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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Solothurn
Besenval stursen solothurn.jpg
Coat of arms of Solothurn

Coat of arms
Solothurn is located in Switzerland
Solothurn
Solothurn
Location of Solothurn
Solothurn is located in Canton of Solothurn
Solothurn
Solothurn
Solothurn (Canton of Solothurn)
Coordinates: 47°13′N 7°32′E / 47.217°N 7.533°E / 47.217; 7.533
Country Switzerland
Canton Solothurn
District Solothurn
Government
 • Executive Gemeinderat
with 30 members
 • Mayor Stadtpräsident (list)
Kurt Fluri FDP/PRD
(as of March 2014)
 • Parliament none (Gemeindeversammlung)
Area[1]
 • Total 6.28 km2 (2.42 sq mi)
Elevation (Chapel of St Peter) 432 m (1,417 ft)
Population (Dec 2016[2])
 • Total 16,697
 • Density 2,700/km2 (6,900/sq mi)
Demonym(s) German: Solothurner(in)
Postal code 4500
SFOS number 2601
Surrounded by Bellach, Biberist, Feldbrunnen-Sankt Niklaus, Langendorf, Rüttenen, Zuchwil
Twin towns Heilbronn (Germany), Le Landeron (Switzerland)
Website www.stadt-solothurn.ch
SFSO statistics
Imperial City of Solothurn
Reichsstadt Solothurn
Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire
1218–1648
Capital Solothurn
Government Republic
Historical era Middle Ages
 •  Founded AD 14–37
 •  Gained Reichsfreiheit 1218
 •  Allied with Bern 1295
 •  Swiss associate 1353
 •  Failed annexation by
    counts of Kyburg
 
Night of 10 November 1382
 •  Full member of
    Swiss confederacy
 
22 December 1481
 •  Joined Golden League 5 October 1586 1648
 •  Swiss independence
    recognised
 
24 October 1648
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Zähringen
House of Zähringen
Canton of Solothurn
Canton of Solothurn

Solothurn (German: Solothurn pronounced [ˈzoːlotʊrn] (About this sound listen); French: Soleure [sɔlœʁ]; Italian: Soletta [soˈletːa]; Romansh: Soloturn) is a town, a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. It is located in the north-west of Switzerland on the banks of the Aare and on the foot of the Weissenstein Jura mountains.

The town is the only municipality of the district of the same name.

The town got its name from Salodurum, a Roman-era settlement. From 1530 to 1792 it was the seat of the French ambassador to Switzerland. The pedestrian-free old town was built between 1530 and 1792 and shows an impressive array of Baroque architecture, combining Italian Grandezza, French style, and Swiss ideas. The town has 18 structures listed as heritage sites.

Agriculture, once the dominant sector of employment, has become almost non-existent. Most people today are employed in manufacturing and education.

The official language of Solothurn is (the Swiss variety of Standard) German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Solothurn S18-1000: The Pinnacle of Anti-Tank Rifles
  • Shooting a Solothurn S18/1000
  • Solothurn, Switzerland, 24 May 2015.
  • Solothurn, schönste Barock-Altstadt der Schweiz!
  • SOLOTHURN 20mm, PANZERBÜCHSE 39-41

