very shortly thereafter, the eclipse of that period very shortly thereafter, the eclipse of that period occurred, which kind of really eclipse of that period occurred, which kind of really set up even a greater image of occurred, which kind of really set up even a greater image of who the prophet was.David set up even a greater image of who the prophet was.David Skaggs Harrison learns that who the prophet was.David Skaggs Harrison learns that Tecumseh is going to try and Skaggs Harrison learns that Tecumseh is going to try and coordinate his activities with Tecumseh is going to try and coordinate his activities with the tribes in the old coordinate his activities with the tribes in the old southwest in modern Alabama gone, Harrison gets permission gone, Harrison gets permission from the secretary of war to take a regiment of regular from the secretary of war to take a regiment of regular soldiers plus volunteers - take a regiment of regular soldiers plus volunteers - mostly from Kentucky and soldiers plus volunteers - mostly from Kentucky and Indiana - that will go north town on Tippecanoe creek.Music: Main Tippecanoe creek.Music: Main TitleAnnouncer:In 1811, before Tecumseh departed on a mission TitleAnnouncer:In 1811, before Tecumseh departed on a mission to strengthen the Tecumseh departed on a mission to strengthen the confederation, he warned the to strengthen the confederation, he warned the Prophet to resist engaging confederation, he warned the Prophet to resist engaging Harrison's men. But the pull Prophet to resist engaging Harrison's men. But the pull of the spirit world on the Harrison's men. But the pull of the spirit world on the Prophet was stronger than his of the spirit world on the Prophet was stronger than his brother's military advice. Prophet was stronger than his brother's military advice. Randall Buchman One of brother's military advice. Randall Buchman One of the visions that he conjured Randall Buchman One of the visions that he conjured up in his mind, was that in the visions that he conjured up in his mind, was that in conflict between the Indians Town and forces, Harrison bullets would bounce off of bullets would bounce off of the Indians. So rather than going out to meet Harrison the Indians. So rather than going out to meet Harrison with the idea of a friendly going on, he went out with the idea of he went out with the idea of conflict. David Skaggs The battle of Tippecanoe involves conflict. David Skaggs The battle of Tippecanoe involves an attack by the Indians lead battle of Tippecanoe involves an attack by the Indians lead by Tenskwatawa against an an attack by the Indians lead by Tenskwatawa against an encampment of the Americans. by Tenskwatawa against an encampment of the Americans. In the end, the Americans encampment of the Americans. In the end, the Americans survive. They inflict heavy In the end, the Americans survive. They inflict heavy casualties. The Indians survive. They inflict heavy casualties. The Indians evacuate to the village of town and suddenly the Americans and suddenly the Americans burn it down. Announcer: Harrison promotes "Tippecanoe" burn it down. Announcer: Harrison promotes "Tippecanoe" as a great victory for the Harrison promotes "Tippecanoe" as a great victory for the United States, and when as a great victory for the United States, and when Tecumseh returns in the United States, and when Tecumseh returns in the winter, he insists that his Tecumseh returns in the winter, he insists that his brother should only involve winter, he insists that his brother should only involve himself in spiritual affairs brother should only involve himself in spiritual affairs from now on.David Skaggs At himself in spiritual affairs from now on.David Skaggs At that particular point, relative power rises. Now, he was taking over rises. Now, he was taking over as the political military commander of several thousand as the political military commander of several thousand braves.Music: 1812 Theme commander of several thousand braves.Music: 1812 Theme Announcer:On June 18th, 1812, braves.Music: 1812 Theme Announcer:On June 18th, 1812, President James Madison signed Announcer:On June 18th, 1812, President James Madison signed a declaration of war against President James Madison signed a declaration of war against Britain. Although the U.S. a declaration of war against Britain. Although the U.S. House and Senate were torn Britain. Although the U.S. House and Senate were torn over the issue, war was now on House and Senate were torn over the issue, war was now on the way to the Northwest over the issue, war was now on the way to the Northwest Territory. Douglas Brinkley the way to the Northwest Territory. Douglas Brinkley People did not like Britain Territory. Douglas Brinkley People did not like Britain because they were our enemy we People did not like Britain because they were our enemy we fought The Revolutionary War because they were our enemy we fought The Revolutionary War against them. When we say fought The Revolutionary War against them. When we say fought by them you know people against them. When we say fought by them you know people died every family in the early fought by them you know people died every family in the early thirteen colonies somebody died every family in the early thirteen colonies somebody knew somebody who died in the thirteen colonies somebody knew somebody who died in the war because of the British and knew somebody who died in the war because of the British and so they were hated. Hated war because of the British and so they were hated. Hated probably no where more than in so they were hated. Hated probably no where more than in the Northwest Territories. probably no where more than in the Northwest Territories. Music: Harrison ThemeDavid the Northwest Territories. Music: Harrison ThemeDavid Skaggs When the war of 1812 Music: Harrison ThemeDavid Skaggs When the war of 1812 starts, Harrison is governor Skaggs When the war of 1812 starts, Harrison is governor of Indiana territory, and what starts, Harrison is governor of Indiana territory, and what he wants is a commission as a of Indiana territory, and what he wants is a commission as a general officer in the he wants is a commission as a general officer in the expanding American army. He general officer in the expanding American army. He applies for it and is turned expanding American army. He applies for it and is turned down. In fact, the principal applies for it and is turned down. In fact, the principal rank is given to the governor down. In fact, the principal rank is given to the governor of Michigan territory, William rank is given to the governor of Michigan territory, William Hull, who becomes a brigadier of Michigan territory, William Hull, who becomes a brigadier general in the US army. Much Hull, who becomes a brigadier general in the US army. Much to Harrison's disgust, he is general in the US army. Much to Harrison's disgust, he is not given the second in to Harrison's disgust, he is not given the second in command slot. And instead it not given the second in command slot. And instead it goes to a James Winchester who command slot. And instead it goes to a James Winchester who is a political power in goes to a James Winchester who is a political power in TennesseeSue Judis Well, one is a political power in TennesseeSue Judis Well, one of the primary objectives for TennesseeSue Judis Well, one of the primary objectives for the United States for the war of the primary objectives for the United States for the war of 1812 was to capture and the United States for the war of 1812 was to capture and annex Canada. The primary of 1812 was to capture and annex Canada. The primary military objective of Great annex Canada. The primary military objective of Great Britain was to keep Canada. So military objective of Great Britain was to keep Canada. So here, for us, the major Britain was to keep Canada. So here, for us, the major campaign was in the Northwest here, for us, the major campaign was in the Northwest Territory. Announcer:On the campaign was in the Northwest Territory. Announcer:On the high seas, U.S. vessels fell Territory. Announcer:On the high seas, U.S. vessels fell victim to the impressment of high seas, U.S. vessels fell victim to the impressment of their sailors into the British victim to the impressment of their sailors into the British Navy. Douglas BrinkleyAll of their sailors into the British Navy. Douglas BrinkleyAll of our merchant ships were being Navy. Douglas BrinkleyAll of our merchant ships were being seized by the British Navy. our merchant ships were being seized by the British Navy. They were fighting the seized by the British Navy. They were fighting the Napoleonic wars and they were They were fighting the Napoleonic wars and they were desperate for seamen, abled Napoleonic wars and they were desperate for seamen, abled body people at sea. And so desperate for seamen, abled body people at sea. And so our ships were going across body people at sea. And so our ships were going across the Atlantic suddenly a our ships were going across the Atlantic suddenly a British ship would stop them the Atlantic suddenly a British ship would stop them demand papers ostensibly to British ship would stop them demand papers ostensibly to search simply for British demand papers ostensibly to search simply for British subjects who had bailed on the search simply for British subjects who had bailed on the mother country and were living subjects who had bailed on the mother country and were living here in America. Well they mother country and were living here in America. Well they would find one or two of those here in America. Well they would find one or two of those people but they would also would find one or two of those people but they would also just impress on people take people but they would also just impress on people take them prisoner and simply just impress on people take them prisoner and simply started grabbing American them prisoner and simply started grabbing American citizens and putting them to started grabbing American citizens and putting them to work on British ships because citizens and putting them to work on British ships because they needed bodies so much. work on British ships because they needed bodies so much. Music: 1812 ThemeAnnouncer:At they needed bodies so much. Music: 1812 ThemeAnnouncer:At the outset of war, both sides Music: 1812 ThemeAnnouncer:At the outset of war, both sides recognized the key to victory the outset of war, both sides recognized the key to victory was control of the waterways. recognized the key to victory was control of the waterways. The United States held three was control of the waterways. The United States held three important forts on the The United States held three important forts on the frontier: Fort Mackinac, Fort important forts on the frontier: Fort Mackinac, Fort Detroit, and Fort Dearborn, frontier: Fort Mackinac, Fort Detroit, and Fort Dearborn, which is now present-day Detroit, and Fort Dearborn, which is now present-day Chicago. All three would soon which is now present-day Chicago. All three would soon fall into the hands of British Chicago. All three would soon fall into the hands of British General Sir Isaac Brock. The fall into the hands of British General Sir Isaac Brock. The first would be taken by General Sir Isaac Brock. The first would be taken by surprise in July of 1812.Phil first would be taken by surprise in July of 1812.Phil PorterThe straits of Mackinac surprise in July of 1812.Phil PorterThe straits of Mackinac connect Lake Michigan and Lake PorterThe straits of Mackinac connect Lake Michigan and Lake Huron just 50 miles south of connect Lake Michigan and Lake Huron just 50 miles south of Lake Superior. It really was Huron just 50 miles south of Lake Superior. It really was in the center of the water Lake Superior. It really was in the center of the water highway system, and so it in the center of the water highway system, and so it became a very logical and highway system, and so it became a very logical and natural gathering. So, under became a very logical and natural gathering. So, under the cover of darkness at natural gathering. So, under the cover of darkness at night, they brought their the cover of darkness at night, they brought their soldiers, their militia and night, they brought their soldiers, their militia and their Native American allies soldiers, their militia and their Native American allies and two 6 pound cannon, and their Native American allies and two 6 pound cannon, and placed that whole force behind and two 6 pound cannon, and placed that whole force behind the fort. When the sun rose placed that whole force behind the fort. When the sun rose the next morning, they fired a the fort. When the sun rose the next morning, they fired a warning shot over the top of the next morning, they fired a warning shot over the top of fort Mackinac and that warning warning shot over the top of fort Mackinac and that warning shot was the first time the fort Mackinac and that warning shot was the first time the American commander in charge shot was the first time the American commander in charge of the fort, lieutenant porter American commander in charge of the fort, lieutenant porter hanks, even knew that the war of the fort, lieutenant porter hanks, even knew that the war had been declared. so the hanks, even knew that the war had been declared. so the British marched in, they took had been declared. so the British marched in, they took control of the fort that they British marched in, they took control of the fort that they had built during the control of the fort that they had built during the revolution and the Americans had built during the revolution and the Americans set sail and went down to revolution and the Americans set sail and went down to Detroit.Music: Kentucky Theme set sail and went down to Detroit.Music: Kentucky Theme Announcer:In August of 1812, Detroit.Music: Kentucky Theme Announcer:In August of 1812, things were not going well for Announcer:In August of 1812, things were not going well for General William Hull. Earlier things were not going well for General William Hull. Earlier that month, he ordered the General William Hull. Earlier that month, he ordered the surrender of Fort Dearborn. that month, he ordered the surrender of Fort Dearborn. Now, Fort Detroit would soon surrender of Fort Dearborn. Now, Fort Detroit would soon be surrounded, by Brockand Now, Fort Detroit would soon be surrounded, by Brockand Tecumseh.Larry Nelson After be surrounded, by Brockand Tecumseh.Larry Nelson After the war of 1812 is formally Tecumseh.Larry Nelson After the war of 1812 is formally declared the first true the war of 1812 is formally declared the first true military action in the region declared the first true military action in the region is taken when gen William hull military action in the region is taken when gen William hull takes an army to occupy is taken when gen William hull takes an army to occupy Detroit. William Hull served takes an army to occupy Detroit. William Hull served with distinction during the Detroit. William Hull served with distinction during the American Revolution, but by with distinction during the American Revolution, but by this war was aged and infirm. American Revolution, but by this war was aged and infirm. Gerard T. AltoffIt was a this war was aged and infirm. Gerard T. AltoffIt was a rigorous march up so a lot of Gerard T. AltoffIt was a rigorous march up so a lot of his men fell ill. So he placed rigorous march up so a lot of his men fell ill. So he placed some of his personal papers, his men fell ill. So he placed some of his personal papers, his personnel rosters, his some of his personal papers, his personnel rosters, his battle plans onboard the know about the war being declared about the war being declared and the vessel was captured. So at the outset of the and the vessel was captured. So at the outset of the campaign for General Hull, the So at the outset of the campaign for General Hull, the British knew more about his campaign for General Hull, the British knew more about his army than he did but he kept British knew more about his army than he did but he kept on going because that was his army than he did but he kept on going because that was his job.Music: Canadian Theme on going because that was his job.Music: Canadian Theme Announcer:By this time, job.Music: Canadian Theme Announcer:By this time, British General Isaac Brock Announcer:By this time, British General Isaac Brock and Tecumseh had forged a British General Isaac Brock and Tecumseh had forged a powerful alliance. Brock and Tecumseh had forged a powerful alliance. Brock agreed to support an powerful alliance. Brock agreed to support an independent Native nation if confederation would assist in fighting the assist in fighting the Americans. Part of their strategy was to play on the Americans. Part of their strategy was to play on the United StateÁfear of Native strategy was to play on the United StateÁfear of Native American warriors.Eric Hemenway United StateÁfear of Native American warriors.Eric Hemenway Atrocities did occur on both American warriors.Eric Hemenway Atrocities did occur on both sides. And there was this Atrocities did occur on both sides. And there was this great fear of the wild savage sides. And there was this great fear of the wild savage who was uncontrollable in also important to note that these massacres to note that these massacres were also occurring at the hands of American settlers, were also occurring at the hands of American settlers, the British army, and the a one sided affair and that did one sided affair and that did play into the psyche, I think, of some of the strategies, play into the psyche, I think, of some of the strategies, particularly Hull at Detroit. of some of the strategies, particularly Hull at Detroit. He had a large number of particularly Hull at Detroit. He had a large number of civilians under his care and He had a large number of civilians under his care and knowing that there was this civilians under his care and knowing that there was this large group of warriors knowing that there was this large group of warriors outside his walls, you know, large group of warriors outside his walls, you know, he was really thinking of the outside his walls, you know, he was really thinking of the safety of the women and he was really thinking of the safety of the women and children and surrendered the safety of the women and children and surrendered the fort. Announcer:Brock and forces were much smaller in number than they smaller in number than they led Hull to believe. So, they marched