To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

East Sudanian savanna

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The East Sudanian savanna is a hot, dry, tropical savanna ecoregion of Central and East Africa.

Geography

The East Sudanian savanna is the eastern half of the Sudanian savanna belt which runs east and west across Africa. The eastern lies east of the Cameroon Highlands, and west of the Ethiopian Highlands. The Sahel belt of drier acacia savanna lies to the north, and beyond that is the Sahara Desert. More humid forest–savanna mosaic ecoregions lie to the south.

The Sudd flooded grasslands in South Sudan divide the ecoregion into eastern and western blocks. The land is mainly flat, although there are some hillier sections around Lake Albert and in western Ethiopia.

Climate

The climate is a tropical savanna climate and a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification Aw and BSh) with a dry season and a wet season and the temperature being warm and hot year-round.

Examples

Climate data for Garoua, Cameroon
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 34.4
(93.9)
37.3
(99.1)
39.8
(103.6)
39.5
(103.1)
36.5
(97.7)
33.2
(91.8)
31.1
(88.0)
30.7
(87.3)
31.5
(88.7)
34.2
(93.6)
36.0
(96.8)
34.8
(94.6)
34.9
(94.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.0
(78.8)
28.9
(84.0)
32.2
(90.0)
33.0
(91.4)
30.7
(87.3)
28.2
(82.8)
26.6
(79.9)
26.4
(79.5)
26.7
(80.1)
28.1
(82.6)
27.3
(81.1)
26.0
(78.8)
28.3
(82.9)
Average low °C (°F) 17.5
(63.5)
20.5
(68.9)
24.7
(76.5)
26.4
(79.5)
24.9
(76.8)
23.2
(73.8)
22.2
(72.0)
22.0
(71.6)
21.9
(71.4)
22.2
(72.0)
19.2
(66.6)
17.3
(63.1)
21.8
(71.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
2.0
(0.08)
44.1
(1.74)
108.4
(4.27)
134.8
(5.31)
205.3
(8.08)
247.9
(9.76)
190.0
(7.48)
63.3
(2.49)
1.6
(0.06)
0.0
(0.0)
997.4
(39.27)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 0 0 1 5 9 11 14 17 24 6 1 0 88
Mean monthly sunshine hours 275.0 252.6 260.1 245.4 256.7 224.4 194.0 187.2 204.5 261.5 279.2 286.5 2,927.1
Source: NOAA[2]
Climate data for Sarh, Chad (1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 35.8
(96.4)
38.0
(100.4)
39.1
(102.4)
38.5
(101.3)
36.2
(97.2)
33.2
(91.8)
30.9
(87.6)
30.6
(87.1)
31.7
(89.1)
33.6
(92.5)
35.5
(95.9)
35.4
(95.7)
34.9
(94.8)
Average low °C (°F) 16.5
(61.7)
18.8
(65.8)
22.6
(72.7)
24.7
(76.5)
24.1
(75.4)
22.6
(72.7)
21.6
(70.9)
21.5
(70.7)
21.5
(70.7)
21.7
(71.1)
18.8
(65.8)
16.4
(61.5)
20.9
(69.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.1
(0.00)
1.6
(0.06)
9.5
(0.37)
37.4
(1.47)
82.1
(3.23)
135.9
(5.35)
234.4
(9.23)
243.7
(9.59)
165.5
(6.52)
55.8
(2.20)
3.3
(0.13)
0.0
(0.0)
969.3
(38.16)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0 1 2 5 9 12 15 18 16 7 1 0 86
Average relative humidity (%) 33 29 37 50 61 72 79 82 80 73 57 42 58
Mean monthly sunshine hours 266.6 243.6 244.9 237.0 241.8 207.0 173.6 176.7 186.0 232.5 261.0 266.6 2,737.3
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.6 8.7 7.9 7.9 7.8 6.9 5.6 5.7 6.2 7.5 8.7 8.6 7.5