Transcription

Hey Guys thanks for tuning in to Another Video on ForgottenWeapons.com I'm Ian McCollum and I'm Out here today at the lovely Shooting Range at The James D. Julia auction house up in Maine and I'm taking a look at some of the guns they're going to Be selling in their upcoming Fall of 2017 Firearms Auction and When I saw that they had this I could not resist the opportunity to take a look at It and I'm Really Excited That we're gonna be able to do some shooting with it today. This Is a Solothurn S18 - 1000 and it is a self-loading Anti-Tank Cannon Light Cannon But Cannon All The Same This fires The 20 x 138 millimeter Rebated Rim cartridge That's The same cartridge That's used in the L-39 Lahti Finnish Anti-Tank Rifle It's also The same cartridge It was also The German 20 millimeter Flak cartridge so... This Was produced By Solothurn Which Was basically a Subsidiary of Rheinmetall Going Into World War II and It Existed in that Kind of Brief time Period Between the two World Wars When Pretty Much All The Major Military Powers Wanted Some sort of Infantry Weapon That Could Defeat Light Armored Vehicles or Rather Armored Vehicles Because When these Things were all being developed tank Armor Was thin Enough That something Like This could Actually Defeat... Pretty Much Any tank on the battlefield Unfortunately For The Guys Who made and used and had to carry These Things Around That Didn't last long This Would Defeat for Example a Panzer I or a Panzer II but by The time the Germans were making Panzer III and IV's This wasn't gonna cut it Now you could Still use one of these on the treads or if you could Get a Hit on something like a Viewing Port Maybe manage to stick a turret ring and you know damage a tank and They were Certainly Very effective on pillboxes fortifications and Light Armored Vehicles Things Like Trucks and Half-tracks and Armored Cars These Would Be Very effective but you know this is a Really Heavy and Bulky and Awkward item to be schlepping Around a battlefield This Thing's Over a Hundred Pounds so Really Takes Two Guys to move this Thing in Any practical Manner and So as a Result They didn't. See a Whole lot of use during the war Primarily The Swiss the italians and the Hungarians Bought This gun and This is by the way the big version there was also a Slightly Smaller Version That Solothurn made the S18-100 Instead of 1,000 That fired a 20x505 millimeter cartridge That's Kind of a Wimpy Version and a Bunch of countries Bought small Numbers of Those Actually I Should Say My Finnish cap Here is appropriate because Finland had One Of These Guns it's not Known if It Was ever Actually used but They did Have one The One use I was Able to find for sure Was a Dutch Anti-Tank gun team in the Invasion of The Netherlands in 1940 Actually effectively Used One of these at a River Crossing They Destroyed a Couple of German Armored Cars... Forced a Third One to retreat and That's Kind of about The Extent of the the Actual combat effective use of Solothurn. Now the Russians Would use this sort of gun Much Smaller Much Simpler Versions there are PTRS and PTRD Rifles They Would use those Pretty Extensively Later in the war But the Solothurn Was a Magnificently made Expensive Really High-end Anti-tank Rifle Let's take a quick look at The controls and then I'm gonna put a couple of Rounds Through it Alright Well Here is our magazine This is an Eight Round magazine of 20x138 Rebated Rim the solothurn Is a Short Recoil gun so you will Actually see the barrel reciprocate Backwards When we fire magazine Goes in Here That's our mag release That is our bolt release This has... I Should Say a Nice magazine cover there to keep It clean When you're not Actually Shooting Alright The Bolt Handle Here Because this thing has to have such a Monstrous Recoil Spring in order to Work You can't have a straight pull bolt Handle Because You'd never Be Able to pull it back so Instead It has a Ratchet Crank I'm gonna pull this out to unlock It and then Three full Turns Open... The Bolt... We're also going to open our Ejection Port Cover in the process there we Go That's locked the bolt back and then I wind the Charging Handle back. There is an automatic Safety on this Right Here if that Buttons not Pushed in the gun it's not going to do anything because you Need to have this Locked in the the Full you know back to normal Position in order to use it So life pro tip don't stick your finger in the Breach of an Anti-tank cannon This. To be obvious but in case it's not The Bolt Is closed here and that is our Rather Massive bolt so i'm gonna Go ahead and Crank It open There we Go there is the bolt Head Which you might note Looks an Awful lot like an Mg34 bolt Head parts Of The Mg34 were absolutely Derived From rheinmetall patents and Guns Kind of Like This One Anyway Here's a rotating Bolt Head so we've got eight locking Lugs Up there that are gonna rotate from vertical to horizontal Up in here, in the barrel extension Now... Let's Crank This all The Way open Bolts Locked open so Now you're ready to load a magazine and you can Also see at the back side of the receiver Here That Little Chain That's What Actually Cranks The bolt Forward and back Not a Whole Lot of guns Actually Have literal chains in them That's Kind of Like The equivalent of a Timing Chain in your car Alright I think we're ready to actually do some Shooting you Guys Ready? [No Audio] Whoo... That's definitely Nicer Than a Lahti to shoot. It pushed me back... Felt Like a Couple Inches I think the Bi-pod Actually Swiveled a Bit I need to stake That down a little Bit more Securely but... You Know what, Just long as You pull this Thing tight into your Shoulder It Gives you a Push back but... That's It, Honestly That Didn't hurt in the least I think we Need to do another. All right we're gonna do one more Shot Here. by the way I think you probably have noticed in the High-speed That Nobody Is putting their face right on the receiver it's like Why Doesn't anyone have a cheek Weld Well The Answer is we're using the iron Sights Up here and These are Kind of offset Away from the side of the gun so you actually don't Have your face in contact with The receiver When you're using the iron Sights [No Audio] Ahhhhhh... Oh yeah! Whoo well hopefully you Guys Enjoyed Watching that It Was Certainly a Kick Literally and figuratively to do some Shooting with one of These I've also Shot a Lahti and this Really Is a Much Nicer Experience Than the Lahti The Lahti as a gun is less Expensive I don't want to say Cruder but it's definitely a Simpler gun and that Kind of Shows Through its It's a more Brutal gun to actually shoot these are Kind of The Cadillacs of Anti-tank Guns and I can tell it's Really Not Nearly as Bad a gun to shoot as you might think How's that for an endorsement So at Any rate if You'd like to own This One Yourself take a look at The description text Below You'll find a Link there to James Julia's Catalog page on the gun you can take a look at Their pictures Their description all the Accessories That Come with This one and Place a Bid for It online or through Over the Phone or by Showing Up here and participating in the Auction live Thanks for Watching