the same soldiers and led Hull to believe. So, they marched the same soldiers and warriors past the fort, over marched the same soldiers and warriors past the fort, over and over again, in order to warriors past the fort, over and over again, in order to create the effect of great and over again, in order to create the effect of great numbers.David Skaggs And he l surrender rather than risk all of that. rather than risk all of that. He allows the destruction of large numbers of settlements He allows the destruction of large numbers of settlements in Ohio and Indiana by the large numbers of settlements in Ohio and Indiana by the Indians as a consequence of in Ohio and Indiana by the Indians as a consequence of opening up that area for Indians as a consequence of opening up that area for Indian raids.Randall Buchman major role after that was to make sure that no that was to make sure that no major force comes in support to back up or retake Fort major force comes in support to back up or retake Fort Detroit. And that role he to back up or retake Fort Detroit. And that role he played very well. Tecumseh Detroit. And that role he played very well. Tecumseh admired Brock. And the trouble played very well. Tecumseh admired Brock. And the trouble is that tenure was so short admired Brock. And the trouble is that tenure was so short that if Brock would have is that tenure was so short that if Brock would have stayed in this area, there that if Brock would have stayed in this area, there might have been some different not sure. That is something we can only is something we can only speculate on.Announcer:Brock had successfully held off the speculate on.Announcer:Brock had successfully held off the Americans in the Northwest had successfully held off the Americans in the Northwest Territory; and now moved Americans in the Northwest Territory; and now moved quickly to the east in order Territory; and now moved quickly to the east in order to bolster the front in the quickly to the east in order to bolster the front in the Niagara region. Sir Isaac to bolster the front in the Niagara region. Sir Isaac Brock was killed at the Battle Niagara region. Sir Isaac Brock was killed at the Battle of Queenstown Heights on Brock was killed at the Battle of Queenstown Heights on October 13th, 1812, after of Queenstown Heights on October 13th, 1812, after personally leading his men on October 13th, 1812, after personally leading his men on one final charge. His last personally leading his men on one final charge. His last words are claimed to be: ush on, brave York Volunteers! David Skaggs The death of brock on the Niagara peninsula late in 1812 is a disaster of brock on the Niagara peninsula late in 1812 is a disaster of major proportions. Brock late in 1812 is a disaster of major proportions. Brock remains, as every Canadian can major proportions. Brock remains, as every Canadian can tell you, the great hero of remains, as every Canadian can tell you, the great hero of Canada in the war of 1812. But tell you, the great hero of Canada in the war of 1812. But his early death means that he Canada in the war of 1812. But his early death means that he has no disgraceful conduct his early death means that he has no disgraceful conduct subsequently - or no defeat - has no disgraceful conduct subsequently - or no defeat - that would mar his name. subsequently - or no defeat - that would mar his name. Announcer:American General, that would mar his name. Announcer:American General, William Hull, was Announcer:American General, William Hull, was court-martialed for his lack William Hull, was court-martialed for his lack of leadership at Detroit, and court-martialed for his lack of leadership at Detroit, and was sentenced to death. of leadership at Detroit, and was sentenced to death. However, President Madison was sentenced to death. However, President Madison granted him a reprieve. Hull However, President Madison granted him a reprieve. Hull would spend the rest of his granted him a reprieve. Hull would spend the rest of his life defending his service would spend the rest of his life defending his service record in the Old Northwest life defending his service record in the Old Northwest Randall Buchman Now, record in the Old Northwest Randall Buchman Now, what it caused was a shakeup Randall Buchman Now, what it caused was a shakeup in the whole leadership of the what it caused was a shakeup in the whole leadership of the western forces. And I think in the whole leadership of the western forces. And I think that was, in the long run, western forces. And I think that was, in the long run, healthy because it brought that was, in the long run, healthy because it brought into the picture the conflict healthy because it brought into the picture the conflict between Winchester and into the picture the conflict between Winchester and Harrison, In that way it between Winchester and Harrison, In that way it turned out to be a good thing. Harrison, In that way it turned out to be a good thing. David SkaggsThe government turned out to be a good thing. David SkaggsThe government finally finds out that David SkaggsThe government finally finds out that Winchester is not well liked finally finds out that Winchester is not well liked by his mostly Kentucky Winchester is not well liked by his mostly Kentucky soldiers. So as a consequence, by his mostly Kentucky soldiers. So as a consequence, they make Harrison the soldiers. So as a consequence, they make Harrison the commanding general of the they make Harrison the commanding general of the northwest army as a major commanding general of the northwest army as a major general in the Kentucky northwest army as a major general in the Kentucky militia, over a brigadier general in the Kentucky militia, over a brigadier general in the US army, James militia, over a brigadier general in the US army, James Winchester. Needless to say, general in the US army, James Winchester. Needless to say, Winchester is not a happy Winchester. Needless to say, Winchester is not a happy camper.Music: River Raisin Winchester is not a happy camper.Music: River Raisin ThemeRandall Buchman encamped in the Maumee, he has an the Maumee, he has an horrendous winter where he loses four or five-hundred men horrendous winter where he loses four or five-hundred men because of lack of food, lack loses four or five-hundred men because of lack of food, lack of proper clothing, lack of because of lack of food, lack of proper clothing, lack of suppliesAnnouncer:Harrison of proper clothing, lack of suppliesAnnouncer:Harrison gave orders to Winchester to suppliesAnnouncer:Harrison gave orders to Winchester to wait at the rapids until they gave orders to Winchester to wait at the rapids until they could join their forces wait at the rapids until they could join their forces together and then take back could join their forces together and then take back Fort Detroit. But in January together and then take back Fort Detroit. But in January of 1813, Winchester decides to Fort Detroit. But in January of 1813, Winchester decides to go north. Larry Nelson of 1813, Winchester decides to go north. Larry Nelson Winchester learns that go north. Larry Nelson Winchester learns that provisions and other supplies Winchester learns that provisions and other supplies are available at a small provisions and other supplies are available at a small French settlement called are available at a small French settlement called Frenchtown where present day French settlement called Frenchtown where present day Monroe Michigan is. Frenchtown where present day Monroe Michigan is. Winchester advances against Monroe Michigan is. Winchester advances against Frenchtown and places a small Winchester advances against Frenchtown and places a small guard of British militia and Frenchtown and places a small guard of British militia and native allies to flight and at guard of British militia and native allies to flight and at which time re-provisions his native allies to flight and at which time re-provisions his army.David Skaggs which time re-provisions his army.David Skaggs Unfortunately, two days later, army.David Skaggs Unfortunately, two days later, he is attacked and his army is Unfortunately, two days later, he is attacked and his army is utterly destroyed at he is attacked and his army is utterly destroyed at Frenchtown and there is a utterly destroyed at Frenchtown and there is a massacre of a number of the Frenchtown and there is a massacre of a number of the prisoners after the battle massacre of a number of the prisoners after the battle which is known as the river prisoners after the battle which is known as the river raisin massacre. Larry Nelson which is known as the river raisin massacre. Larry Nelson Most of his men are killed or raisin massacre. Larry Nelson Most of his men are killed or captured; Kentucky loses over Most of his men are killed or captured; Kentucky loses over 900 men in this battle.David captured; Kentucky loses over 900 men in this battle.David Skaggs Winchester becomes a prisoner of the British and so this eliminates any rival to Harrison in the British and so this eliminates any rival to Harrison in the Northwest Territory. As a any rival to Harrison in the Northwest Territory. As a consequence, Harrison is Northwest Territory. As a consequence, Harrison is promoted to major general in consequence, Harrison is promoted to major general in the US armyLarry Nelson And on promoted to major general in the US armyLarry Nelson And on February 1st Harrison advances the US armyLarry Nelson And on February 1st Harrison advances to the rapids of the Maumee February 1st Harrison advances to the rapids of the Maumee River where he begins to build to the rapids of the Maumee River where he begins to build fort Meigs, a large imposing River where he begins to build fort Meigs, a large imposing facility that is intended as a fort Meigs, a large imposing facility that is intended as a supply depot, from which he facility that is intended as a supply depot, from which he can accumulate the men and supply depot, from which he can accumulate the men and supplies necessary for him to can accumulate the men and supplies necessary for him to equip his army and carry the supplies necessary for him to equip his army and carry the war to Canada.Randall Buchman equip his army and carry the war to Canada.Randall Buchman River Raisin was a war to Canada.Randall Buchman River Raisin was a badit was a good victory for River Raisin was a badit was a good victory for the British, a bad defeat for badit was a good victory for the British, a bad defeat for us. But I think a lot of it the British, a bad defeat for us. But I think a lot of it when you use it as a rallying us. But I think a lot of it when you use it as a rallying point is more what happened to when you use it as a rallying point is more what happened to the captives afterwards. The point is more what happened to the captives afterwards. The atrocities that were claimed, the captives afterwards. The atrocities that were claimed, how they were treated and so atrocities that were claimed, how they were treated and so forth, I think is the how they were treated and so forth, I think is the emotional thing that creates fortemember the s the nnouncer:Now, nnouncer:Now, Harrison was fully in control Harrison was fully in control of the American war effort in the Northwest. He was of the American war effort in the Northwest. He was determined to confront the the Northwest. He was determined to confront the British and Native forces on determined to confront the British and Native forces on familiar ground.Randall British and Native forces on familiar ground.Randall Buchman Fort Meigs, in mind, was easily defendable; on a high bluff, defendable; on a high bluff, over a river. If the British were to invade with a major over a river. If the British were to invade with a major force, it would be using the were to invade with a major force, it would be using the Maumee as the artery of their force, it would be using the Maumee as the artery of their invasion. So it was a logical Maumee as the artery of their invasion. So it was a logical place MUSIC: Greensleeves invasion. So it was a logical place MUSIC: Greensleeves David Skaggs It takes a long place MUSIC: Greensleeves David Skaggs It takes a long time to build this fort, but e building it in the winter and the Indians are not e holed up in their villages. The British their villages. The British are not going to attack in the winter and so as a allowed to build this until it is the build this until it is the largest wooden fort ever built in North America.Announcer: largest wooden fort ever built in North America.Announcer: Colonel Henry Proctor was the in North America.Announcer: Colonel Henry Proctor was the British hero of River Raisin. Colonel Henry Proctor was the British hero of River Raisin. Now, with Isaac Brock dead, he British hero of River Raisin. Now, with Isaac Brock dead, he was very quickly promoted to Now, with Isaac Brock dead, he was very quickly promoted to Major General and was was very quickly promoted to Major General and was contemplating his next moves Major General and was contemplating his next moves against Harrison, but he contemplating his next moves against Harrison, but he wasn't moving fast enough for against Harrison, but he wasn't moving fast enough for Tecumseh.Randall Buchman wasn't moving fast enough for Tecumseh.Randall Buchman Tecumseh was a very positive, Tecumseh.Randall Buchman Tecumseh was a very positive, aggressive type of leader and Tecumseh was a very positive, aggressive type of leader and Proctor was not. In many aggressive type of leader and Proctor was not. In many cases Tecumseh really Proctor was not. In many cases Tecumseh really belittled Proctor as a leader, cases Tecumseh really belittled Proctor as a leader, and at one time said, you ' want to fight, leave your weapons and fight, leave your weapons and your ammunition here and we'll do the fighting.Eric Hemenway your ammunition here and we'll do the fighting.Eric Hemenway So, there was always this do the fighting.Eric Hemenway So, there was always this distrust with the British, but So, there was always this distrust with the British, but what could you do? You needed distrust with the British, but what could you do? You needed them for supplies. You need what could you do? You needed them for supplies. You need them for manpower because the them for supplies. You need them for manpower because the Americans were just coming in them for manpower because the Americans were just coming in like a wave after wave. So, e in a rock in a hard place and they were just doing place and they were just doing what they could to survive. Announcer:Construction of Fort what they could to survive. Announcer:Construction of Fort Meigs, named after the Announcer:Construction of Fort Meigs, named after the Governor of Ohio, continued Meigs, named after the Governor of Ohio, continued through the harsh winter of Governor of Ohio, continued through the harsh winter of 1813. Despite having to bury through the harsh winter of 1813. Despite having to bury timbers into the frozen 1813. Despite having to bury timbers into the frozen ground, the fort is completed timbers into the frozen ground, the fort is completed as spring arrives. The 10 ground, the fort is completed as spring arrives. The 10 acres contained within Fort as spring arrives. The 10 acres contained within Fort Meigs include 7 blockhouses, 5 acres contained within Fort Meigs include 7 blockhouses, 5 artillery batteries, 2 gun Meigs include 7 blockhouses, 5 artillery batteries, 2 gun powder magazines, a artillery batteries, 2 gun powder magazines, a quartermaster building, rows powder magazines, a quartermaster building, rows of ditches and massive quartermaster building, rows of ditches and massive enclosure walls. David Skaggs of ditches and massive enclosure walls. David Skaggs The reason why fort Meigs is enclosure walls. David Skaggs The reason why fort Meigs is so physically large is it was The reason why fort Meigs is so physically large is it was primarily to be a supply post so physically large is it was primarily to be a supply post as well as sort of a refuge primarily to be a supply post as well as sort of a refuge for troops waiting for the as well as sort of a refuge for troops waiting for the advance on Detroit.Music: for troops waiting for the advance on Detroit.Music: Kentucky Theme, Cannon, Battle advance on Detroit.Music: Kentucky Theme, Cannon, Battle noisesAnnouncer:Proctor and Kentucky Theme, Cannon, Battle noisesAnnouncer:Proctor and Tecumseh arrived at the end of noisesAnnouncer:Proctor and Tecumseh arrived at the end of April and re-occupied British Tecumseh arrived at the end of April and re-occupied British Fort Miami across the river. April and re-occupied British Fort Miami across the river. They realized Harrison's new Fort Miami across the river. They realized Harrison's new fort could not be taken They realized Harrison's new fort could not be taken directly. So, they set up fort could not be taken directly. So, they set up cannon batteries across the directly. So, they set up cannon batteries across the river and began to bomb Fort cannon batteries across the river and began to bomb Fort Meigs on May 1st, 1813.Larry river and began to bomb Fort Meigs on May 1st, 1813.Larry NelsonThe siege of fort Meigs Meigs on May 1st, 1813.Larry NelsonThe siege of fort Meigs lasts for the next 5 days, NelsonThe siege of fort Meigs lasts for the next 5 days, with neither se able to lasts for the next 5 days, with neither se able to inflict damage upon the other. with neither se able to inflict damage upon the other. On the evening of May 4th, inflict damage upon the other. On the evening of May 4th, Harrison learns that a strong On the evening of May 4th, Harrison learns that a strong force of reinforcements from Harrison learns that a strong force of reinforcements from Kentucky, led by a militia force of reinforcements from Kentucky, led by a militia general by the name of Greene Kentucky, led by a militia general by the name of Greene Clay, is on their way to fort general by the name of Greene Clay, is on their way to fort Meigs to relieve the site. Clay, is on their way to fort Meigs to relieve the site. David Skaggs Harrison saw the Meigs to relieve the site. David Skaggs Harrison saw the battle as involving multiple David Skaggs Harrison saw the battle as involving multiple attacks at roughly the same battle as involving multiple attacks at roughly the same time.Announcer:Harrison sent attacks at roughly the same time.Announcer:Harrison sent orders out to Clay to split