To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Groundwater on Mars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The preservation and cementation of aeolian dune stratigraphy in Burns Cliff in Endurance Crater are thought to have been controlled by flow of shallow groundwater.[1]
The preservation and cementation of aeolian dune stratigraphy in Burns Cliff in Endurance Crater are thought to have been controlled by flow of shallow groundwater.[1]

During past ages, there was rain and snow on Mars; especially in the Noachian and early Hesperian epochs.[2][3][4][5][6][7] Some moisture entered the ground and formed aquifers. That is, the water went into the ground, seeped down until it reached a layer that would not allow it to penetrate (such a layer is called impermeable), and then water piled up forming a layer that was saturated with water. Deep aquifers may still exist.[8]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/2
    Views:
    183 977
    1 335
  • ✪ We May Have Found Mars's Ancient, Underground Lakes | SciShow News
  • ✪ Exploring Mars for Evidence of Habitable Environments and Life

Transcription

Thanks to CuriosityStream for supporting this episode! Go to CuriosityStream.com/Space to learn more. [♪ INTRO] Today, Mars looks dry, dusty, and barren. But over the years, scientists have found all kinds of evidence that the planet was once full of water. They’ve found empty riverbeds, sediment deposits, and signs of water erosion, and now, they’re trying to figure out if this barren rock could have once had the right ingredients to host life. The more they search, the more they discover that life totally could have been possible, and now, there’s even more to think about. Because last week, scientists announced the first geological evidence that Mars used to have a global system of underground, interconnected lakes. Besides just being very cool from a geology standpoint, that also suggests that some low-lying regions of the planet could have been in contact with water for a long time. And if life ever existed on Mars, that might have been a prime spot. If underground lakes on Mars sound familiar, it might be because of news from this summer: Last July, scientists announced that they had found evidence for a salty, underground lake on Mars today, hiding under the planet’s south pole. But this discovery isn’t directly related to that. This time, scientists were looking at Mars’s past. And they did it by studying 24 deep craters in Mars’s northern hemisphere, using data from the European Space Agency’s Mars Express mission. Inside them, they found channels carved into the crater walls, along with valleys where groundwater likely seeped to the surface. They also found deltas where water levels went up and down, and places where flowing water deposited sediments. In other words, they found features that could only have formed from water pooling and flowing and changing over time. The researchers suggest that this water may have come from a network of underground lakes, which likely formed as the climate changed. As solar wind and radiation stripped a young Mars of most of its atmosphere, the planet grew frigid, and water that once flowed over the surface settled underground. This planet-wide groundwater system may have even been linked to Mars’s ancient ocean, too, since the water level in these basins closely lined up with some of the old shorelines. If the team is right, if this deep water table did cover the planet, the paper’s authors think it’s also possible that life could have existed underground. And if so, they’re hopeful that there could still be signs of it in the sediment of these deep basins. It’s not a totally ridiculous idea, either. As part of the study, researchers looked at images of the craters taken by tools onboard NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Based on how the craters reflected light, the researchers were able to identify the compounds inside of them. And they found that five of the craters had minerals like clays and carbonates that scientists believe are related to the beginnings of life on Earth. So maybe there’s something more down there, too. Of course, these findings are preliminary right now, and they can’t prove that a groundwater network even existed, let alone had a bunch of things swimming around in it. But as we keep developing missions to Mars, we officially have one more thing to investigate. Someday soon, we might even be able to send astronauts to sample these craters ourselves. Because over the weekend, SpaceX, one of the major contenders racing to get humans to Mars, reached a major milestone. This weekend, the company successfully demoed their commercially-built spacecraft, the Crew Dragon, which could be used to transport humans to the International Space Station as early as this summer. The mission was called Demo-1, and its goal was to prove that the crew capsule could launch, dock at the Space Station, and safely return to Earth. It was also done to test certain steps that can’t be perfectly modeled on the ground, like the capsule’s automated docking system and re-entry system. The Dragon was launched early Saturday morning and was packed full of supplies and had a robotic passenger named Ripley. Yes, after Ellen Ripley from Alien. And just like Ellen Ripley, Ripley’s doin’ just fine. Ripley wasn’t all for show, though. It was decked out with sensors that would alert scientists on the ground to any forces that could be harmful or uncomfortable for a real astronaut. SpaceX hasn’t released any data from Ripley yet, but from what we know, the launch seemed to go very well. Then, on Sunday morning, just over a day later, the crew capsule began firing its thrusters to dock with the Space Station. And even though both objects were hurtling around the Earth at some 28,000 kilometers per hour, the docking was a success! So, shoutout to those SpaceX engineers for making that happen. Once the capsule safely attached to the dock, astronauts on board the Space Station opened the hatch and climbed in to collect air samples and unload the cargo, which included equipment and, like, a thousand packets of space food. This mission marked a few exciting firsts. It was the first launch of a commercial crew capsule and the first time a commercial spacecraft docked on the Space Station. And although it had no humans on board this time, it was the also first time an American crew capsule had been launched from U.S. soil since NASA retired the space shuttles in 2011. For SpaceX, it’s a huge step forward in its mission to send humans to space and, ultimately, to Mars as well. Scientists will use the data they collect from Demo-1 to prepare for Demo-2, which will deliver two American astronauts to the Space Station as early as July. Doesn’t sound like much of a demo to me. This milestone really shows that we’re entering into a new era in spaceflight. As commercial companies cut costs and build increasingly capable vessels, they’re revolutionizing the way we explore space. So someday, when a crew first touches down on Mars, it might be because of SpaceX or a company like it. And thanks to new results from missions like Mars Express, we know that there is a lot to learn once we get there. We don’t have to stop learning things while we wait, though. There’s still a lot to discover about the universe, and that’s why we’re excited that this episode is supported by CuriosityStream. CuriosityStream is a subscription streaming service that offers over 2,000 documentaries and non­fiction titles from some of the world's best filmmakers, including exclusive originals. They have videos on everything from technology to lifestyles, and there’s plenty of space content, too. Like, there’s one called Hubble’s Imager that explains how scientists turn data from the Hubble Space Telescope into those beautiful, famous images, and what they can learn from them. Which is both aesthetically pleasing and very cool. You can get unlimited access to content like this starting at $2.99 a month. And as a special “thank-you” for supporting SciShow, you can get the first 30 days for free! You just have to sign up at curiositystream.com/space and use the promo code “space” during the sign-up process. [♪ OUTRO]