Contents

History

Pre-Roman settlement

The oldest finds from Solothurn probably date from the Paleolithic era. The remains of a Mesolithic camp were discovered in 1986 during renovations of the former Kino Elite building. From the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Age, only a few scattered items have been discovered.[3]

Roman settlement

 Modern Wengi bridge, the Roman bridge was north of this point.
Modern Wengi bridge, the Roman bridge was north of this point.

The Roman settlement at Solothurn was probably built around AD 15-25 as a road station and bridge head on the road from Aventicum to Augusta Raurica or Vindonissa. A small vicus or settlement quickly developed around the castrum. Solothurn is first mentioned in 219 as vico salod[uro][4] on the so-called Eponastein. The name may indicate either that a Celtic settlement existed on the site before or just be a testimony to the mixed Gallo-Roman culture in the north-west provinces of the Roman Empire.[5] It came to be known as Salodurum. Its strategical importance lay in the position at the approach to the Rhine from southeast. In the 2nd-3rd Century AD, the vicus expanded rapidly to fill almost all of what is now the old town of Solothurn, including a portion of today's suburb south of the Aare.[5]

The Roman bridge was probably somewhat above the current Wengibrücke. The Roman era river bed was 40–80 meters (130–260 ft) north of the present Aare. The main street of the Vicus was well below the present main street. In addition to the normal government of the settlement, there were two mayors (magistri), and a six-member college (seviri Augustales), which was entrusted with supporting the imperial cult. Salodurum was also home to a guard detachment of the XXII Legion, whose high command was stationed in Mainz in Germany. According to inscriptions, there was a temple of Jupiter, a temple of Apollo Augustus and an altar to the goddess of horses Epona, who was popular in the Roman military and of Celtic origin. However, the locations of those three temples is not known. There was bath house on the main street and a pottery district in the northwest of the town which have been documented archaeologically. A cemetery with urns and cremation burials on the eastern end of the Vicus was discovered in 1762-63 during the demolition of the old church of St. Ursus. In addition, two Roman tombs were discovered in the same area.[5]

Around 325-350, the unfortified settlement along the road was transformed into a fortified camp or castrum, which covered only half of the former settlement area. A 2–3 meters (6.6–9.8 ft) thick and 9 m (30 ft) high wall was built around the settlement. The new, fortified town was bell-shaped, and is still visible in the cadastral map of the town. At various points in the town, large and small pieces of the old Roman wall are still visible in the houses of the old town. The location of a gate in the north and a tower in the south-east corner are known and it is likely that there were additional gates and towers. Almost nothing is known about the buildings inside the walls.[6]

Early Middle Ages

 St. Victor of Solothurn
St. Victor of Solothurn

In the Early Middle Ages there were two settlement centres, a secular settlement in the former castrum and a religious settlement on the grounds of the late-Roman cemeteries outside the walls. Both the religious histories and archeological discoveries indicate that both areas remained inhabited continuously into the Early Middle Ages. The former chapel of St. Stephen inside the castrum was built on the foundation of an earlier, late-Roman building. A burial memorial in the cemetery of the nearby St. Peter's Chapel dates to around the collapse of the Roman Empire. By the middle of the 5th Century, St. Eucherius of Lyon mentions the martyrdom of St. Ursus and St. Victor and a cult of saints in Solothurn. About 500 AD, the Burgundian Princess Sedeleuba took the bones of St. Victor to Geneva, while the bones of St. Ursus remained in Solothurn. The church dedicated to the veneration of Saint Ursus is first mentioned in 870.[6]

Medieval city

 Solothurn in 1548
Solothurn in 1548

During the Early Middle Ages, Solothurn was part of the Kingdom of Lotharingia (Lorraine). After the collapse of Lotharingia, it became part of the Second Kingdom of Burgundy. In 1033, the Kingdom of Burgundy became part of the Holy Roman Empire and Solothurn gained some independence. In 1038, Emperor Conrad II held court at Solothurn and there crowned his son, Henry III King of Burgundy. The royal court resided in Solothurn on several occasions until 1052, however, there is no evidence of a permanent royal palace. In 1127, it was acquired by the dukes of Zähringen. Under the rule of the Zähringens, in 1146, Solothurn's coins are first mentioned. In 1182, causidicus or Zähringen appointed judges first appeared in Solothurn. After the extinction of the Zähringer line in 1218 it became a free imperial city under the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1252, the town council and Schultheiss or mayor became mostly independent and had their own town seals.[7] In 1251 it was mentioned as saluerre and in 1275 as Solotren.[4] Starting around 1200, there was a council of nobles in the town.