time.Announcer:Harrison sent orders out to Clay to split his 12,000 Kentucky troops orders out to Clay to split his 12,000 Kentucky troops into two wings: 400 men were his 12,000 Kentucky troops into two wings: 400 men were to land on the Fort Meigs side into two wings: 400 men were to land on the Fort Meigs side of the river, and the to land on the Fort Meigs side of the river, and the remaining 800 men were to land of the river, and the remaining 800 men were to land on the British side of the remaining 800 men were to land on the British side of the river under the leadership of on the British side of the river under the leadership of Colonel William Dudley. Their river under the leadership of Colonel William Dudley. Their mission: to disable the Colonel William Dudley. Their mission: to disable the British cannon bombarding the mission: to disable the British cannon bombarding the fort.Larry NelsonClay does British cannon bombarding the fort.Larry NelsonClay does what he is ordered to do and fort.Larry NelsonClay does what he is ordered to do and successfully lands on the what he is ordered to do and successfully lands on the south side, and safely leads successfully lands on the south side, and safely leads his men into fort MeigsDavid south side, and safely leads his men into fort MeigsDavid Skaggs The attack on the guns his men into fort MeigsDavid Skaggs The attack on the guns was rather easily carried off. Skaggs The attack on the guns was rather easily carried off. Unfortunately, Dudley was not was rather easily carried off. Unfortunately, Dudley was not very experienced and his Unfortunately, Dudley was not very experienced and his troops were a little bit very experienced and his troops were a little bit overly ambitious. They started troops were a little bit overly ambitious. They started chasing the Indians into the overly ambitious. They started chasing the Indians into the woods and got themselves in a chasing the Indians into the woods and got themselves in a conventional Indian ambush. woods and got themselves in a conventional Indian ambush. Music: Prophet ThemeLarry conventional Indian ambush. Music: Prophet ThemeLarry NelsonOver 650 men are either Music: Prophet ThemeLarry NelsonOver 650 men are either killed, wounded or taken NelsonOver 650 men are either killed, wounded or taken prisoner. This action known as killed, wounded or taken prisoner. This action known as Dudley's defeat is one of the prisoner. This action known as Dudley's defeat is one of the worst defeats inflicted upon Dudley's defeat is one of the worst defeats inflicted upon the US during the entire war worst defeats inflicted upon the US during the entire war of 1812.David Skaggs After the US during the entire war of 1812.David Skaggs After they were prisoners, some of of 1812.David Skaggs After they were prisoners, some of them were massacred by the they were prisoners, some of them were massacred by the Indians at fort Miami and the them were massacred by the Indians at fort Miami and the British actually supposedly Indians at fort Miami and the British actually supposedly witnessed this and made no British actually supposedly witnessed this and made no attempt to stop it. This is witnessed this and made no attempt to stop it. This is where Tecumseh's nobility is attempt to stop it. This is where Tecumseh's nobility is largely credited with stopping where Tecumseh's nobility is largely credited with stopping this particular slaughter of largely credited with stopping this particular slaughter of American prisoners of war, and this particular slaughter of American prisoners of war, and why, to some degree, Tecumseh American prisoners of war, and why, to some degree, Tecumseh has such a noble reputation why, to some degree, Tecumseh has such a noble reputation amongst Americans to this day. has such a noble reputation amongst Americans to this day. Eric Hemingway So if an amongst Americans to this day. Eric Hemingway So if an individual surrendered himself e just, you know, a settlers caught in the wrong been documented many times Tecumseh documented many times Tecumseh stopped one of his warriors from killing that individual, stopped one of his warriors from killing that individual, saying this is not how an from killing that individual, saying this is not how an honorable warrior operates. saying this is not how an honorable warrior operates. Larry NelsonThe Indians who honorable warrior operates. Larry NelsonThe Indians who had attacked fort Meigs and Larry NelsonThe Indians who had attacked fort Meigs and accompanied proctor to the had attacked fort Meigs and accompanied proctor to the rapids take their prisoners accompanied proctor to the rapids take their prisoners and plunder and begin to drift rapids take their prisoners and plunder and begin to drift away. Dysentery and the ague and plunder and begin to drift away. Dysentery and the ague had begun to infect the away. Dysentery and the ague had begun to infect the British troops who were had begun to infect the British troops who were attacking the fort, and as a British troops who were attacking the fort, and as a result proctor is compelled to attacking the fort, and as a result proctor is compelled to give up the siege. On May 9th result proctor is compelled to give up the siege. On May 9th British troops load their give up the siege. On May 9th British troops load their vessels and sail down the British troops load their vessels and sail down the Maumee. Music: Perry Theme, vessels and sail down the Maumee. Music: Perry Theme, Waves, GullsAnnouncer:The Maumee. Music: Perry Theme, Waves, GullsAnnouncer:The British had a problem. They venture too far from their base at Fort Malden, or their base at Fort Malden, or the Americans would take back Fort Detroit. And, they were the Americans would take back Fort Detroit. And, they were dependent on a long supply Fort Detroit. And, they were dependent on a long supply line, which was fed by ships dependent on a long supply line, which was fed by ships on Lake Erie. The Americans line, which was fed by ships on Lake Erie. The Americans were now building their own on Lake Erie. The Americans were now building their own fleet of ships and Harrison were now building their own fleet of ships and Harrison left Fort Meigs to consult fleet of ships and Harrison left Fort Meigs to consult with the young Commodore of left Fort Meigs to consult with the young Commodore of the naval fleet. Douglas with the young Commodore of the naval fleet. Douglas Brinkley So, it was up to this the naval fleet. Douglas Brinkley So, it was up to this new generation of young Brinkley So, it was up to this new generation of young military officers. The one new generation of young military officers. The one that becomes most important military officers. The one that becomes most important partially by his own grit and that becomes most important partially by his own grit and determination and intelligence partially by his own grit and determination and intelligence partly by playing dumb luck determination and intelligence partly by playing dumb luck was Oliver Hazard Perry. Full partly by playing dumb luck was Oliver Hazard Perry. Full of manners, very intelligent, was Oliver Hazard Perry. Full of manners, very intelligent, able to actually ship build of manners, very intelligent, able to actually ship build and design, he really was a able to actually ship build and design, he really was a naval architect, and an and design, he really was a naval architect, and an excellent military strategist. naval architect, and an excellent military strategist. David Skaggs Perry is, of excellent military strategist. David Skaggs Perry is, of course, a member of one of the first families of the 19th century. And Oliver, as 19th century. And Oliver, as the oldest son, he tries to secure as much advancement as the oldest son, he tries to secure as much advancement as he possibly can. Walter Rybkah secure as much advancement as he possibly can. Walter Rybkah So he volunteered for service he possibly can. Walter Rybkah So he volunteered for service on the lake to be the local So he volunteered for service on the lake to be the local commander for the squadron on the lake to be the local commander for the squadron being built on Lake Erie commander for the squadron being built on Lake Erie Gerard T. Altoff Erie being built on Lake Erie Gerard T. Altoff Erie was the best place on the Gerard T. Altoff Erie was the best place on the eastern end of the lakes to was the best place on the eastern end of the lakes to build ships because it was a eastern end of the lakes to build ships because it was a naturally protected harbor on build ships because it was a naturally protected harbor on three sides. Getting into naturally protected harbor on three sides. Getting into Erie harbor had a very narrow three sides. Getting into Erie harbor had a very narrow widening channel entrance with Erie harbor had a very narrow widening channel entrance with a sandbar which had only six widening channel entrance with a sandbar which had only six feet of water over it. The a sandbar which had only six feet of water over it. The Americans could easily defend feet of water over it. The Americans could easily defend the entrance to that harbor to Americans could easily defend the entrance to that harbor to keep the British out.Announcer: the entrance to that harbor to keep the British out.Announcer: The ships were almost keep the British out.Announcer: The ships were almost complete, and Perry was having The ships were almost complete, and Perry was having trouble recruiting sailors to complete, and Perry was having trouble recruiting sailors to man the new squadron. But, in trouble recruiting sailors to man the new squadron. But, in the end, he assembled a man the new squadron. But, in the end, he assembled a diverse crew that would serve the end, he assembled a diverse crew that would serve him well.Douglas BrinkleyPerry diverse crew that would serve him well.Douglas BrinkleyPerry had some excellent sailors, a him well.Douglas BrinkleyPerry had some excellent sailors, a small group, I'd say about ten had some excellent sailors, a small group, I'd say about ten were really proficient in what small group, I'd say about ten were really proficient in what you call nautical affairs. But were really proficient in what you call nautical affairs. But others they just grabbed catch you call nautical affairs. But others they just grabbed catch as catch can and this included others they just grabbed catch as catch can and this included a number of African Americans as catch can and this included a number of African Americans who served in the War of 1812 know exact numbers or names because recorded but each captain was responsible each captain was responsible for filling out his own crew, and if his responsibility was for filling out his own crew, and if his responsibility was to have a mission capable ship and if his responsibility was to have a mission capable ship the obvious answer to recruit to have a mission capable ship the obvious answer to recruit whoever is qualified and the obvious answer to recruit whoever is qualified and willing to serve. And just not whoever is qualified and willing to serve. And just not tell the secretary or navy who willing to serve. And just not tell the secretary or navy who they are.David Skaggs The tell the secretary or navy who they are.David Skaggs The British captain does patrol they are.David Skaggs The British captain does patrol outside the harbor but because British captain does patrol outside the harbor but because he has no ground troops, outside the harbor but because he has no ground troops, cannot attack it. He wants to he has no ground troops, cannot attack it. He wants to keep the fleet inside Presque cannot attack it. He wants to keep the fleet inside Presque Isle Bay rather than let it keep the fleet inside Presque Isle Bay rather than let it out.Music: Kentucky Theme Isle Bay rather than let it out.Music: Kentucky Theme Announcer:While the British out.Music: Kentucky Theme Announcer:While the British patrol, under the command of Announcer:While the British patrol, under the command of Robert Harriet Barclay, is men start releasing the ships from the releasing the ships from the harbor. The gunboats and his flagship, the Lawrence, are harbor. The gunboats and his flagship, the Lawrence, are now free. His other warship, flagship, the Lawrence, are now free. His other warship, the Niagara, is stuck on the now free. His other warship, the Niagara, is stuck on the sandbar. At that moment the the Niagara, is stuck on the sandbar. At that moment the British return.Gerard T. sandbar. At that moment the British return.Gerard T. Altoff But British return.Gerard T. Altoff But Perry is being the aggressive Altoff But Perry is being the aggressive commander he is and heads Perry is being the aggressive commander he is and heads straight for the British commander he is and heads straight for the British fleet. Now Barclay's several looking through his spyglass through his spyglass undoubtedly and says, uh oh the Lawrence is on the lake. undoubtedly and says, uh oh the Lawrence is on the lake. The gunboats are coming. There the Lawrence is on the lake. The gunboats are coming. There sits the Niagara. I'm The gunboats are coming. There sits the Niagara. I'm outnumbered. Barclay turns sits the Niagara. I'm outnumbered. Barclay turns around and heads back. And if not know i don what is.Announcer:Once the what is.Announcer:Once the American ships are fitted out with guns and supplies, Perry American ships are fitted out with guns and supplies, Perry sails for Put-in-Bay harbor, with guns and supplies, Perry sails for Put-in-Bay harbor, located on South Bass Island sails for Put-in-Bay harbor, located on South Bass Island in Western Lake Erie.Sue Judis located on South Bass Island in Western Lake Erie.Sue Judis It was actually Harrison that in Western Lake Erie.Sue Judis It was actually Harrison that selected Put-In-Bay as Perry's It was actually Harrison that selected Put-In-Bay as Perry's base of operations. Two selected Put-In-Bay as Perry's base of operations. Two reasons: one, it is a base of operations. Two reasons: one, it is a sheltered area but also it reasons: one, it is a sheltered area but also it would give Perry a great view sheltered area but also it would give Perry a great view of the Detroit river. Gerard would give Perry a great view of the Detroit river. Gerard T. Altoff of the Detroit river. Gerard T. Altoff Perry could put a ship up in T. Altoff Perry could put a ship up in that area as a patrol vessel Perry could put a ship up in that area as a patrol vessel and spot the returning British that area as a patrol vessel and spot the returning British supply vessels and war ships and spot the returning British supply vessels and war ships and very easily sail up there supply vessels and war ships and very easily sail up there and stop them on their way and very easily sail up there and stop them on their way back. So as long as Perry was and stop them on their way back. So as long as Perry was sitting here in put in bay, back. So as long as Perry was sitting here in put in bay, the British supply line was sitting here in put in bay, the British supply line was severed.David SkaggsHarrison the British supply line was severed.David SkaggsHarrison and Perry have probably the severed.David SkaggsHarrison and Perry have probably the best coordination between, in and Perry have probably the best coordination between, in the army and the navy, of any best coordination between, in the army and the navy, of any two senior officers in the the army and the navy, of any two senior officers in the entire war of 1812. These two two senior officers in the entire war of 1812. These two men had a unity of effort that entire war of 1812. These two men had a unity of effort that is critical to understanding men had a unity of effort that is critical to understanding why the Americans were able to is critical to understanding why the Americans were able to dominate that particular area why the Americans were able to dominate that particular area at that particular time. dominate that particular area at that particular time. Announcer:Throughout the at that particular time. Announcer:Throughout the summer of 1813, Harrison Announcer:Throughout the summer of 1813, Harrison gathered needed supplies for summer of 1813, Harrison gathered needed supplies for the army and recruited new gathered needed supplies for the army and recruited new soldiers into the ranks. As the army and recruited new soldiers into the ranks. As expected, Proctor and Tecumseh soldiers into the ranks. As expected, Proctor and Tecumseh tried again to attack his expected, Proctor and Tecumseh tried again to attack his stronghold - Fort Meigs.Larry tried again to attack his stronghold - Fort Meigs.Larry Nelson In July, they mount a stronghold - Fort Meigs.Larry Nelson In July, they mount a 2nd attack against the Nelson In July, they mount a 2nd attack against the American garrison, this time 2nd attack against the American garrison, this time they bring nearly 3500 Indians American garrison, this time they bring nearly 3500 Indians allies with them, and this is they bring nearly 3500 Indians allies with them, and this is the largest assemblage of allies with them, and this is the largest assemblage of hostile Indians ever brought the largest assemblage of hostile Indians ever brought against the American military hostile Indians ever brought against the American military in its entire history.Music: against the American military in its entire history.Music: Tecumseh Theme, Battle sounds, in its entire history.Music: Tecumseh Theme, Battle sounds, gunsAnnouncer:Proctor and Tecumseh Theme, Battle sounds, gunsAnnouncer:Proctor and Tecumseh devise a piece of gunsAnnouncer:Proctor and Tecumseh devise a piece of military subterfuge to lure Tecumseh devise a piece of military subterfuge to lure the Americans out of the military subterfuge to lure the Americans out of the garrison. Just out of sight, the Americans out of the garrison. Just out of sight, it sounds as if a battle is garrison. Just out of sight, it sounds as if a battle is taking place between American it sounds as if a battle is taking place between American reinforcements and the taking place between American reinforcements and the attackers, with a full reinforcements and the attackers, with a full complement of fifes, drums and attackers, with a full complement of fifes, drums and even American accents.Larry complement of fifes, drums and even American accents.Larry NelsonIt's a ruse, a plot even