Contents

Overview

Researchers have found that Mars had a planet-wide groundwater system and several prominent features on the planet have been produced by the action of groundwater.[9][10] When water rose to the surface or near the surface, various minerals were deposited and sediments became cemented together. Some of the minerals were sulfates that were probably produced when water dissolved sulfur from underground rocks, and then became oxidized when it came into contact with the air.[11][12][13] While traveling through the aquifer, the water passed through igneous rock basalt, which would have contained sulfur.

In an aquifer, water occupies open space (pore space) that lies between rock particles. This layer would spread out, eventually coming to be under most of the Martian surface. The top of this layer is called the water table. Calculations show that the water table on Mars was for a time 600 meters below the surface.[14] [15]

The InSight lander uncovered in September 2019 unexplained magnetic pulses, and magnetic oscillations consistent with an existing planet-wide reservoir of liquid water deep underground.[8]

Researchers have concluded that Gale Crater has experienced many episodes of groundwater surge with changes in the groundwater chemistry. These chemical changes would support life.[16][17][18][19][20][21]

Layered terrain

Layers may be formed by groundwater rising up depositing minerals and cementing sediments.  The hardened layers are consequently more protected from erosion.  This process may occur instead of layers forming under lakes.
Layers may be formed by groundwater rising up depositing minerals and cementing sediments. The hardened layers are consequently more protected from erosion. This process may occur instead of layers forming under lakes.

Some locations on the Red Planet show groups of layered rocks.[22][23] Rock layers are present under the resistant caps of pedestal craters, on the floors of many large impact craters, and in the area called Arabia.[24][25] In some places the layers are arranged into regular patterns.[26][27] It has been suggested that the layers were put into place by volcanoes, the wind, or by being at the bottom of a lake or sea. Calculations and simulations show that groundwater carrying dissolved minerals would surface in the same locations that have abundant rock layers. According to these ideas, deep canyons and large craters would receive water coming from the ground. Many craters in the Arabia area of Mars contain groups of layers. Some of these layers may have resulted from climate change.