In 1252, a group of nobles that could witness and support deeds, known as consuls et cives Solodorenses, first appears in the town. Initially the nobles exercised power over the entire town. However, the guild movement of the 14th Century resulted in a reduction in the power of the nobles and also a restricted guild system in Solothurn. By around 1350, an eleven-member Altrat (Council of Elders) and a 22-member Jungrat (Younger Council) existed in the city. Each of the eleven guilds were represented by a member of the Altrat and two members of the Jungrat. These 33 councillors exercised, together with the mayor, the power of government and helped appoint lawmakers. The members of the two councils were elected each year by the citizens of the city, after which the councils and mayor appointed many of the government officials. The noble families retained some power as the guilds became part of the town council. However, in 1459 the last noble family died out and positions on the council fell to wealthy farmers, butchers and millers.[8]

Until the pogrom on 1348 during an outbreak of the plague, there was a small Jewish community in Solothurn.[9]

Over the 13th to 15th centuries, the citizens of the city slowly emancipated themselves from the higher nobility. In 1276 and 1280 Emperor Rudolf I codified the previously poorly defined rights of the city and granted it the privilege de non Evocando or the right that their citizens were protected from trial in foreign courts. In 1344 Solothurn acquired the right to appoint their own Schultheiss from the Count of Buchegg, which was confirmed by Emperor Charles IV in 1360. In 1409, Emperor Ruprecht extended the de non Evocando privilege to include the royal High Court as well.[7]

As the city grew in power, it bound the Monastery of St. Ursus more closely to the city. In 1251 the city defeated claims made by the Monastery on the right to appoint the Schultheiss. Shortly after the acquisition of the right to the Schultheiss office in 1344, the city came into possession of the vogt right over the Monastery by granting citizenship rights to the former vogt (bailiff), Burkhard Senn the Elder. In 1512-20 the city received the right to appoint canons and provosts from the Pope.[7]

After the alliance with Bern in 1295, it became part of the Swiss Confederation. In 1382 the Habsburgs attacked the city, involving Solothurn in the Battle of Sempach. By the treaty of two years later, the Habsburgs renounced all claims to the territory of the city. The latter was expanded by acquisition of neighbouring lands in the 15th century, roughly up to the today's canton area.

In 1481, it obtained full membership in the Swiss Confederation.

Buildings in the medieval city

17th Century coat of arms of the city.

Before 1200 there was a Zähringer fortified tower north of the Monastery of St. Ursus. In the first half of the 13th Century, a city wall was built around the area of the former castrum as well as the adjoining industrial area to the east and the churches of St. Peter and St. Urs. Near the Monastery of St. Ursus, a Franciscan monastery was built, and after 1280 it formed the northern city wall on the eastern part of the city. In 1532, the French embassy with a church and stately home was built in the eastern half of the city. In the western part of Solothurn, the town hall was built. First it was along the main street and in 1476 it moved south of the Franciscan monastery. A main market place grew up along the main street, and in the first half of the 17th century it moved to the northern banks of the Aare. The town hall, market place and clock tower formed the political and economic centre of city life.[10]

Early Modern Solothurn

 The Basel gate was added in the 16th Century
The Basel gate was added in the 16th Century
 Solothurn in 1757
Solothurn in 1757

The medieval cooperative election of the mayor and councillors led to the creation of a nearly hereditary oligarchy by the 15th Century. By the second half of the 16th Century, the political voice of citizens was nearly totally suppressed. By the second half of the 17th Century, the government was run by a small group of patricians. The oligarchs were weakened in the 18th Century, when in 1718-21 the city council managed to regain some powers. However, in 1682, a new citizenship law prevented wealthy families who had moved into Solothurn from becoming members of the council. While this law reduced the number of people who could be on the city council, the introduction of a secret ballot procedure in 1764 and measures against vote-buying in 1774 allowed more and more non-patrician burghers to join the council.[8]