American accents.Larry NelsonIt's a ruse, a plot intended to have the men NelsonIt's a ruse, a plot intended to have the men inside the fort to think that intended to have the men inside the fort to think that their allies are being inside the fort to think that their allies are being attacked to trick them into their allies are being attacked to trick them into opening and the gates to ride attacked to trick them into opening and the gates to ride to the rescue, where the enemy opening and the gates to ride to the rescue, where the enemy forces will then cut them to to the rescue, where the enemy forces will then cut them to pieces. The man who is now forces will then cut them to pieces. The man who is now in charge of fort Meigs is pieces. The man who is now in charge of fort Meigs is Greene Clay, the same man who in charge of fort Meigs is Greene Clay, the same man who brought Dudley's men to the Greene Clay, the same man who brought Dudley's men to the rapids in 1813 and clay is now junior officers aggressively urge officers aggressively urge clay to allow them to mount up their men and ride to these clay to allow them to mount up their men and ride to these Americans rescue, but clay their men and ride to these Americans rescue, but clay refuses. Eventually over the Americans rescue, but clay refuses. Eventually over the course of the afternoon, an refuses. Eventually over the course of the afternoon, an enormous thundershower comes course of the afternoon, an enormous thundershower comes up and blows across the field enormous thundershower comes up and blows across the field of battle. And when the up and blows across the field of battle. And when the thunderstorm is over, the mock of battle. And when the thunderstorm is over, the mock battle is over as well. The thunderstorm is over, the mock battle is over as well. The Indians and the British simply battle is over as well. The Indians and the British simply withdraw from the field, and Indians and the British simply withdraw from the field, and at that time the 2nd siege of withdraw from the field, and at that time the 2nd siege of fort Meigs is over.Announcer: at that time the 2nd siege of fort Meigs is over.Announcer: The British and Indian forces fort Meigs is over.Announcer: The British and Indian forces travel down the Maumee and The British and Indian forces travel down the Maumee and east to the Sandusky, to travel down the Maumee and east to the Sandusky, to attack Fort Stephenson on east to the Sandusky, to attack Fort Stephenson on August 1st, 1813. The small attack Fort Stephenson on August 1st, 1813. The small American outpost is commanded August 1st, 1813. The small American outpost is commanded by a feisty young major - American outpost is commanded by a feisty young major - George Croghan. Music: by a feisty young major - George Croghan. Music: Croghan ThemeDavid Skaggs In George Croghan. Music: Croghan ThemeDavid Skaggs In many ways, Croghan was a Croghan ThemeDavid Skaggs In many ways, Croghan was a Harrison favorite. He was a many ways, Croghan was a Harrison favorite. He was a very young major at 21 years a major at 21. When Harrison major at 21. When Harrison gives him an order to withdraw from fort Stephenson, Harrison gives him an order to withdraw from fort Stephenson, Harrison is very prudently trying to from fort Stephenson, Harrison is very prudently trying to conduct his campaign and not is very prudently trying to conduct his campaign and not lose another battle. Croghan conduct his campaign and not lose another battle. Croghan convinces Harrison that, yes lose another battle. Croghan convinces Harrison that, yes he can successfully defend the convinces Harrison that, yes he can successfully defend the post.Bruce Bowlus He had one all they could afford to give him - an old afford to give him - an old French and Indian war cannon Croghan had hidden the cannon French and Indian war cannon Croghan had hidden the cannon in a strategically located Croghan had hidden the cannon in a strategically located block house that paralleled in a strategically located block house that paralleled the trench. As the British block house that paralleled the trench. As the British troops jumped into the trench the trench. As the British troops jumped into the trench eager to chop through the troops jumped into the trench eager to chop through the walls Croghan opened up the eager to chop through the walls Croghan opened up the gun port and fired several walls Croghan opened up the gun port and fired several volleys into the troops which gun port and fired several volleys into the troops which were virtually at point blank volleys into the troops which were virtually at point blank range. Larry Nelson The were virtually at point blank range. Larry Nelson The British attack against fort range. Larry Nelson The British attack against fort Stephenson is poorly planned British attack against fort Stephenson is poorly planned and recklessly executed and as Stephenson is poorly planned and recklessly executed and as a result the British are and recklessly executed and as a result the British are simply slaughtered in the a result the British are simply slaughtered in the ditch. Bruce Bowlus Proctor simply slaughtered in the ditch. Bruce Bowlus Proctor realized immediately that the ditch. Bruce Bowlus Proctor realized immediately that the attack was not going to realized immediately that the attack was not going to succeed; he left so quickly attack was not going to succeed; he left so quickly that he left supply ships succeed; he left so quickly that he left supply ships behind, full of munitions and that he left supply ships behind, full of munitions and so forth. It was a very behind, full of munitions and so forth. It was a very important battle. Not because so forth. It was a very important battle. Not because it was big, but because it important battle. Not because it was big, but because it sent a message that the it was big, but because it sent a message that the Americans were going to fight sent a message that the Americans were going to fight tenaciously to maintain this Americans were going to fight tenaciously to maintain this part of what they called their tenaciously to maintain this part of what they called their territory - north western part of what they called their territory - north western Ohio. Music: Harrison Theme exist at all. The grounds are where at all. The grounds are where the Birchard public library is located in Fremont. and, the the Birchard public library is located in Fremont. and, the old cannon, again purported to located in Fremont. and, the old cannon, again purported to be the original cannon called ld Betsyon, again purported to damage to the British it is still on the lawn at the library.Announcer:The still on the lawn at the library.Announcer:The situation is getting worse for library.Announcer:The situation is getting worse for the British. With Perry loose situation is getting worse for the British. With Perry loose on the lake, and Harrison the British. With Perry loose on the lake, and Harrison mounting huge forces on land, get the supplies they need to fight, and the they need to fight, and the food they need for themselves and their Indian allies.Sue food they need for themselves and their Indian allies.Sue Judis Well, it got to a point and their Indian allies.Sue Judis Well, it got to a point up in fort Malden where Judis Well, it got to a point up in fort Malden where general proctor came to Robert ou have to e care if you e care if you ready or not, you have to go. e down to our last bits of flour, you must sai" Walter flour, you must sai" Walter Rybkah Perry had a lot of problems on his side too he had a lot of fever and dysentery on the crew and about a third on sick list at and dysentery on the crew and about a third on sick list at any one time so both sides about a third on sick list at any one time so both sides were miserable and wanted to any one time so both sides were miserable and wanted to get this over with; the battle were miserable and wanted to get this over with; the battle of lake Erie was the day the get this over with; the battle of lake Erie was the day the hungry came out to fight the of lake Erie was the day the hungry came out to fight the sick.Announcer:Barclay sailed hungry came out to fight the sick.Announcer:Barclay sailed out of Fort Malden and down sick.Announcer:Barclay sailed out of Fort Malden and down the Detroit River. On out of Fort Malden and down the Detroit River. On September 10th, 1813, a the Detroit River. On September 10th, 1813, a lookout for Perry spotted the September 10th, 1813, a lookout for Perry spotted the British fleet on the Lake. lookout for Perry spotted the British fleet on the Lake. Walter Rybkah The British had British fleet on the Lake. Walter Rybkah The British had 6 vessels under command of Walter Rybkah The British had 6 vessels under command of Robert Harriet Barclay and the 6 vessels under command of Robert Harriet Barclay and the Americans had 9 vessels under Robert Harriet Barclay and the Americans had 9 vessels under the command Oliver Hazard Americans had 9 vessels under the command Oliver Hazard Perry.Sue Judis One critical the command Oliver Hazard Perry.Sue Judis One critical factor against parry at that Perry.Sue Judis One critical factor against parry at that point in time was the wind factor against parry at that point in time was the wind direction. He virtually needed point in time was the wind direction. He virtually needed the wind behind him to help direction. He virtually needed the wind behind him to help him out to meet the British the wind behind him to help him out to meet the British fleet. David Skaggs The him out to meet the British fleet. David Skaggs The British have what is called fleet. David Skaggs The British have what is called the weather gauge. The wind is British have what is called the weather gauge. The wind is in their favor. And Perry has the weather gauge. The wind is in their favor. And Perry has to slowly but surely inch his in their favor. And Perry has to slowly but surely inch his way against the wind and to to slowly but surely inch his way against the wind and to weave his way towards the way against the wind and to weave his way towards the British. But, about midday, now Perry who has the weather Perry who has the weather gauge. Music: Perry Theme Walter Rybkah So he decided to gauge. Music: Perry Theme Walter Rybkah So he decided to take an extreme risk and order Walter Rybkah So he decided to take an extreme risk and order a downwind turn to sail take an extreme risk and order a downwind turn to sail directly at the enemy to close a downwind turn to sail directly at the enemy to close the range very much as Nelson directly at the enemy to close the range very much as Nelson did at Trafalgar. He decided the range very much as Nelson did at Trafalgar. He decided to endure raking fire to did at Trafalgar. He decided to endure raking fire to outgun them once he got in to endure raking fire to outgun them once he got in close with his short range outgun them once he got in close with his short range heavier armament.Gerard T. close with his short range heavier armament.Gerard T. Altoff The heavier armament.Gerard T. Altoff The British band plays Rule Altoff The British band plays Rule Britannia, and immediately, as British band plays Rule Britannia, and immediately, as the last echoes of that sound Britannia, and immediately, as the last echoes of that sound float across western lake the last echoes of that sound float across western lake Erie, twenty-four pound cannon float across western lake Erie, twenty-four pound cannon opens fire towards the Erie, twenty-four pound cannon opens fire towards the Americans.Sue Judis The first opens fire towards the Americans.Sue Judis The first cannon missed. But, the second Americans.Sue Judis The first cannon missed. But, the second cannon fired and shot through cannon missed. But, the second cannon fired and shot through the deck of the Lawrence. cannon fired and shot through the deck of the Lawrence. Perry turned and looked and, the deck of the Lawrence. Perry turned and looked and, for whatever reason, the Perry turned and looked and, for whatever reason, the Niagara held back. it was not for whatever reason, the Niagara held back. it was not coming up to meet the other Niagara held back. it was not coming up to meet the other largest British ship. So, coming up to meet the other largest British ship. So, Perry and his ship basically largest British ship. So, Perry and his ship basically were being pummeled by the Perry and his ship basically were being pummeled by the British fleet. All the British were being pummeled by the British fleet. All the British firepower was being turned on British fleet. All the British firepower was being turned on to the Lawrence. Gerard T. firepower was being turned on to the Lawrence. Gerard T. Altoff to the Lawrence. Gerard T. Altoff Sails are hanging in tattered Altoff Sails are hanging in tattered strips. Rigging looks like Sails are hanging in tattered strips. Rigging looks like tangled kite string hanging strips. Rigging looks like tangled kite string hanging from a tree. Bulwarks, blasted tangled kite string hanging from a tree. Bulwarks, blasted like Swiss cheese. Deck seams from a tree. Bulwarks, blasted like Swiss cheese. Deck seams had split apart a little bit like Swiss cheese. Deck seams had split apart a little bit and blood from the wounded are had split apart a little bit and blood from the wounded are seeping down to the wardroom and blood from the wounded are seeping down to the wardroom where the operating theater is seeping down to the wardroom where the operating theater is down below.David Skaggs Perry, where the operating theater is down below.David Skaggs Perry, who is for some reason or down below.David Skaggs Perry, who is for some reason or another miraculously unwounded who is for some reason or another miraculously unwounded - over a hundred of his another miraculously unwounded - over a hundred of his hundred-and-twenty man crew, - over a hundred of his hundred-and-twenty man crew, are wounded or dead - Perry hundred-and-twenty man crew, are wounded or dead - Perry moves from the Lawrence to the are wounded or dead - Perry moves from the Lawrence to the Niagara.Sue Judis He pulled moves from the Lawrence to the Niagara.Sue Judis He pulled down his battle flag jumped Niagara.Sue Judis He pulled down his battle flag jumped into the little cutter and down his battle flag jumped into the little cutter and sailed across the third of a into the little cutter and sailed across the third of a mile to the Niagara.Gerard T. sailed across the third of a mile to the Niagara.Gerard T. Altoff All mile to the Niagara.Gerard T. Altoff All six British ships concentrated Altoff All six British ships concentrated their fire on that little six British ships concentrated their fire on that little rowboat and every man in it their fire on that little rowboat and every man in it was soaked from the splash rowboat and every man in it was soaked from the splash from the near misses. But, was soaked from the splash from the near misses. But, Perry's luck, again from the near misses. But, Perry's luck, again miraculously he managed to Perry's luck, again miraculously he managed to meet the Niagara unscathed.Sue miraculously he managed to meet the Niagara unscathed.Sue Judis Perry as captain of a meet the Niagara unscathed.Sue Judis Perry as captain of a ship, had the right to have Judis Perry as captain of a ship, had the right to have his own battle flag, the words ship, had the right to have his own battle flag, the words on Perry's battle flag were on give up the shipÁ give up the shipÁ Announcer:This phrase was Announcer:This phrase was inspired by Perry's good friend and mentor, Captain inspired by Perry's good friend and mentor, Captain James Lawrence. Lawrence had friend and mentor, Captain James Lawrence. Lawrence had directed his own men "Don't James Lawrence. Lawrence had directed his own men "Don't Give up the Ship" before he directed his own men "Don't Give up the Ship" before he died in battle earlier in the Give up the Ship" before he died in battle earlier in the war. Perry not only named is died in battle earlier in the war. Perry not only named is ship the Lawrence, but also war. Perry not only named is ship the Lawrence, but also adopted those words for his ship the Lawrence, but also adopted those words for his battle flag.Walter Rybkah transfer was one of the best known episodes in US the best known episodes in US Naval history. In the end the only way to win the battle was Naval history. In the end the only way to win the battle was to give up the ship and go to only way to win the battle was to give up the ship and go to the next one. The real motto give up.Announcer: Barclay had been wounded, and Barclay had been wounded, and junior officers now commanded the two lead British warships, junior officers now commanded the two lead British warships, the Detroit and the Queen the two lead British warships, the Detroit and the Queen Charlotte. They ran into each the Detroit and the Queen Charlotte. They ran into each other and became entangled Charlotte. They ran into each other and became entangled David Skaggs And so when Perry able to rake down the entire able to rake down the entire length of both vessels and forces them to surrender length of both vessels and forces them to surrender rather quickly.Sue Judis This forces them to surrender rather quickly.Sue Judis This was the only time in British rather quickly.Sue Judis This was the only time in British naval history where they was the only time in British naval history where they surrendered an entire fleet. naval history where they surrendered an entire fleet. Music: 1812 ThemeGerard T. surrendered an entire fleet. Music: 1812 ThemeGerard T. Altoff Music: 1812 ThemeGerard T. Altoff Well, immediately upon the Altoff Well, immediately upon the surrender of the British Well, immediately upon the surrender of the British ships, Perry knew he had to surrender of the British ships, Perry knew he had to notify his superior. So what ships, Perry knew he had to notify his superior. So what he did was he found an old notify his superior. So what he did was he found an old envelope and he used his hat he did was he found an old envelope and he used his hat as a desk. And writing on the envelope and he used his hat as a desk. And writing on the back of that old envelope in ear desk. And writing on the general, we have met the enemy general, we have met the enemy and they are ours. Two ships, two brigs, one