The tilt of the rotational axis of Mars has repeatedly changed in the past. Some changes are large. Because of these variations of climate, at times the atmosphere of Mars would have been much thicker and contained more moisture. The amount of atmospheric dust also has increased and decreased. It is believed that these frequent changes helped to deposit material in craters and other low places. The rising of mineral-rich ground water cemented these materials. The model also predicts that after a crater is full of layered rocks, additional layers will be laid down in the area around the crater. So, the model predicts that layers may also have formed in intercrater regions; layers in these regions have been observed.

Layers can be hardened by the action of groundwater. Martian ground water probably moved hundreds of kilometers, and in the process it dissolved many minerals from the rock it passed through. When ground water surfaces in low areas containing sediments, water evaporates in the thin atmosphere and leaves behind minerals as deposits and/or cementing agents. Consequently, layers of dust could not later easily erode away since they were cemented together. On Earth, mineral-rich waters often evaporate forming large deposits of various types of salts and other minerals. Sometimes water flows through Earth's aquifers, and then evaporates at the surface just as is hypothesized for Mars. One location this occurs on Earth is the Great Artesian Basin of Australia.[28] On Earth the hardness of many sedimentary rocks, like sandstone, is largely due to the cement that was put in place as water passed through.

In February 2019, European scientists published geological evidence of an ancient planet-wide groundwater system that was, arguably, connected to a putative vast ocean.[29][30]

Layers in Crommelin Crater

Layers in Danielson Crater

Inverted terrain

Many areas on Mars show inverted relief. In those places, former stream channels are displayed as raised beds, instead of stream valleys. Raised beds form when old stream channels become filled with material that is resistant to erosion. After later erosion removes surrounding soft materials, more resistant materials that were deposited in the stream bed are left behind. Lava is one substance that can flow down valleys and produce such inverted terrain. However, fairly loose materials can get quite hard and erosion resistant when cemented by minerals. These minerals can come from groundwater. It is thought that a low point, like a valley focuses groundflow, so more water and cements move into it, and this results in a greater degree of cementation.[9]

Terrain inversion can also happen without cementation by groundwater, however. If a surface is being eroded by wind, the necessary contrast in erodibility can arise simply from variations in grain size of loose sediments. Since wind can carry away sand but not cobbles, for example, a channel bed rich in cobbles could form an inverted ridge if it was originally surrounded by much finer sediments, even if the sediments were not cemented. This effect has been invoked for channels in Saheki Crater.[31]

Places on Mars that contain layers in the bottoms of craters often also have inverted terrain.

Evidence for groundwater upwelling

Spacecraft sent to Mars provided a wealth of evidence for groundwater being a major cause of many rock layers on the planet. The Opportunity Rover studied some areas with sophisticated instruments. Opportunity’s observations showed that groundwater repeatedly had risen to the surface. Evidence for water coming to the surface a number of times include hematite concretions (called "blue berries"), cementation of sediments, alteration of sediments, and clasts or skeletons of formed crystals.[32] [33] [34] To produce skeleton crystals, dissolved minerals were deposited as mineral crystals, and then the crystals were dissolved when more water came to the surface at a later time. The shape of the crystals could still be made out.[35] Opportunity found hematite and sulfates in many places as it traveled on the surface of Mars, so it is assumed that the same types of deposits are widespread, just as predicted by the model.[36][37][38][39]

"Blueberries" (hematite spheres) on a rocky outcrop at Eagle Crater. Note the merged triplet in the upper left.
"Blueberries" (hematite spheres) on a rocky outcrop at Eagle Crater. Note the merged triplet in the upper left.