During the heyday of the patricians in the 17th and 18th Centuries, a number of elegant town houses (Reinert House 1692-93, Palais Besenval 1703-06) and summer residences outside the city (Sommerhaus Vigier 1648-50, Waldegg Castle 1682-86 (now in nearby Feldbrunnen-St. Niklaus), Steinbrugg Castle 1665-68 and Blumenstein Castle 1725-28) were built. A number of new public buildings were also added including; the Arsenal (1610–19), the town hall with its north staircase tower (1632–34) and its eastern façade (Archive tower 1624, completed 1703-14), the Jesuit church (1680–89), the new Ambassadorenhof (1717–24), the Holy Spirit Hospital in a suburb (1735–1800) and the new classicist Church of St. Ursus (1763–90). In the 16th Century the town walls were reinforced with the Basel gate and three round towers.[10]

Between 1667-1727, following plans by Francesco Polatta, Jacques Le Prestre Tarade and Sébastien de Vauban, the city built fortifications with eleven full and half bastions. The new city wall increased the size of the city by including the eastern suburb of Kreuzacker. Until the 18th Century, prisoners were housed in the towers of the medieval and early modern fortifications store. Between 1753-61 a new prison was built outside the city walls, which remained in use into the 20th Century. A gallows was first mentioned in 1460 and was located northeast of the city near Feldbrunnen. A second gallows was located to the southwest of the city.[10]

From 1530 to 1792 it was the seat of the French ambassador to Switzerland.

The Early Modern Period in Solothurn ended, as in the rest of Switzerland, with the French invasion in 1798.

Modern Solothurn

 Solothurn in 1900
Solothurn in 1900

Following the capitulation of Solothurn on 2 March 1798, the French General Balthazar Alexis Henri Schauenburg set up a provisional government on the following day. The new government met in April to set up the new constitution. The eleven old Vogtei (baillywicks) were replaced by five districts: Solothurn, Biberist, Balsthal, Olten, and Dornach. The municipal Bürgergemeinde laid claim to the assets of the defunct city-state and in 1801 it received the Sönderungsconvention, large estates and extensive forest land outside the town. In 1831 the cantonal parliament withdrew all political power from the eleven city guilds. Over the following years (1831–1842) all the guilds were dissolved. Due to the municipal law of 1859, the enforcement of the Federal Constitution of 1874 and the Cantonal Constitution of 1875, an Einwohnergemeinde was created. The Einwohnergemeinde included all residents of the town, as opposed to the more limited Bürgergemeinde. The division of property between residents and the Bürgergemeinde proved to be lengthy and could not be completed until 1978 and then only with the help of the Executive Council.[11]

In 1828 Solothurn became the seat of the Bishop of Basel.

Since 1897, the municipal council has been elected by proportional voting and consists of 30 members and 15 alternate members. As the executive body, it elects the council commission (seven members). Mayor and Vice-Mayor are elected by the people. The municipal assembly is the legislative body. The composition of the council remained remarkably stable between 1917-73. The Liberals held an average of 60% of the seats, the Social Democrats and the Conservative People's Party (CVP today), about 20% each. In 1970, the municipality granted voting rights for women. With the emergence of new parties, the Liberals lost its dominant position. 2009, the FDP 30%, SP 23%, CVP 23%, the Greens 17% and 7% of the votes go to the SVP.[11]

Rock band Krokus was formed in Solothurn in 1974.

Geography

Solothurn has an area, as of 2009, of 6.28 square kilometers (2.42 sq mi). Of this area, 1.42 km2 (0.55 sq mi) or 22.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.17 km2 (0.066 sq mi) or 2.7% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 4.37 km2 (1.69 sq mi) or 69.6% is settled (buildings or roads), 0.33 km2 (0.13 sq mi) or 5.3% is either rivers or lakes.[12]

Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 4.1% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 38.5% and transportation infrastructure made up 17.5%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 1.9% of the area while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 7.5%. Out of the forested land, 0.5% of the total land area is heavily forested and 2.2% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 14.2% is used for growing crops and 7.0% is pastures, while 1.4% is used for orchards or vine crops. All the water in the municipality is flowing water.[12]

Solothurn is located in the north-west of Switzerland on the banks of the Aare and on the foot of the Weissenstein Jura mountains.