schooner, and and they are ours. Two ships, two brigs, one schooner, and one sloop, yours with great two brigs, one schooner, and one sloop, yours with great respect and esteem, O.H. one sloop, yours with great respect and esteem, O.H. Perry. out of this engagement two of the most famous sayings in American naval history come the most famous sayings in American naval history come out of it "Don't give up the American naval history come out of it "Don't give up the ship," which is now the out of it "Don't give up the ship," which is now the official motto of the U.S. ship," which is now the official motto of the U.S. Navy and then the other one is official motto of the U.S. Navy and then the other one is "We have met the enemy and Navy and then the other one is "We have met the enemy and they are ours," which was the "We have met the enemy and they are ours," which was the liberation call. It's really they are ours," which was the liberation call. It's really that line, when it reached liberation call. It's really that line, when it reached Washington and the East coast that line, when it reached Washington and the East coast it meant we could beat these Washington and the East coast it meant we could beat these guys. Announcer:Soon after the it meant we could beat these guys. Announcer:Soon after the battle, Perry transports guys. Announcer:Soon after the battle, Perry transports Harrison's men across Lake battle, Perry transports Harrison's men across Lake Erie, in stages. First to Harrison's men across Lake Erie, in stages. First to South Bass Island, and then Erie, in stages. First to South Bass Island, and then onto Canada.David Skaggs They South Bass Island, and then onto Canada.David Skaggs They land a few miles south of onto Canada.David Skaggs They land a few miles south of Amherstberg expecting British land a few miles south of Amherstberg expecting British opposition. But the British, Amherstberg expecting British opposition. But the British, instead, have evacuated opposition. But the British, instead, have evacuated Amherstberg, fort Malden, instead, have evacuated Amherstberg, fort Malden, Windsor and Detroit and are Amherstberg, fort Malden, Windsor and Detroit and are beginning to march towards the Windsor and Detroit and are beginning to march towards the Thames river valley in western beginning to march towards the Thames river valley in western Ontario. Gerard T. Altoff Thames river valley in western Ontario. Gerard T. Altoff Perry, participated in Ontario. Gerard T. Altoff Perry, participated in the Thames campaign. He took Perry, participated in the Thames campaign. He took what ships he could over the the Thames campaign. He took what ships he could over the bar of the Thames River, what ships he could over the bar of the Thames River, sailed up to the head of bar of the Thames River, sailed up to the head of navigation, borrowed a horse sailed up to the head of navigation, borrowed a horse from somebody and then served navigation, borrowed a horse from somebody and then served as a volunteer aide to from somebody and then served as a volunteer aide to Harrison.Announcer:With Perry as a volunteer aide to Harrison.Announcer:With Perry and Harrison in pursuit, the Harrison.Announcer:With Perry and Harrison in pursuit, the already strained alliance and Harrison in pursuit, the already strained alliance between the British and Native already strained alliance between the British and Native forces is now at a breaking between the British and Native forces is now at a breaking point. Randall Buchman forces is now at a breaking point. Randall Buchman Proctor wants to take point. Randall Buchman Proctor wants to take everybody and move to the east Proctor wants to take everybody and move to the east and join up with the forces everybody and move to the east and join up with the forces around Fort Niagara. Tecumseh and join up with the forces around Fort Niagara. Tecumseh wants to stay and fight and around Fort Niagara. Tecumseh wants to stay and fight and resist. Then the word comes of army on the move. Music: Prophet ThemeDavid Music: Prophet ThemeDavid Skaggs Tecumseh essentially accuses proctor of being like Skaggs Tecumseh essentially accuses proctor of being like a dog with his tail between accuses proctor of being like a dog with his tail between his legs running away rather a dog with his tail between his legs running away rather than fighting up as a man his legs running away rather than fighting up as a man really should.Announcer:At the than fighting up as a man really should.Announcer:At the River Thames, Proctor agrees really should.Announcer:At the River Thames, Proctor agrees to turn and fight Harrison's River Thames, Proctor agrees to turn and fight Harrison's troops. The Indian forces are to turn and fight Harrison's troops. The Indian forces are overpowered by the Americans troops. The Indian forces are overpowered by the Americans and the British troops retreat overpowered by the Americans and the British troops retreat to the east.Randall Buchman and the British troops retreat to the east.Randall Buchman The Indians continue the to the east.Randall Buchman The Indians continue the resistance and in that, The Indians continue the resistance and in that, Tecumseh is killed. The story resistance and in that, Tecumseh is killed. The story is that those close to him who Tecumseh is killed. The story is that those close to him who were his dedicated followers is that those close to him who were his dedicated followers hid his body. And today we know where body is and that part of the mystique of where part of the mystique of where he is. But how did he die? He died defending and fighting he is. But how did he die? He died defending and fighting for the very thing he stood died defending and fighting for the very thing he stood for: stopping white for the very thing he stood for: stopping white encroachment upon Indian land for: stopping white encroachment upon Indian land and a unified Indian front. encroachment upon Indian land and a unified Indian front. David Skaggs It is a and a unified Indian front. David Skaggs It is a tremendous victory for the David Skaggs It is a tremendous victory for the United States. 600 British tremendous victory for the United States. 600 British prisoners are taken in this, United States. 600 British prisoners are taken in this, probably the largest surrender prisoners are taken in this, probably the largest surrender of British troops in the probably the largest surrender of British troops in the entire war of 1812.Sue Judis of British troops in the entire war of 1812.Sue Judis The war of 1812 continued for entire war of 1812.Sue Judis The war of 1812 continued for an additional two years after The war of 1812 continued for an additional two years after the battle of Lake Erie. The an additional two years after the battle of Lake Erie. The treaty of Ghent was signed on the battle of Lake Erie. The treaty of Ghent was signed on Christmas Eve, 1814. Music: treaty of Ghent was signed on Christmas Eve, 1814. Music: Canadian Theme Announcer:The Christmas Eve, 1814. Music: Canadian Theme Announcer:The conflict would continue in Canadian Theme Announcer:The conflict would continue in other theatres of war: the conflict would continue in other theatres of war: the burning of the White House in other theatres of war: the burning of the White House in Washington, DC; the Battle of burning of the White House in Washington, DC; the Battle of Baltimore that inspired the Washington, DC; the Battle of Baltimore that inspired the Star Spangled Banner; and late, but heroic victory at New Orleans. heroic victory at New Orleans. Some of the figures that fought in the Old Northwest Some of the figures that fought in the Old Northwest would find their place in fought in the Old Northwest would find their place in American history, and some would find their place in American history, and some would be forgotten. Commodore American history, and some would be forgotten. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry became the would be forgotten. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry became the hero of the War.Gerard T. Oliver Hazard Perry became the hero of the War.Gerard T. Altoff So hero of the War.Gerard T. Altoff So he starts to head back towards feted all the way back. Every feted all the way back. Every little town, city, you know, testimonial dinnersand he had little town, city, you know, testimonial dinnersand he had gained that glory that he so testimonial dinnersand he had gained that glory that he so desperately sought.Announcer: gained that glory that he so desperately sought.Announcer: Perry would die young, at 34 desperately sought.Announcer: Perry would die young, at 34 years of age, on a diplomatic Perry would die young, at 34 years of age, on a diplomatic mission to South America. He years of age, on a diplomatic mission to South America. He contracted Yellow Fever, and mission to South America. He contracted Yellow Fever, and died on the high seas before contracted Yellow Fever, and died on the high seas before arriving home. America would died on the high seas before arriving home. America would remember Perry. Canada would arriving home. America would remember Perry. Canada would remember Brock. But others remember Perry. Canada would remember Brock. But others would be forgotten.David remember Brock. But others would be forgotten.David Skaggs The career of proctor would be forgotten.David Skaggs The career of proctor thereafter is one steady eventually court martialed. He eventually court martialed. He goes back to Britain, and dies a few years later.Music: goes back to Britain, and dies a few years later.Music: Harrison ThemeAnnouncer: a few years later.Music: Harrison ThemeAnnouncer: Tecumseh and his legend would Harrison ThemeAnnouncer: Tecumseh and his legend would continue to grow over the Tecumseh and his legend would continue to grow over the centuries. He is beloved by continue to grow over the centuries. He is beloved by not only Native Americans, but centuries. He is beloved by not only Native Americans, but by all people who have a great not only Native Americans, but by all people who have a great love of the land; and yearn to by all people who have a great love of the land; and yearn to free themselves from love of the land; and yearn to free themselves from oppression. His brother, the free themselves from oppression. His brother, the Prophet, would help lead the oppression. His brother, the Prophet, would help lead the Shawnee into the west and Prophet, would help lead the Shawnee into the west and establish a new settlement Shawnee into the west and establish a new settlement there, where he died in 1836. establish a new settlement there, where he died in 1836. William Henry Harrison - there, where he died in 1836. William Henry Harrison - territorial governor, military William Henry Harrison - territorial governor, military general, congressman, senator territorial governor, military general, congressman, senator and ambassador - would be general, congressman, senator and ambassador - would be elected the Ninth President of and ambassador - would be elected the Ninth President of the United States. At his elected the Ninth President of the United States. At his inaugural celebration, he gave the United States. At his inaugural celebration, he gave a speech that was too long, in inaugural celebration, he gave a speech that was too long, in weather that was too cold, and a speech that was too long, in weather that was too cold, and died of pneumonia soon after. weather that was too cold, and died of pneumonia soon after. David Skaggs One can speculate died of pneumonia soon after. David Skaggs One can speculate as to whether or not Harrison David Skaggs One can speculate as to whether or not Harrison would have been a significant as to whether or not Harrison would have been a significant president or not. I think he would have been a significant president or not. I think he had a lot of right motivation president or not. I think he had a lot of right motivation but he was, by the time he was had a lot of right motivation but he was, by the time he was elected in 1840, and in the but he was, by the time he was elected in 1840, and in the brief one month that he served elected in 1840, and in the brief one month that he served in 1841, he was by that time a brief one month that he served in 1841, he was by that time a pretty old man. And how much in 1841, he was by that time a pretty old man. And how much really innovative stuff he know but this is an era of mediocre but this is an era of mediocre presidents. And so that how much more mediocre he could be presidents. And so that how much more mediocre he could be than Fillmore orBuchanan, I know. Announcer:Many o the sacred places of battle the sacred places of battle where men lost their lives have been forgotten, but a few where men lost their lives have been forgotten, but a few are commemorated a have been forgotten, but a few are commemorated a reconstructed Fort Meigs, the are commemorated a reconstructed Fort Meigs, the National Parks Battlefield at reconstructed Fort Meigs, the National Parks Battlefield at River Raisin and the Perry National Parks Battlefield at River Raisin and the Perry Victory and International River Raisin and the Perry Victory and International Peace Memorial at Put-In-Bay. Victory and International Peace Memorial at Put-In-Bay. The American victories of the war of 1812 in the old northwest set the stage for the development of a in the old northwest set the stage for the development of a growing nation.Larry Nelson stage for the development of a growing nation.Larry Nelson The US acquires resources growing nation.Larry Nelson The US acquires resources throughout the Great Lakes The US acquires resources throughout the Great Lakes region. Resources such as throughout the Great Lakes region. Resources such as water transportation networks, region. Resources such as water transportation networks, timber, iron, coal, bauxite water transportation networks, timber, iron, coal, bauxite and magnesium, all of which timber, iron, coal, bauxite and magnesium, all of which will eventually allow the US and magnesium, all of which will eventually allow the US to emerge as one of the will eventually allow the US to emerge as one of the world's great industrial to emerge as one of the world's great industrial powers in the late 19th and world's great industrial powers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. And powers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. And which to a considerable degree early 20th centuries. And which to a considerable degree will allow the US to maintain which to a considerable degree will allow the US to maintain its position as one of the will allow the US to maintain its position as one of the great capitalist democracies its position as one of the great capitalist democracies throughout the world to the great capitalist democracies throughout the world to the present day.Music: Main Title throughout the world to the present day.Music: Main Title Announcer:Native American present day.Music: Main Title Announcer:Native American tribes in the Old Northwest Announcer:Native American tribes in the Old Northwest struggled to hold on to their tribes in the Old Northwest struggled to hold on to their culture. They now found struggled to hold on to their culture. They now found themselves living within the culture. They now found themselves living within the United States, against which themselves living within the United States, against which they had so valiantly fought. United States, against which they had so valiantly fought. Eric Hemenway So, they had so valiantly fought. Eric Hemenway So, looking back at the war of Eric Hemenway So, looking back at the war of 1812 and what my ancestors looking back at the war of 1812 and what my ancestors did, you know, I always relate 1812 and what my ancestors did, you know, I always relate that to the next generation, did, you know, I always relate that to the next generation, and say this is what your that to the next generation, and say this is what your ancestors fought for. And it that long ago. You know, they went to great know, they went to great lengths, great extremes to provide you with what you have lengths, great extremes to provide you with what you have today. So, act accordingly. provide you with what you have today. So, act accordingly. Act honorable. Act respectful. today. So, act accordingly. Act honorable. Act respectful. Because you come from a long Act honorable. Act respectful. Because you come from a long line of great warriors. You Because you come from a long line of great warriors. You have great pride, you know, so e living this life to this day, living this life to this day, in this land.Music: Canadian Theme If you would like to purchase WAR OF 1812 IN THE OLD NORTHWEST on DVD visit WAR OF 1812 IN THE OLD NORTHWEST on DVD visit wgte.org or call 800-243-WGTE. NORTHWEST on DVD visit wgte.org or call 800-243-WGTE. The War of 1812 in the Old wgte.org or call 800-243-WGTE. The War of 1812 in the Old Northwest is made possible, in The War of 1812 in the Old Northwest is made possible, in part, by the Ohio Humanities Northwest is made possible, in part, by the Ohio Humanities Council, a state affiliate of part, by the Ohio Humanities Council, a state affiliate of the National Endowment for the Council, a state affiliate of the National Endowment for the Humanities. And, in part the National Endowment for the Humanities. And, in part by, Buckeye CableSystem. 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This is our final intermission for Big Band Vocalists so if This is our final intermission for Big Band Vocalists so if you'd like to make sure WGTE for Big Band Vocalists so if you'd like to make sure WGTE knows you'd like more big band you'd like to make sure WGTE knows you'd like more big band specials in the future, it's knows you'd like more big band specials in the future, it's time to call now!And if $120, specials in the future, it's time to call now!And if $120, or $250 is just too much to time to call now!And if $120, or $250 is just too much to consider right now, please or $250 is just too much to consider right now, please call and give what-ever amount consider right now, please call and give what-ever amount is right for you! $35 or $25 call and give what-ever amount is right for you! $35 or $25 or $75. It makes a is right for you! $35 or $25 or $75. It makes a difference. Every dollar you or $75. It makes a difference. 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Contents