Orbiting probes showed that the type of rock around Opportunity was present in a very large area that included Arabia, which is about as large as Europe. A spectroscope, called CRISM, on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter found sulfates in many of the same places that the upwelling water model had predicted, including some areas of Arabia.[40] The model predicted deposits in Valles Marineris canyons; these deposits have been observed and found to contain sulfates.[41] Other locations predicted to have upwelling water, for example chaos regions and canyons associated with large outflows, have also been found to contain sulfates.[42][43] Layers occur in the types of locations predicted by this model of groundwater evaporating at the surface. They were discovered by the Mars Global Surveyor and HiRISE onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Layers have been observed around the site that Opportunity landed and in nearby Arabia. The ground under the cap of pedestal craters sometimes displays numerous layers. The cap of a pedestal crater protects material under it from eroding away. It is accepted that the material that now is only found under the pedestal crater’s cap formerly covered the whole region. Hence, layers now just visible under pedestal craters once covered the whole area. Some craters contain mounds of layered material that reach above the crater’s rim. Gale Crater and Crommelin (Martian crater) are two craters that hold large mounds. Such tall mounds were formed, according to this model, by layers that first filled the crater, and then continued to build up around the surrounding region. Later erosion removed material around the crater, but left a mound in the crater that was higher than its rim. Note that although the model predicts upwelling and evaporation that should have produced layers in other areas (Northern lowlands), these areas do not show layers because the layers were formed long ago in the Early Hesperian Epoch and were therefore subsequently buried by later deposits.

Strong evidence for groundwater making lakes in deep craters was described by a group of European scientists in February 2019.[29] [30] [44] [45] Craters examined did not show inlets or outlets; therefore, water for the lake would have come from the ground. These craters had floors lying roughly 4000 m below Martian 'sea level'. Features and minerals on the floors of these craters could only have formed in the presence of water. Some of the features were deltas and terraces.[46][47] Some of the craters studied were Oyama, Pettit, Sagan,Tombaugh, Mclaughlin, du Martheray, Nicholson, Curie, and Wahoo. It seems that if a crater was deep enough, water came out of the ground and a lake was formed.[48]