The municipalities of Biberist, Derendingen, Luterbach, Bellach, Langendorf and Solothurn are considering a merger at a date in the future into the new municipality of with an, as of 2011, undetermined name.[13]

Coat of arms

The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per fess Gules and Argent.[14]

Demographics

 Aare Bridge and a newer section of Solothurn
Aare Bridge and a newer section of Solothurn
 View over the old town of Solothurn
View over the old town of Solothurn
 Radio 32 building in Solothurn
Radio 32 building in Solothurn

Solothurn has a population (as of December 2016) of 16,697.[2] As of 2008, 21.1% of the population are resident foreign nationals.[15] Over the last 10 years (1999–2009 ) the population has changed at a rate of 4.4%.[16]

Most of the population (as of 2000) speaks German (13,270 or 85.7%), with Italian being second most common (469 or 3.0%) and Albanian being third (261 or 1.7%). There are 193 people who speak French and 19 people who speak Romansh.[17]

As of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 48.1% male and 51.9% female. The population was made up of 5,891 Swiss men (37.0% of the population) and 1,775 (11.1%) non-Swiss men. There were 6,669 Swiss women (41.8%) and 1,604 (10.1%) non-Swiss women.[18] Of the population in the municipality 3,864 or about 24.9% were born in Solothurn and lived there in 2000. There were 3,630 or 23.4% who were born in the same canton, while 4,135 or 26.7% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, and 3,193 or 20.6% were born outside of Switzerland.[17]

In 2008 there were 115 live births to Swiss citizens and 27 births to non-Swiss citizens, and in same time span there were 190 deaths of Swiss citizens and 10 non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 75 while the foreign population increased by 17. There were 8 Swiss men and 13 Swiss women who immigrated back to Switzerland. At the same time, there were 91 non-Swiss men and 78 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in 2008 (from all sources, including moves across municipal borders) was an increase of 98 and the non-Swiss population increased by 161 people. This represents a population growth rate of 1.7%.[15]

The age distribution, as of 2000, in Solothurn is; 913 children or 5.9% of the population are between 0 and 6 years old and 2,013 teenagers or 13.0% are between 7 and 19. Of the adult population, 888 people or 5.7% of the population are between 20 and 24 years old. 4,832 people or 31.2% are between 25 and 44, and 3,678 people or 23.7% are between 45 and 64. The senior population distribution is 2,068 people or 13.4% of the population are between 65 and 79 years old and there are 1,097 people or 7.1% who are over 80.[19]

As of 2000, there were 6,784 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 6,403 married individuals, 1,144 widows or widowers and 1,158 individuals who are divorced.[17]

As of 2000, there were 7,447 private households in the municipality, and an average of 1.9 persons per household.[16] There were 3,468 households that consist of only one person and 303 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 7,625 households that answered this question, 45.5% were households made up of just one person and there were 49 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 1,907 married couples without children, 1,455 married couples with children There were 405 single parents with a child or children. There were 163 households that were made up of unrelated people and 178 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing.[17]

In 2000 there were 1,311 single family homes (or 44.3% of the total) out of a total of 2,957 inhabited buildings. There were 838 multi-family buildings (28.3%), along with 441 multi-purpose buildings that were mostly used for housing (14.9%) and 367 other use buildings (commercial or industrial) that also had some housing (12.4%). Of the single family homes 161 were built before 1919, while 62 were built between 1990 and 2000. The greatest number of single family homes (443) were built between 1919 and 1945.[20]

In 2000 there were 8,586 apartments in the municipality. The most common apartment size was 3 rooms of which there were 2,954. There were 728 single room apartments and 1,634 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 7,272 apartments (84.7% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 794 apartments (9.2%) were seasonally occupied and 520 apartments (6.1%) were empty.[20] As of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 3.3 new units per 1000 residents.[16] As of 2003 the average price to rent an average apartment in Solothurn was 980.18 Swiss francs (CHF) per month (US$1043, £760, €852) approx. exchange rate from March 4, 2018). The average rate for a one-room apartment was 568.85 CHF (US$605, £438, €495)., a two-room apartment was about 725.13 CHF (US$772, £558, €631), a three-room apartment was about 904.51 CHF (US$962, £696, €787) and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 1564.78 CHF (US$1665, £1204, €1361). The average apartment price in Solothurn was 87.8% of the national average of 1116 CHF.[21] The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0.45%.[16]

Historic Population

The historical population is given in the following chart:[4]

 The Aare as seen from the cathedral.
The Aare as seen from the cathedral.
 Amthausplatz
Amthausplatz

Main sights

The old town was built between 1530 and 1792 and shows an architectural combination of Italian Grandezza, French style and Swiss ideas.

In 1980, Solothurn was awarded the Wakker Prize for the development and preservation of its architectural heritage.