Territorial development

The Devil's bridge was built in the 13th century to complete the road over the St. Gotthard Pass. The first stone bridge from the 16th century was damaged by war and destroyed by a flood in 1888. The image shows the second bridge built in 1826 and above it the third bridge from 1958.
The Devil's bridge was built in the 13th century to complete the road over the St. Gotthard Pass. The first stone bridge from the 16th century was damaged by war and destroyed by a flood in 1888. The image shows the second bridge built in 1826 and above it the third bridge from 1958.

Under the Hohenstaufen dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, the three regions of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden (the Waldstätten or "forest communities") had gained the Reichsfreiheit, the first two because the emperors wanted to place the strategically important pass of the St. Gotthard under their direct control, the latter because most of its territory belonged to reichsfrei monasteries. The cities of Bern and Zürich had also become reichsfrei when the dynasty of their patrons, the Zähringer, had died out.

When Rudolph I of Habsburg was elected "King of the Germans" in 1273, he also became the direct liege lord of these reichsfrei regions. He instituted a strict rule and raised the taxes to finance wars and further territorial acquisitions. When he died in 1291, his son Albert I got involved in a power struggle with Adolf of Nassau for the German throne, and the Habsburg rule over the alpine territories weakened temporarily. Anti-Habsburg insurgences sprung up in Swabia and Austria, but were quashed quickly by Albert in 1292. Zürich had participated in this uprising. Albert besieged the city, which had to accept him as its patron.

This time of turmoil prompted the Waldstätten to cooperate more closely, trying to preserve or regain their Reichsfreiheit. The first alliance started in 1291 when Rudolph bought all the rights over the town of Lucerne and the abbey estates in Unterwalden from Murbach Abbey in Alsace. The Waldstätten saw their trade route over Lake Lucerne cut off and feared losing their independence. When Rudolph died on July 15, 1291 the Communities prepared to defend themselves. On August 1, 1291 an Everlasting League was made between the Forest Communities for mutual defense against a common enemy.[1] Uri and Schwyz got their status reconfirmed by Adolf of Nassau in 1297,[2] but to no avail, for Albert finally won the power struggle and became emperor in 1298 after Adolf was killed in the Battle of Göllheim.


Nucleus

The Federal Charter of 1291 is one of the oldest surviving written document of an alliance between Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden, the founding cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy. It is possible that it was written a few decades later than the given date of 1291, which would put it in the same date range as the pact of Brunnen of 1315. The traditional date given for the foundation of the Swiss Confederacy in Swiss historiography of the 16th century (Aegidius Tschudi and others) is 1307.

1291 marks the death of king Rudolf I, and 1307 falls into the reign of king Albert I, both members of the House of Habsburg ruling in a time of political instability, when the Holy Roman Empire had been without emperor for several decades. The politically weak kings of this period had to make frequent concessions to their subjects and vassals in order to remain in power. The founding cantons received confirmations of the Freibriefe establishing their reichsfrei status. Even Unterwalden was finally properly granted this status by Albert's successor Henry VII in 1309. This did not prevent the dukes of Habsburg, who originally had had their homelands in the Aargau, from trying to reassert their sovereignty over the territories south of the Rhine.

In the struggle for the crown of the Holy Roman Empire in 1314 between duke Frederick I of Austria and the Bavarian king Louis IV, the Waldstätten sided with Louis for fear of the Habsburgs trying to annex their counties again, like Rudolph I had done. When a long-simmering conflict between Schwyz and the abbey of Einsiedeln escalated once more, the Habsburgs responded by sending a strong army of knights against these peasants to subdue their insurrection, but the Austrian army of Frederick's brother Leopold I was utterly defeated in the Battle of Morgarten in 1315. The three cantons renewed their alliance in the pact of Brunnen,[3] and Louis IV reconfirmed their Reichsfreiheit.[4]

The Swiss chronicles of the Burgundy Wars period (1470s) refer to a rebellion against the local bailiffs, with a coordinated destruction of their forts or castles, known as the Burgenbruch ("slighting") in Swiss historiography. The earliest reference for this is the White Book of Sarnen (1470), which records that

wa böse Türnli waren, die brachen sy vnd viengen ze Uere am ersten an die hüser brechen
"wherever there were hostile forts (towers), they broke (slighted) them and first began in Uri to break these buildings"[5]

The text names Zwing Uri at Amsteg as the first castle slighted, followed by castle Schwandau in Schwyz, Rötzberg in Stans, and finally the castle at Sarnen, the storming of which is told in a graphic manner.[6]

The Burgenbruch was long seen as historical, substantiated by the numerous ruined castles in Central Switzerland, but archaeological excavations have shown that these castles were abandoned gradually, not during a sudden uprising, during the period of roughly 1200 to 1350. By the 1970s, the "demythologization" of the foundational period of the Confederacy was at its peak, and the default view was to regard the reports of the late-15th-century chronists as essentially legendary. Since the late 1970s, systematic surveys of medieval castles in Central Switzerland have shown that a number of castles were indeed destroyed during the early 14th century, so that a possible historical nucleus of the Burgenbruch accounts may be granted, even though the destruction of these forts in itself was of limited military import and could not have resulted in a lasting political change.[7]

Expansion to the Acht Orte

Subsequently, the three communities (their territories did not yet correspond to the areas of the modern-day cantons) followed a slow policy of expansion. Uri entered a pact with the previously Habsburg valley of Urseren in 1317. In 1332,[3] the city of Lucerne, trying to achieve Reichsfreiheit from the Habsburgs, joined the alliance. In 1351, these four communities were joined by the city of Zürich, where a strong citizenship had gained power following the installation of the Zunftordnung (guild regulations) and the banning of the noble authorities in 1336.[2] The city also sought support against the Habsburg city of Rapperswil, which had tried to overthrow mayor Rudolf Brun in Zürich in 1350. With the help of its new allies, Zürich was able to withstand the siege of duke Albert II of Austria, and the confederates even conquered the city of Zug[2] and the valley of Glarus in 1352.[3] They had to return both Glarus and Zug to the Habsburgs in the peace treaty of Regensburg in 1356; emperor Charles IV in return recognized the Zunftordnung of Zürich and confirmed its reichsfrei status in spite of his having forbidden any confederations within the empire in his Golden Bull issued in January of that same year.

Illustration from the late fifteenth century of the Battle of Laupen. The confederate forces are on the right.
Illustration from the late fifteenth century of the Battle of Laupen. The confederate forces are on the right.

The Eidgenossenschaft had signed "perpetual" alliances with both Glarus and Zug in 1352,[3] and thus, even if these pacts apparently were disregarded only a few years later, this date is often considered the entry of these two cantons into the confederation despite their remaining under Habsburg rule for a few more years.[8]

In the west, the Vier Waldstätten had already formed an alliance with the city of Bern in 1323, and even sent a detachment to help the Bernese forces in their territorial expansion against the dukes of Savoy and the Habsburgs in the Battle of Laupen in 1339.[2] In 1353,[3] Bern entered an "eternal" alliance with the confederation, completing the "Alliance of the Eight Lieus" (German: Bund der Acht Orte).

This alliance of the Acht Orte was not a homogeneous state but rather a conglomerate of eight independent cities and lands, held together not by one single pact but by a net of six different "eternal" pacts, none of which included all eight parties as signatories. Only the three Waldstätten Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden were part of all these treaties. All eight parties would still pursue their own particular interests, most notably in the cases of the strong cities of Zürich and Bern. Zürich was also part of an alliance of cities around Lake Constance which also included Konstanz, Lindau and Schaffhausen and for some time included cities as far away as Rottweil or Ulm, and Bern followed its own hegemonial politics, participating successively in various alliances with other cities including Fribourg, Murten, Biel or Solothurn. This Bernese "Burgundian Confederation" was a more volatile construct of varying alliances, and in the Battle of Laupen (1339), Fribourg even sided against Bern.[9] Bern's position after that battle was strong enough that such alliances often ended with the other party becoming a Bernese dependency, as it happened with e.g. Burgdorf[10] or Payerne.