Pedestal craters

See also

References

  1. ^ Grotzinger, J.P.; Arvidson, R.E.; Bell, III; Calvin, W.; Clark, B.C.; Fike, D.A.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; Haldemann, A.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Knoll, A.H.; Malin, M.; McLennan, S.M.; Parker, T.; Soderblom, L.; Sohl-Dickstein, J.N.; Squyres, S.W.; Tosca, N.J.; Watters, W.A. (2005). "Stratigraphy and sedimentology of a dry to wet eolian depositional system, Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 240 (1): 11–72. Bibcode:2005E&PSL.240...11G. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.09.039.
  2. ^ Carr, Michael H. (1995). "The Martian drainage system and the origin of valley networks and fretted channels". Journal of Geophysical Research. 100 (E4): 7479. Bibcode:1995JGR...100.7479C. doi:10.1029/95JE00260.
  3. ^ Carr, Michael H.; Chuang, Frank C. (1997). "Martian drainage densities". Journal of Geophysical Research. 102 (E4): 9145–9152. Bibcode:1997JGR...102.9145C. doi:10.1029/97JE00113.
  4. ^ Baker, V. R. (1982), The Channels of Mars, 198 pp., Univ. of Tex. Press, Austin.
  5. ^ Barnhart, Charles J.; Howard, Alan D.; Moore, Jeffrey M. (2009). "Long-term precipitation and late-stage valley network formation: Landform simulations of Parana Basin, Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research. 114 (E1): E01003. Bibcode:2009JGRE..114.1003B. doi:10.1029/2008JE003122.
  6. ^ Howard, Alan D.; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Irwin, Rossman P. (2005). "An intense terminal epoch of widespread fluvial activity on early Mars: 1. Valley network incision and associated deposits". Journal of Geophysical Research. 110 (E12): E12S14. Bibcode:2005JGRE..11012S14H. doi:10.1029/2005JE002459.
  7. ^ Stepinski, T. F.; Stepinski, A. P. (2005). "Morphology of drainage basins as an indicator of climate on early Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research. 110 (E12): E12S12. Bibcode:2005JGRE..11012S12S. doi:10.1029/2005JE002448.
  8. ^ a b Andrews, Robin George (20 September 2019). "Mysterious magnetic pulses discovered on Mars - The nighttime events are among initial results from the InSight lander, which also found hints that the red planet may host a global reservoir of liquid water deep below the surface". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  9. ^ a b Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Phillips, Roger J.; Zuber, Maria T. (2007). "Meridiani Planum and the global hydrology of Mars". Nature. 446 (7132): 163–6. Bibcode:2007Natur.446..163A. doi:10.1038/nature05594. PMID 17344848.
  10. ^ Salese, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Neeseman, Alicia; Schmidt, Gene; Ori, Gian Gabriele (2019). "Geological Evidence of Planet‐Wide Groundwater System on Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 124 (2): 374–395. Bibcode:2019JGRE..124..374S. doi:10.1029/2018JE005802. PMC 6472477. PMID 31007995.
  11. ^ Burns, Roger G (1993). "Rates and mechanisms of chemical weathering of ferromagnesian silicate minerals on Mars". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 57 (19): 4555–4574. Bibcode:1993GeCoA..57.4555B. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(93)90182-V.
  12. ^ Burns, Roger G.; Fisher, Duncan S. (1993). "Rates of Oxidative Weathering on the Surface of Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research. 98 (E2): 3365–3372. Bibcode:1993JGR....98.3365B. doi:10.1029/92JE02055.
  13. ^ Hurowitz, J. A.; Fischer, W. W.; Tosca, N. J.; Milliken, R. E. (2010). "Origin of acidic surface waters and the evolution of atmospheric chemistry on early Mars" (PDF). Nat. Geosci. 3 (5): 323–326. Bibcode:2010NatGe...3..323H. doi:10.1038/ngeo831.
  14. ^ https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7eb4/bb40fe291f5fde8dce48cc9fbe190ca29cde.pdf
  15. ^ Andrews-Hanna, J., K. Lewis. 2011. Early Mars hydrology:2. Hydrological evolution in the Noachian and Hesperian epochs. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 116, E02007, doi:10.1029/2010JE003709.
  16. ^ Schwenzer, S. P., et al. 2016. Fluids during diagenesis and sulfate vein formation in sediments at Gale Crater, Mars, Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 51(11), 2175–2202, doi:10.1111/maps.12668.
  17. ^ L'Haridon, J., N. Mangold, W. Rapin, O. Forni, P.-Y. Meslin, E. Dehouck, M. Nachon, L. Le Deit, O. Gasnault, S. Maurice, R. Wiens. 2017. Identification and implications of iron detection within calcium sulfate mineralized veins by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars, paper presented at 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, The Woodlands, Tex., Abstract 1328.