Solothurn is home to 18 structures that are listed as Swiss heritage sites of national significance. The religious buildings on the list are; the Visitation Convent, the Jesuit Church with Kollegium (Lapidarium), the Swiss Reformed Church on Westringstrasse and the St. Ursen Cathedral. There are four civic buildings on the list; the old Armory which is now the Cantonal Museum, the Rathaus (town council house), the State Archives at Bielstrasse 41 and the nearby Central Library at Bielstrasse 39. Two other museums are on the list, the Art Museum and the Naturmuseum. There are two houses and two public objects on the list; the Haller-Haus (former Bishops Palace) at Baselstrasse 61, the Sommerhaus Vigier at Untere Steingrubenstrasse 21, the Mauritius Fountain and the town clock tower. Two castles are listed; the former Blumenstein Castle and Steinbrugg Castle. Finally, the list includes the old town of Salodurum which was a Roman era Vicus and the medieval and early modern city as well as the city walls. The entire old city of Solothurn is part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites.[22]

Sights include:

 Historical Museum of Solothurn
Historical Museum of Solothurn
  • Besenval Palace
  • Cathedral of St. Ursus (1762–73). It was begun by Gaetano Matteo Pisoni and completed by Paolo Antonio Pisoni. The interior has stuccoes by Francesco Pozzi and canvasses by Domenico Corvi.
  • Church of the Jesuits (Jesuitenkirche, 1680–89)
  • Clock tower (Zeitglockenturm, 12th century)
  • Gate of Basel
  • Gate of Bienne
  • Kosciuszko Museum
  • Landhaus
  • Museum of the Old Arsenal (1609–14), housing the most ancient collection of armour in Europe.
  • Old town
  • The Verena Gorge and the Verena Gorge Hermitage
  • Waldegg Castle[23]
  • Weissenstein mountain
  • Aarhof
  • Krone

Politics

In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SP which received 24.09% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the FDP (23.53%), the Green Party (18.56%) and the CVP (17.19%). In the federal election, a total of 5,767 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 53.8%.[24]

Economy

 The market (as of 2015[update]) in Solothurn.
The market (as of 2015) in Solothurn.
 Solothurn's train station
Solothurn's train station

As of  2010, Solothurn had an unemployment rate of 4.6%. As of 2008, there were 22 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 4 businesses involved in this sector. 2,587 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 178 businesses in this sector. 14,381 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 1,226 businesses in this sector.[16] There were 8,023 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 46.9% of the workforce.

In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 13,378. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 16, of which 7 were in agriculture and 9 were in forestry or lumber production. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 2,430 of which 1,398 or (57.5%) were in manufacturing and 813 (33.5%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 10,932. In the tertiary sector; 1,537 or 14.1% were in wholesale or retail sales or the repair of motor vehicles, 454 or 4.2% were in the movement and storage of goods, 610 or 5.6% were in a hotel or restaurant, 583 or 5.3% were in the information industry, 975 or 8.9% were the insurance or financial industry, 1,095 or 10.0% were technical professionals or scientists, 614 or 5.6% were in education and 2,612 or 23.9% were in health care.[25]

In 2000, there were 13,529 workers who commuted into the municipality and 3,598 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 3.8 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving.[26] Of the working population, 20.1% used public transportation to get to work, and 40.3% used a private car.[16]

Religion

 Church of St. Marien in the west of Solothurn
Church of St. Marien in the west of Solothurn

From the 2000 census, 5,463 or 35.3% were Roman Catholic, while 4,358 or 28.1% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 278 members of an Orthodox church (or about 1.79% of the population), there were 182 individuals (or about 1.18% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church, and there were 248 individuals (or about 1.60% of the population) who belonged to another Christian church. There were 27 individuals (or about 0.17% of the population) who were Jewish, and 915 (or about 5.91% of the population) who were Islamic. There were 78 individuals who were Buddhist, 173 individuals who were Hindu and 27 individuals who belonged to another church. 3,139 (or about 20.27% of the population) belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 601 individuals (or about 3.88% of the population) did not answer the question.[17]

Education

 The Cantonal School (Gymnasium) in Solothurn
The Cantonal School (Gymnasium) in Solothurn

In Solothurn about 5,724 or (37.0%) of the population have completed non-mandatory upper secondary education, and 2,815 or (18.2%) have completed additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule). Of the 2,815 who completed tertiary schooling, 58.0% were Swiss men, 28.0% were Swiss women, 8.1% were non-Swiss men and 5.9% were non-Swiss women.[17]

During the 2010-2011 school year there were a total of students in the Solothurn school system. The education system in the Canton of Solothurn allows young children to attend two years of non-obligatory Kindergarten.[27] During that school year, there were Schülerbestand children in kindergarten. The canton's school system requires students to attend six years of primary school, with some of the children attending smaller, specialized classes. In the municipality there were 2010-2011 students in primary school. The secondary school program consists of three lower, obligatory years of schooling, followed by three to five years of optional, advanced schools. All the lower secondary students from Solothurn attend their school in a neighboring municipality.[28] As of 2000, there were 2,517 students in Solothurn who came from another municipality, while 188 residents attended schools outside the municipality.[26]

Solothurn is home to 2 libraries. These libraries include; the Zentralbibliothek Solothurn and the Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz, Pädagogische Hochschule, Standort Solothurn (a library of the Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz). There was a combined total (as of 2008) of 1,195,394 books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year a total of 522,650 items were loaned out.[29]

The number 11

Solothurn has a special affinity for the number eleven.