An external threat during this time arose in the form of the Guglers, marauding mercenary knights from France who were beaten back under the leadership of Bern in December 1375.[11]

Consolidation

In 1364, Schwyz re-conquered the city and land of Zug and renewed the alliance the following year. In the 1380s, Lucerne expanded its territory aggressively, conquering Wolhusen, claiming sovereignty over the valley of the Entlebuch and the formerly Habsburg city of Sempach. As a consequence, Leopold III of Austria assembled an army and met the Eidgenossen near Sempach in 1386, where his troops were defeated decisively in the Battle of Sempach and he himself was killed.[2] In the wake of these events Glarus declared itself free and constituted its first Landsgemeinde (regional diet) in 1387. In the Battle of Näfels in 1388, an Austrian army of Albert III, the successor of Leopold, was defeated, and in the peace treaty concluded the next year, Glarus maintained its independence from the Habsburgs.[2]

The loose federation of states was reinforced by additional agreements amongst the partners. In the Pfaffenbrief of 1370, the signatory six states (without Bern and Glarus) for the first time expressed themselves as a territorial unity, referring to themselves as unser Eydgnosschaft. They assumed in this document authority over clericals, subjecting them to their worldly legislation. Furthermore, the Pfaffenbrief forbade feuds and the parties pledged to guarantee the peace on the road from Zürich to the St. Gotthard pass. Another important treaty was the Sempacherbrief in 1393. Not only was this the first document signed by all eight of the Acht Orte (plus the associated Solothurn), but it also defined that none of them was to unilaterally start a war without the consent of all the others.

Beginning in 1401, the confederates supported the insurrection of Appenzell against the abbey of St. Gallen and Frederick IV of Austria, duke in Tyrol and Vorderösterreich. Appenzell became a protectorate of the Acht Orte in 1411, who concluded a 50-year peace with Frederick IV in 1412.

Emperor Sigismund banned Frederick IV in 1415, who had sided with Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, and encouraged others to take over the duke's possessions, amongst which was the Aargau. After being granted far-reaching privileges by the emperor (all eight cantons became reichsfrei) and a decree that placed the ban over the peace treaty of 1412, the Eidgenossen conquered the Aargau.[12] A large part became Bernese, while the County of Baden was subsequently administered by the confederation as a common property until 1798. Only the Fricktal remained Habsburgian.

The Old Swiss Confederacy from 1291 to the sixteenth century
The Old Swiss Confederacy from 1291 to the sixteenth century

In the Valais, the conflict between the Bishop of Sion and the Duchy of Savoy, which had led to a separation in 1301 (the bishop controlling the upper Valais and the Savoyards the lower part), broke out again. Twice the Savoyards temporarily occupied the whole Valais, but both times they were ultimately defeated. Both peace treaties from 1361 and 1391 restored the status quo of 1301. As a result of these struggles, the villages in the upper Valais organized themselves in the Sieben Zenden ("seven tenths") around 1355, emerging after these wars as largely independent small states, much like the cantons of the Eidgenossenschaft.

In the Grisons, called Churwalchen then, the bishop of Chur and numerous local noble families competed for the control of the region with its many alpine passes. Throughout the 14th century, three leagues of free communities appeared. The Gotteshausbund ("League of the House of God"), covering the area around Chur and the Engadin, was founded when in 1367 the bishop, Jean de Vienne, planned to hand over the administration of his diocese to the Austrian Habsburgs.[13] It bought its freedom by paying the bishop's debt and in the following decades increased its control over the secular administration of the princebishopric, until the bishop's regent was deposed in 1452. In the upper valley of the Rhine, the Grauer Bund ("Gray League") was founded in 1395 under the direction of the abbot of Disentis and including not only the peasant communities but also the local nobles to end the permanent feuds of the latter.[14] By 1424 the Gray League was dominated by the free communities and gave itself a more democratic charter. The third league, Zehngerichtenbund ("League of the Ten Jurisdictions"), wouldn't be formed until later.[15]

Internal crisis

The relationships between the individual cantons of the confederation were not without tensions, though. A first clash between Bern and the Vier Waldstätten over the Raron conflict (Bern supported the barons of Raron, while the forest cantons sided with the Sieben Zenden) in the upper Valais was barely avoided. The local noble barons of Raron established themselves as the leading family in the upper Valais in the late 14th century and competed with the bishop of Sion for the control of the valley. When emperor Sigismund designated them counts in 1413 and ordered the bishop to hand over his territories to the von Raron, a revolt broke out in 1414. The following year, both rulers had lost: the von Raron had not succeeded in ousting the bishop, who in turn had to concede far-reaching rights to the Sieben Zenden in the treaty of Seta in 1415.[16]

The Old Zürich War, which began as a dispute over the succession to the count of Toggenburg, was a more serious test of the unity of the Acht Orte. Zürich did not accept the claims of Schwyz and Glarus, which were supported by the rest of the cantons, and in 1438 declared an embargo. The other members of the confederation expelled Zürich from the confederation in 1440 and declared war. In retaliation Zürich made a pact with the Habsburgs in 1442. The other cantons invaded the canton of Zürich and besieged the city, but were unable to capture it. By 1446, both sides were exhausted, and a preliminary peace was concluded. In 1450, the parties made a definitive peace and Zürich was admitted into the confederation again, but had to dissolve its alliance with the Habsburgs. The confederation had grown into a political alliance so close that it no longer tolerated separatist tendencies of its members.[17]

The end of the dynasty of the counts of Toggenburg in 1436 also had effects on the Grisons. In their former territories in the Prättigau and Davos, the (initially eleven, after a merger only ten) villages founded the Zehngerichtebund ("League of the Ten Jurisdictions").[15] By 1471, the three leagues, together with the city of Chur, had formed a close federation, based on military assistance and free trade pacts between the partners and including a common federal diet: the Drei Bünde ("Three Leagues") was born, even though the alliance would be officially concluded in a written contract only in 1524.[18]

Further expansion

In the second half of the 15th century, the confederation expanded its territory further. In the north, the formerly Habsburg cities of Schaffhausen and Stein am Rhein had become reichsfrei in 1415, with the ban of Frederick IV. The two strategically important cities—they offered the only two fortified bridges over the river Rhine between Constance and Basel—not only struggled with the robber barons from the neighbouring Hegau region but also were under pressure from the Habsburg dukes, who sought to re-integrate the cities into their domain. On June 1, 1454, Schaffhausen became an associate (Zugewandter Ort) of the confederacy by entering an alliance with six of the eight cantons (Uri and Unterwalden did not participate). With the help of the confederates, a Habsburg army of about 2,000 men was warded off east of Thayngen. Stein am Rhein concluded a similar alliance on December 6, 1459.

The city of St. Gallen had also become free in 1415, but was in a conflict with its abbot, who tried to bring it under his influence. But as the Habsburg dukes were unable to support him in any way, he was forced to seek help from the confederates, and the abbey became a protectorate of the confederacy on August 17, 1451.[19] The city was accepted as an associate state on June 13, 1454. Fribourg, another Habsburg city, came under the rule of the Duke of Savoy during the 1440s and had to accept the duke as its lord in 1452. Nevertheless, it also entered an alliance with Bern in 1454, becoming an associate state, too. Two other cities also sought help from the Eidgenossen against the Habsburgs: Rottweil became as associate on June 18, 1463, and Mülhausen on June 17, 1466 through an alliance with Bern (and Solothurn). In Rapperswil, a Habsburg enclave on Lake Zürich within confederate territory, a pro-confederate coup d'état in 1458 led to the city becoming a protectorate of the confederacy in 1464.

Duke Sigismund of Austria got involved in a power struggle with Pope Pius II over the nomination of a bishop in Tyrol in 1460. When the duke was banned by the pope, a situation similar to that of 1415 arose. The confederates took advantage of the problems of the Habsburgs and conquered the Habsburg Thurgau and the region of Sargans in the autumn of 1460, which became both commonly administered property. In a peace treaty from June 1, 1461, the duke had no choice but to accept the new situation.

The Swiss also had an interest in extending their influence south of the Alps to secure the trade route across the St. Gotthard Pass to Milan. Beginning in 1331, they initially exerted their influence through peaceful trade agreements, but in the 15th century, their involvement turned military. 1403 the upper Leventina, as the valley south of the pass is called, became a protectorate of Uri. Throughout the 15th century, a changeful struggle between the Swiss and the Duchy of Milan ensued. In 1439, Uri assumed full control of the upper Leventina; the Duchy of Milan gave up its claims there two years later, and so did the chapter of Milan in 1477. Twice the Swiss conquered roughly the whole territory of the modern canton of Ticino and also the Ossola valley. Twice, the Milanese reconquered all these territories except the Leventina. Both times, the Swiss managed, despite their defeats, to negotiate peace treaties that were actually favorable for them.

Burgundy Wars

The Burgundian Wars were an involvement of confederate forces in the conflict between the Valois Dynasty and the Habsburgs. The aggressive expansionism of the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, brought him in conflict with both the French king Louis XI and emperor Frederick III of the House of Habsburg. His embargo politics against the cities of Basel, Strasbourg and Mulhouse prompted these to turn to Bern for help.

The conflicts culminated in 1474, after duke Sigismund of Austria had concluded a peace agreement with the confederates in Constance (later called the Ewige Richtung). The confederates, united with the Alsatian cities and Sigismund in an "anti-burgundian league", conquered part of the Burgundian Jura (Franche-Comté), and the next year, Bernese forces conquered and ravaged the Vaud, which belonged to the Duchy of Savoy, which in turn was allied with Charles the Bold. The Sieben Zenden, with the help of Bernese and other confederate forces, drove the Savoyards out of the lower Valais after a victory in the Battle on the Planta in November 1475. In 1476, Charles retaliated and marched to Grandson with his army, but suffered three devastating defeats in a row, first in the Battle of Grandson, then in the Battle of Murten, until he was killed in the Battle of Nancy in 1477, where the confederates fought alongside an army of René II, Duke of Lorraine.[20] There is a proverbial saying in Switzerland summarizing these events as "Bi Grandson s'Guet, bi Murte de Muet, bi Nancy s'Bluet" (hät de Karl de Küeni verloore) ("[Charles the Bold lost] his goods at Grandson, his boldness at Murten and his blood at Nancy").

As a result of the Burgundy Wars, the dynasty of the dukes of Burgundy had died out. Bern returned the Vaud to the duchy of Savoy against a ransom of 50,000 guilders already in 1476, and sold its claims on the Franche-Comté to Louis XI for 150,000 guilders in 1479. The confederates only kept small territories east of the Jura mountains, especially Grandson and Murten, as common dependencies of Bern and Fribourg. The whole Valais, however, would henceforth be independent, and Bern would reconquer the Vaud in 1536. While the territorial effects of the Burgundy Wars on the confederation were minor, they marked the beginning of the rise of Swiss mercenaries on the battlefields of Europe.

Swiss mercenaries

Swiss mercenaries crossing the Alps (Luzerner Schilling)
Swiss mercenaries crossing the Alps (Luzerner Schilling)

In the Burgundy Wars, the Swiss soldiers had gained a reputation of near invincibility, and their mercenary services became increasingly sought after by the great European political powers of the time.

Shortly after the Burgundy Wars, individual cantons concluded mercenary contracts, so-called "capitulations", with many parties, including the Pope — the papal Swiss Guard was founded in 1505 and became operational the next year.[21] More contracts were made with France (a Swiss Guard of mercenaries would be destroyed in the storm of the Tuileries in Paris in 1792[22]), the Duchy of Savoy, Austria, and still others. Swiss mercenaries would play an initially important, but later minor role on European battlefields until well into the 18th century.

Swiss forces soon got involved in the Italian Wars between the Valois and the Habsburgs over the control of northern Italy. When the power of the Duchy of Milan perished in these wars, the Swiss finally managed to bring the whole Ticino under their control. In 1500, they occupied the strategically important fortress of Bellinzona, which the French king Louis XII, who ruled Milan at that time, ceded definitively in 1503. From 1512 on, the confederates fought on the side of Pope Julius II and his Holy League against the French in territories south of the Alps. After initial successes and having conquered large parts of the territory of Milan, they were utterly defeated by a French army in the Battle of Marignano in 1515, which put an end to military territorial interventions of the confederation, mercenary services under the flags of foreign armies excepted. The result of this short intermezzo were the gain of the Ticino as a common administrative region of the confederacy and the occupation of the valley of the Adda river (Veltlin, Bormio, and Chiavenna) by the Drei Bünde, which would remain a dependency of the Grisons until 1797 with a brief interruption during the Thirty Years' War.

Dreizehn Orte

Both Fribourg and Solothurn, which had participated in the Burgundy Wars, now wanted to join the confederation, which would have tipped the balance in favour of the city cantons. The rural cantons were thus strongly opposed. In 1477 they marched upon the cities in protest.

At Stans in 1481 a Tagsatzung was held in order to resolve the issues, but war seemed inevitable. A local hermit, Niklaus von der Flüe, was consulted on the situation. He requested that a message be passed on to the members of the Tagsatzung on his behalf. The details of the message have remained unknown to this day, however it did calm the tempers and led to the drawing up of the Stanser Verkommnis. Fribourg and Solothurn were admitted into the confederation.

After isolated bilateral pacts between the leagues in the Grisons and some cantons of the confederation had already existed since the early 15th century, the federation of the Three Leagues as a whole became an associate state of the confederation, in 1498, by concluding alliance agreements with the seven easternmost cantons.

When the confederates refused to accept the resolutions of the Diet of Worms in 1495, the Swabian War (Schwabenkrieg, also called the Schweizerkrieg in Germany) broke out in 1499, opposing the confederation against the Swabian League and emperor Maximilian I. After some battles around Schaffhausen, in the Austrian Vorarlberg and in the Grisons, where the confederates were victorious more often than not, the Battle of Dornach, where the emperor's commander was killed, put an end to the war. In September 1499, a peace agreement was concluded at Basel that effectively established a de facto independence of the Eidgenossenschaft from the empire, although it continued nominally to be part of the Holy Roman Empire until after the Thirty Years' War and was not included into the system of Imperial Circles in 1500.

As a direct consequence of the Swabian War the previously associated city states of Basel and Schaffhausen joined the confederation in 1501.[3] In 1513, the Appenzell followed suit as the thirteenth member.[3] The cities of St. Gallen, Biel, Mulhouse and Rottweil as well as the Three Leagues in the Grisons were all associates of the confederation (Zugewandte Orte); the Valais would become an associate state in 1529.