  18. ^ Lanza, N. L., et al. 2016. Oxidation of manganese in an ancient aquifer, Kimberley formation, Gale crater, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 7398–7407, doi:10.1002/2016GL069109.
  19. ^ Frydenvang, J., et al. 2017. Diagenetic silica enrichment and late-stage groundwater activity in Gale crater, Mars, Gale, Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 4716–4724, doi:10.1002/2017GL073323.
  20. ^ Yen, A. S., et al. 2017. Multiple stages of aqueous alteration along fractures in mudstone and sandstone strata in Gale Crater, Mars, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 471, 186–198, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2017.04.033.
  21. ^ Nachon, M., et al. 2014. Calcium sulfate veins characterized by ChemCam/Curiosity at Gale crater, Mars, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 119, 1991–2016, doi:10.1002/2013JE004588
  22. ^ Edgett, Kenneth S. (2005). "The sedimentary rocks of Sinus Meridiani: Five key observations from data acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters". The Mars Journal. 1: 5–58. Bibcode:2005IJMSE...1....5E. doi:10.1555/mars.2005.0002.
  23. ^ Malin, M. P.; Edgett, K. S. (2000). "Ancient sedimentary rocks of early Mars". Science. 290 (5498): 1927–1937. Bibcode:2000Sci...290.1927M. doi:10.1126/science.290.5498.1927. PMID 11110654.
  24. ^ Fassett, Caleb I.; Head, James W. (2007). "Layered mantling deposits in northeast Arabia Terra, Mars: Noachian-Hesperian sedimentation, erosion, and terrain inversion". Journal of Geophysical Research. 112 (E8): E08002. Bibcode:2007JGRE..112.8002F. doi:10.1029/2006JE002875.
  25. ^ Fergason, R. L.; Christensen, P. R. (2008). "Formation and erosion of layered materials: Geologic and dust cycle history of eastern Arabia Terra, Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research. 113 (E12): 12001. Bibcode:2008JGRE..11312001F. doi:10.1029/2007JE002973.
  26. ^ Lewis, K. W.; Aharonson, O.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Kirk, R. L.; McEwen, A. S.; Suer, T.-A. (2008). "Quasi-Periodic Bedding in the Sedimentary Rock Record of Mars" (PDF). Science. 322 (5907): 1532–5. Bibcode:2008Sci...322.1532L. doi:10.1126/science.1161870. PMID 19056983.
  27. ^ Lewis, K. W., O. Aharonson, J. P. Grotzinger, A. S. McEwen, and R. L. Kirk (2010), Global significance of cyclic sedimentary deposits on Mars, Lunar Planet. Sci., XLI, Abstract 2648.
  28. ^ Habermehl, M. A. (1980). "The Great Artesian Basin, Australia". J. Austr. Geol. Geophys. 5: 9–38.
  29. ^ a b ESA Staff (28 February 2019). "First Evidence of "Planet-Wide Groundwater System" on Mars Found". European Space Agency. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  30. ^ a b Houser, Kristin (28 February 2019). "First Evidence of "Planet-Wide Groundwater System" on Mars Found". Futurism.com. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  31. ^ Morgan, A.M.; Howard, A.D.; Hobley, D.E.J.; Moore, J.M.; Dietrich, W.E.; Williams, R.M.E.; Burr, D.M.; Grant, J.A.; Wilson, S.A.; Matsubara, Y. (2014). "Sedimentology and climatic environment of alluvial fans in the martian Saheki crater and a comparison with terrestrial fans in the Atacama Desert". Icarus. 229: 131–156. Bibcode:2014Icar..229..131M. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.11.007.
  32. ^ Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Wiseman, Sandra M. (2010). "Early Mars hydrology: Meridiani playa deposits and the sedimentary record of Arabia Terra". Journal of Geophysical Research. 115 (E6): E06002. Bibcode:2010JGRE..115.6002A. doi:10.1029/2009JE003485. hdl:1721.1/74246.
  33. ^ Arvidson, R. E.; Poulet, F.; Morris, R. V.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bell, J. F.; Squyres, S. W.; Christensen, P. R.; Bellucci, G.; Gondet, B.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fergason, R. L.; Golombek, M.; Griffes, J. L.; Grotzinger, J.; Guinness, E. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Langevin, Y.; Ming, D.; Seelos, K.; Sullivan, R. J.; Ward, J. G.; Wiseman, S. M.; Wolff, M. (2006). "Nature and origin of the hematite-bearing plains of Terra Meridiani based on analyses of orbital and Mars Exploration rover data sets" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 111 (E12): n/a. Bibcode:2006JGRE..11112S08A. doi:10.1029/2006JE002728.
  34. ^ Baker, V. R. (1982), The Channels of Mars, 198 pp., Univ. of Tex. Press
  35. ^ "Opportunity Rover Finds Strong Evidence Meridiani Planum Was Wet". Retrieved July 8, 2006.