The Canton of Solothurn was the eleventh to become part of the Swiss Confederation. There are eleven churches and chapels, as well as eleven historical fountains and eleven towers. The St. Ursus cathedral has eleven altars and eleven bells, and the stairs in front of the cathedral have levels between every eleven steps.

A local brewery has named itself Öufi, which is Swiss German for eleven, and produces a beer with the same name

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Solothurn is twinned with:

Partnerships

People

See also

References

Bibliography
  • B. Amiet, H. Sigrist, Th. Wallner: Solothurner Kantonsgeschichte, 3 volumes
  • U. Wiesli: Geographie des Kantons Solothurn
Notes
  1. ^ Arealstatistik Standard - Gemeindedaten nach 4 Hauptbereichen
  2. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017
  3. ^ Solothurn - Prehistoric Solothurn in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  4. ^ a b c Solothurn in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  5. ^ a b c Solothurn - Roman Empire in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  6. ^ a b Solothurn - Late Antiquity to Early Middle Ages in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  7. ^ a b c Solothurn - The city becomes independent in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  8. ^ a b Solothurn - City Government in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  9. ^ Solothurn - Economy in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  10. ^ a b c Solothurn - Public and private buildings in the city in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  11. ^ a b Political developments in the 19th and 20th Centuries in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  12. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Land Use Statistics 2009 data (in German) accessed 25 March 2010
  13. ^ Amtliches Gemeindeverzeichnis der Schweiz published by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office (in German) accessed 17 February 2011
  14. ^ Flags of the World.com accessed 23-March-2011
  15. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Superweb database - Gemeinde Statistics 1981-2008 (in German) accessed 19 June 2010
  16. ^ a b c d e f Swiss Federal Statistical Office accessed 23-March-2011
  17. ^ a b c d e f STAT-TAB Datenwürfel für Thema 40.3 - 2000 Archived 2014-04-09 at the Wayback Machine. (in German) accessed 2 February 2011
  18. ^ Canton of Solothurn Statistics - Wohnbevölkerung der Gemeinden nach Nationalität und Geschlecht Archived 2011-03-05 at the Wayback Machine. (in German) accessed 11 March 2011
  19. ^ Canton of Solothurn Statistics - Wohnbevölkerung nach Gemeinden, Nationalität, Altersgruppen und Zivilstand, Total (Männer + Frauen) Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine. (in German) accessed 11 March 2011
  20. ^ a b Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB - Datenwürfel für Thema 09.2 - Gebäude und Wohnungen Archived 2015-01-21 at the Wayback Machine. (in German) accessed 28 January 2011
  21. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Rental prices Archived 2010-04-23 at the Wayback Machine. 2003 data (in German) accessed 26 May 2010
  22. ^ "Kantonsliste A-Objekte:Solothurn" (PDF). KGS Inventar (in German). Federal Office of Civil Protection. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2010. 
  23. ^ "Waldegg Castle, Feldbrunnen, Solothurn". Planetware.com. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  24. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office, Nationalratswahlen 2007: Stärke der Parteien und Wahlbeteiligung, nach Gemeinden/Bezirk/Canton (in German) accessed 28 May 2010
  25. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB Betriebszählung: Arbeitsstätten nach Gemeinde und NOGA 2008 (Abschnitte), Sektoren 1-3 Archived 2014-12-25 at the Wayback Machine. (in German) accessed 28 January 2011
  26. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Statweb Archived 2012-08-04 at Archive.is (in German) accessed 24 June 2010
  27. ^ Canton of Solothurn - Education information Archived 2011-05-08 at the Wayback Machine. (in German) accessed 11 March 2011
  28. ^ Canton of Solothurn - School statistics Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine. (in German) accessed 13 March 2011
  29. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office, list of libraries Archived 2015-07-06 at the Wayback Machine. (in German) accessed 14 May 2010
  30. ^ "Kraków otwarty na świat". www.krakow.pl. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 

External links

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