Annexation of the Ticino and the Veltlin

The Ticino region consisted of several city-states along the Ticino river. Following the conquest of the region, it was divided into four Ticino Bailiwicks which were under the joint administration of the 13 Cantons after 1512. The four bailiwicks were Valle di Maggia (German: Meynthal or Maiental), Locarno (German: Luggarus), Lugano (German: Lugano) and Mendrisio (German: Mendris). The area also included several other territories that were owned by one or more cantons. These included: the Bailiwick of Bellinzona (German: Bellinzona), Blenio (German: Bollenz) and Riviera (German: Reffier) which were owned by Uri, Schwyz, and Nidwalden as well as the bailiwick Leventina (German: Livinental) (owned by Uri) and even the Val d'Ossola (German: Eschental). There were also three Italian-speaking subjects areas of the Three Leagues (Bormio, Valtellina and Chiavenna) which were not included in the Ticino Bailiwicks.[23]

Between 1403 and 1422 some of these lands were annexed by forces from Uri, but subsequently lost after the Battle of Arbedo in 1422. While the Battle of Arbedo stopped Swiss expansion for a time, the Confederation continued to exercise influence in the area. The Canton of Uri conquered the Leventina Valley in 1440.[24] In a second conquest Uri, Schwyz and Nidwalden gained the town of Bellinzona and the Riviera in 1500.[24] The third conquest was fought by troops from the entire Confederation (at that time constituted by 12 cantons). In 1512, Locarno, the Maggia Valley, Lugano and Mendrisio were annexed. Subsequently, the upper valley of the Ticino river, from the St. Gotthard to the town of Biasca (Leventina Valley) was part of the Canton of Uri. The remaining territory (Baliaggi Ultramontani, Ennetbergische Vogteien, the Bailiwicks Beyond the Mountains) was administered by the Twelve Cantons. These districts were governed by bailiffs holding office for two years and purchasing it from the members of the League.[24]

Some of the land and the town of Bellinzona were annexed by Uri in 1419 but lost again in 1422. In 1499 nearly one and a half centuries of Milanese rule in Bellinzona ended with the invasion of Milan by Louis XII of France. He captured the city and fearing an attack by the Swiss, fortified the Castelgrande with 1,000 troops.[25] Throughout the winter of 1499/1500 unrest in Bellinzona grew, until January when an armed revolt of the citizens of Bellinzona drove the French troops from the city. Following the capture and execution of Ludovico Sforza in April 1500 and seeking protection from France, Bellinzona joined the Swiss Confederation on April 14, 1500.[26] Bellinzona would remain under the joint administration of Uri, Schwyz and Nidwalden until the creation of the Helvetic Republic after the Napoleonic invasion of Switzerland in 1798.

Between 1433 and 1438 the Duke of Milan, Aloisio Sanseverino sat as a feudal lord over Lugano. Under the reign of his heirs in the following decades rebellions and riots broke out, which lasted until the French invasion of 1499.[27]

Myths and legends

Oath on the Rütli, Henry Fuseli, 1780
Oath on the Rütli, Henry Fuseli, 1780

The events told in the saga of William Tell, which are purported to have occurred around 1307, are not substantiated by historical evidence. This story, like the related story of the Rütlischwur (the oath on the Rütli, a meadow above Lake Lucerne), seems to have its origins in the late 15th century Weisse Buch von Sarnen,[28] a collection of folk tales from 1470, and is generally considered a fictitious glorification of the independence struggles of the Waldstätten.

The legend of Arnold von Winkelried likewise is first recorded in the 16th century;[29] earlier accounts of the Battle of Sempach do not mention him. Winkelried is said to have opened a breach in the lines of the Austrian footsoldiers by throwing himself into their lances, taking them down with his body such that the confederates could attack through the opening.

Social developments

The developments beginning in about the 13th century had profound effects on the society. Gradually the population of serfs changed into one of free peasants and citizens. In the cities—which were small by modern standards; Basel had about 10,000 inhabitants,[30] Zürich, Bern, Lausanne, and Fribourg about 5,000 each—the development was a natural one, for the liege lords very soon gave the cities a certain autonomy, in particular over their internal administration. The number of cities also grew during this period. In 1200 there were about 30 cities. A century later, in 1300, there were over 190 interconnected cities.[31] At the beginning of the 14th century, the artisans in the cities began forming guilds and increasingly took over political control, especially in the cities along the Rhine, e.g. in the Alsace, in Basel, Schaffhausen, Zürich, or Chur. (But not, for instance, in Bern or Lucerne—or, in Germany, Frankfurt—where a stronger aristocracy seems to have inhibited such a development.) The guild cities had a relatively democratic structure, with a city council elected by the citizens.

In the rural areas, people generally had less freedom, but some lords furthered the colonization of remote areas by granting some privileges to the colonists.[31] One well-known colonization movement was that of the Walser from the Valais to the Grisons, colonizing some valleys there in the 14th century. In the mountainous areas, a community management of common fields, alps, and forests (the latter being important as a protection against avalanches) soon developed, and the communes in a valley cooperated closely and began buying out the noble landowners or simply to dispossess them of their lands. Regional diets, the Landsgemeinden, were formed to deal with the administration of the commons; it also served as the high court and to elect representatives, the Landamman.

As free farmers moved into the mountain valleys, construction and maintenance of the mountain pass roads became possible. In the 12th and 13th Centuries, the passes into Graubünden and Valais were expanded and developed, which allowed much of the Walser migration. The Gotthard Pass was first opened around the 12th Century, and by 1236 was dedicated to the Bavarian Saint Gotthard of Hildesheim. As the population in the nearby mountain valleys grew, the pass roads continued to expand. With easier and safer roads, as well as increased infrastructure, international trade grew throughout the mountain valleys and Switzerland.[31]

Contemporary depiction of the inauguration ceremony of the University of Basel in the cathedral of Basel on April 4, 1460.
Contemporary depiction of the inauguration ceremony of the University of Basel in the cathedral of Basel on April 4, 1460.

Although both poor and rich citizens or peasants had the same rights (though not the same status), not all people were equal. Immigrants into a village or city had no political rights and were called the Hintersassen. In rural areas, they had to pay for their use of the common lands. They were granted equal rights only when they acquired citizenship, which not only was a question of wealth (for they had to buy their citizenship), but they also had to have lived there for some time; especially in the rural areas.[32]

The cities followed an expansionist territorial politics to gain control over the surrounding rural areas, on which they were dependent, using military powers or more often more subtle means such as buying out, or accepting as citizens the subjects (and thereby freeing them: "Stadtluft macht frei"—"city air liberates") of a liege lord. It was the cities, now, that instituted reeves to manage the administration, but this only sometimes and slowly led to a restriction of the communal autonomy of the villages. The peasants owned their land, the villages kept administering their commons; and the villagers participated in the jury of the city reeve's court. They had, however, to provide military service for the city, which on the other hand included the right to own and carry weapons.

Basel became the center of higher education and science in the second half of the 15th century. The city had hosted the Council of Basel from 1431 to 1447, and, in 1460, a university was founded, which eventually would attract many notable thinkers, such as Erasmus or Paracelsus.

Economy

The population of the cantons numbered about 600,000 in the 15th century and grew to about 800,000 by the 16th century. The grain production sufficed only in some of the lower regions; most areas were dependent on imports of oats, barley, or wheat. In the Alps, where the yield of grains had always been particularly low due to the climatic conditions, a transition from farming to the production of cheese and butter from cow milk occurred. As the roads got better and safer, a lively trade with the cities developed.

The cities were the marketplaces and important trading centers, being located on the major roads through the Alps. Textile manufacture, where St. Gallen was the leading center, developed. Cheese (esp. Emmentaler and Gruyère) also was a major export item. The exports of the Swiss cities went far, into the Levant or to Poland.

In the late 15th century, the mercenary services became also an important economic factor. The Reisläuferei, as the mercenary service was called, attracted many young adventurous Swiss who saw in it a way to escape the relative poverty of their homes. Not only the mercenaries themselves were paid, but also their home cantons, and the Reisläuferei, while being heavily criticized already at that time as a heavy drain on the human resources of the confederation, became popular in particular among the young peasants from the rural cantons.

Political organization

Initially, the Eidgenossenschaft was not united by one single pact, but rather by a whole set of overlapping pacts and separate bilateral treaties between various members, with only minimum liabilities. The parties generally agreed to preserve the peace in their territories, help each other in military endeavours, and defined some arbitration in case of disputes. The Sempacherbrief from 1393 was the first treaty uniting all eight cantons, and subsequently, a kind of federal diet, the Tagsatzung developed in the 15th century. The second unifying treaty later became the Stanser Verkommnis in 1481.

The Tagsatzung typically met several times a year. Each canton delegated two representatives; typically this also included the associate states. Initially, the canton where the delegates met chaired the gathering, but in the 16th century, Zürich permanently assumed the chair (Vorort), and Baden became the sessional seat.[33]

The Tagsatzung dealt with all inter-cantonal affairs and also served as the final arbitral court to settle disputes between member states, or to decide on sanctions against dissenting members, as happened in the Old Zürich War. It also organized and oversaw the administration of the commons such as the County of Baden and the neighbouring Freiamt, the Thurgau, in the Rhine valley between Lake Constance and Chur, or those in the Ticino. The reeves for these commons were delegated for two years, each time by a different canton.

Despite its informal character (there was no formal legal base describing its competencies), the Tagsatzung was an important instrument of the eight, later thirteen cantons to decide inter-cantonal matters. It also proved instrumental in the development of a sense of unity among these sometimes highly individual cantons. Slowly, they defined themselves as the Eidgenossenschaft and considered themselves less as thirteen separate states with only loose bonds between.

Maps showing the growth of the Old Swiss Confederacy

See also

References

Main sources:

  • Im Hof, U.: Geschichte der Schweiz, 7th ed., Kohlhammer, 1974/2001. ISBN 3-17-017051-1.
  • Schwabe & Co.: Geschichte der Schweiz und der Schweizer, Schwabe & Co 1986/2004. ISBN 3-7965-2067-7.

Other sources:

  1. ^ "Switzerland". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. 1911. p. 247. Retrieved 2010-03-01.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Switzerland". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. 1911. pp. 247–250. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g History and Creation of the Confederation to 1353 in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  4. ^ Battle of Morgarten and Aftermath in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  5. ^ cited after Ernst Ludwig Rochholz,, Tell und Gessler in Sage und Geschichte. Nach urkundlichen Quellen (1877), p. 119.
  6. ^ for an English translation see William Denison McCrackan, The rise of the Swiss republic. A history (1892), p. 107.
  7. ^ W. Meyer et al., Die bösen Türnli: Archäologische Beiträge zur Burgenforschung in der Urschweiz, Schweizer Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte und Archäologie des Mittelalters, vol 11, Schweizerischer Burgenverein, Olten / Freiburg i.Br. 1984, pp. 192–194.
  8. ^ Glauser, T.: 1352 – Zug wird nicht eidgenössisch Archived 2004-08-27 at the Wayback Machine., State archive of the Canton of Zug; Tugium 18, pp. 103–115; 2002. (PDF file, 359 KB; in German).
  9. ^ Rickard, J (4 October 2000). "Battle of Laupen, 21 June 1339". Retrieved 2009-02-05.
  10. ^ Burgdorf War in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Following the 1383–84 attack by Burgdorf on Soloturn, the city was defeated and bought by Bern for 37,800 Gulden
  11. ^ Tuchman, Barbara W. (1978). A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. Ballantine Books. p. 278. ISBN 0-345-34957-1.
  12. ^ Aargau, Aargau becomes part of the Confederation in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  13. ^ League of God's House in Romansh, German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  14. ^ Grauer Bund in Romansh, German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  15. ^ a b League of the Ten Jurisdictions in Romansh, German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  16. ^ Raron Quarrel in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  17. ^ Old Zurich War in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  18. ^ Graubünden in Romansh, German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  19. ^ "St Gall". The Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company. 1911. p. 4. Retrieved 2008-11-15.
  20. ^ Sieber-Lehmann, C.: The Burgundy Wars in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.; January 18, 2005.
  21. ^ History of the Pontifical Swiss Guards Official Vatican web page, Roman Curia, Swiss Guards, retrieved February 9, 2009
  22. ^ Information from the Glacier Garden in Lucerne accessed 9 February 2009
  23. ^ Italian Bailiwicks in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  24. ^ a b c "Switzerland". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. 1911. pp. 933–4. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
  25. ^ Official Site-Bellinzona joins the Confederation Archived 2009-05-01 at the Wayback Machine. accessed July 17, 2008
  26. ^ Bellinzona-The Middle Ages in .php German, .php French and .php Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  27. ^ Lugano – During the Middle Ages in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  28. ^ Bergier, Jean-François (1990). Wilhelm Tell: Realität und Mythos. München: Paul List Verlag. p. 63. ISBN 3-471-77168-9.
  29. ^ Swissworld.org Confederate victories undermine the power of the nobility accessed 5 February 2009
  30. ^ Basel City, Population in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  31. ^ a b c Niklaus Flüeler; Roland Gfeller-Corthésy (1975). Die Schweiz vom Bau der Alpen bis zur Frage nach der Zukunft: ein Nachschlagewerk und Lesebuch, das Auskunft gibt über Geographie, Geschichte, Gegenwart und Zukunft eines Landes (in German). Migros-Genossenschafts-Bund. p. 88. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  32. ^ Holenstein, A.: Hintersassen in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.; September 5, 2005.
  33. ^ Würgler, A.: Tagsatzung in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.; September 1, 2004.

Further reading

  • Historical Dictionary of Switzerland (in German, French, Italian and Rumanch)
  • Luck, James M.: A History of Switzerland / The First 100,000 Years: Before the Beginnings to the Days of the Present, Society for the Promotion of Science & Scholarship, Palo Alto 1986. ISBN 0-930664-06-X.
  • Schneider, B. (ed.): Alltag in der Schweiz seit 1300, Chronos 1991; in German. ISBN 3-905278-70-7.
  • Stettler, B: Die Eidgenossenschaft im 15. Jahrhundert, Widmer-Dean 2004; in German. ISBN 3-9522927-0-2.

External links

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