  36. ^ Grotzinger, J.P.; Arvidson, R.E.; Bell, J.F.; Calvin, W.; Clark, B.C.; Fike, D.A.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; Haldemann, A.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Knoll, A.H.; Malin, M.; McLennan, S.M.; Parker, T.; Soderblom, L.; Sohl-Dickstein, J.N.; Squyres, S.W.; Tosca, N.J.; Watters, W.A. (2005). "Stratigraphy and sedimentology of a dry to wet eolian depositional system, Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 240 (1): 11–72. Bibcode:2005E&PSL.240...11G. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.09.039.
  37. ^ McLennan, S.M.; Bell, J.F.; Calvin, W.M.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B.C.; De Souza, P.A.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W.H.; Fike, D.A.; Gellert, R.; Ghosh, A.; Glotch, T.D.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Hahn, B.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, S.S.; Jolliff, B.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Knoll, A.H.; Learner, Z.; Malin, M.C.; McSween, H.Y.; Pocock, J.; Ruff, S.W.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S.W.; Tosca, N.J.; et al. (2005). "Provenance and diagenesis of the evaporite-bearing Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 240 (1): 95–121. Bibcode:2005E&PSL.240...95M. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.09.041.
  38. ^ Squyres, Steven W.; Knoll, Andrew H. (2005). "Sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum: Origin, diagenesis, and implications for life on Mars". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 240 (1): 1–10. Bibcode:2005E&PSL.240....1S. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.09.038.
  39. ^ Karsenti, E.; Vernos, I. (Oct 2001). "The mitotic spindle: a self-made machine". Science. 294 (5542): 543–7. Bibcode:2001Sci...294..543K. doi:10.1126/science.1063488. PMID 11641489.
  40. ^ M. Wiseman, J. C. Andrews-Hanna, R. E. Arvidson3, J. F. Mustard, K. J. Zabrusky DISTRIBUTION OF HYDRATED SULFATES ACROSS ARABIA TERRA USING CRISM DATA: IMPLICATIONS FOR MARTIAN HYDROLOGY. 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2011) 2133.pdf
  41. ^ Murchie, Scott; Roach, Leah; Seelos, Frank; Milliken, Ralph; Mustard, John; Arvidson, Raymond; Wiseman, Sandra; Lichtenberg, Kimberly; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey; Bishop, Janice; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Parente, Mario; Morris, Richard (2009). "Evidence for the origin of layered deposits in Candor Chasma, Mars, from mineral composition and hydrologic modeling". Journal of Geophysical Research. 114 (E12): E00D05. Bibcode:2009JGRE..114.0D05M. doi:10.1029/2009JE003343.
  42. ^ Gendrin, A.; Mangold, N; Bibring, JP; Langevin, Y; Gondet, B; Poulet, F; Bonello, G; Quantin, C; et al. (2005). "Sulfates in Martian Layered Terrains: The OMEGA/Mars Express View". Science. 307 (5715): 1587–91. Bibcode:2005Sci...307.1587G. doi:10.1126/science.1109087. PMID 15718429.
  43. ^ Roach, Leah H.; Mustard, John F.; Swayze, Gregg; Milliken, Ralph E.; Bishop, Janice L.; Murchie, Scott L.; Lichtenberg, Kim (2010). "Hydrated mineral stratigraphy of Ius Chasma, Valles Marineris". Icarus. 206 (1): 253–268. Bibcode:2010Icar..206..253R. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.09.003.
  44. ^ Salese, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Neeseman, Alicia; Schmidt, Gene; Ori, Gian Gabriele (2019). "Geological Evidence of Planet‐Wide Groundwater System on Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 124 (2): 374–395. Bibcode:2019JGRE..124..374S. doi:10.1029/2018JE005802. PMC 6472477. PMID 31007995.
  45. ^ https://www.leonarddavid.com/planet%E2%80%90wide-groundwater-system-on-mars-new-geological-evidence/
  46. ^ http://astrobiology.com/2019/02/first-evidence-of-a-planet-wide-groundwater-system-on-mars.html
  47. ^ Salese, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Neeseman, Alicia; Schmidt, Gene; Ori, Gian Gabriele (2019). "Geological Evidence of Planet‐Wide Groundwater System on Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 124 (2): 374–395. Bibcode:2019JGRE..124..374S. doi:10.1029/2018JE005802. PMC 6472477. PMID 31007995.
  48. ^ Salese, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Neeseman, Alicia; Schmidt, Gene; Ori, Gian Gabriele (2019). "Geological Evidence of Planet‐Wide Groundwater System on Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 124 (2): 374–395. Bibcode:2019JGRE..124..374S. doi:10.1029/2018JE005802. PMC 6472477. PMID 31007995.
This page was last edited on 11 December 2019, at 00:02
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.