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization (temperatures and rainy days)[3]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, humidity and precipitation)[4]
Climate data for Moundou, Chad (1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 34.1
(93.4)
36.7
(98.1)
38.6
(101.5)
38.0
(100.4)
35.7
(96.3)
32.3
(90.1)
30.2
(86.4)
29.8
(85.6)
30.7
(87.3)
33.1
(91.6)
35.1
(95.2)
34.2
(93.6)
34.0
(93.2)
Average low °C (°F) 15.1
(59.2)
18.3
(64.9)
22.5
(72.5)
24.2
(75.6)
23.5
(74.3)
22.1
(71.8)
21.2
(70.2)
21.0
(69.8)
20.8
(69.4)
21.0
(69.8)
17.4
(63.3)
14.6
(58.3)
20.1
(68.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.01)
4.6
(0.18)
39.2
(1.54)
89.8
(3.54)
147.7
(5.81)
257.8
(10.15)
284.8
(11.21)
200.1
(7.88)
57.1
(2.25)
1.5
(0.06)
0.0
(0.0)
1,082.8
(42.63)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0 1 2 5 9 12 15 19 13 7 2 0 85
Average relative humidity (%) 36 28 31 50 63 73 80 81 78 73 56 45 58
Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0 249.2 248.0 234.0 241.8 210.0 182.9 170.5 186.0 235.6 282.0 291.4 2,810.4
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.0 8.9 8.0 7.8 7.8 7.0 5.9 5.5 6.2 7.6 9.4 9.4 7.7
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[5]
Source 2: NOAA (sun and humidity)[6]
Climate data for Birao, Central African Republic
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 34.7
(94.5)
37.3
(99.1)
39.4
(102.9)
39.7
(103.5)
37.9
(100.2)
35
(95)
31.4
(88.5)
30.8
(87.4)
32.1
(89.8)
34.5
(94.1)
35
(95)
33.6
(92.5)
35.1
(95.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.7
(74.7)
26
(79)
28.8
(83.8)
30.4
(86.7)
30.2
(86.4)
28.3
(82.9)
25.7
(78.3)
25.3
(77.5)
25.9
(78.6)
26.5
(79.7)
23.9
(75.0)
22.5
(72.5)
26.4
(79.6)
Average low °C (°F) 12.7
(54.9)
14.8
(58.6)
18.3
(64.9)
21.1
(70.0)
22.5
(72.5)
21.6
(70.9)
20.1
(68.2)
19.8
(67.6)
19.7
(67.5)
18.6
(65.5)
12.8
(55.0)
11.4
(52.5)
17.8
(64.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.0)
20
(0.8)
67
(2.6)
107
(4.2)
189
(7.4)
193
(7.6)
146
(5.7)
38
(1.5)
1
(0.0)
0
(0)
762
(29.8)
Source: Climate-Data.org[7]
Climate data for Wau, South Sudan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 41.1
(106.0)
42.2
(108.0)
43.5
(110.3)
42.0
(107.6)
41.5
(106.7)
38.5
(101.3)
36.5
(97.7)
36.7
(98.1)
40.0
(104.0)
39.2
(102.6)
38.5
(101.3)
39.5
(103.1)
43.5
(110.3)
Average high °C (°F) 35.5
(95.9)
37.1
(98.8)
38.1
(100.6)
37.4
(99.3)
35.3
(95.5)
32.9
(91.2)
31.4
(88.5)
31.4
(88.5)
32.6
(90.7)
33.8
(92.8)
35.2
(95.4)
35.2
(95.4)
34.7
(94.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.8
(80.2)
28.5
(83.3)
30.4
(86.7)
30.6
(87.1)
29.3
(84.7)
27.5
(81.5)
26.3
(79.3)
26.2
(79.2)
26.8
(80.2)
27.4
(81.3)
27.4
(81.3)
26.5
(79.7)
27.8
(82.0)
Average low °C (°F) 19.1
(66.4)
19.9
(67.8)
22.7
(72.9)
23.8
(74.8)
23.2
(73.8)
22.0
(71.6)
21.2
(70.2)
21.0
(69.8)
21.0
(69.8)
21.0
(69.8)
19.6
(67.3)
17.9
(64.2)
20.9
(69.6)
Record low °C (°F) 9.3
(48.7)
12.5
(54.5)
14.9
(58.8)
16.5
(61.7)
19.5
(67.1)
17.7
(63.9)
18.0
(64.4)
18.6
(65.5)
17.0
(62.6)
16.4
(61.5)
11.4
(52.5)
10.3
(50.5)
9.3
(48.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 1.3
(0.05)
3.6
(0.14)
18.6
(0.73)
68.3
(2.69)
118.8
(4.68)
177.4
(6.98)
176.0
(6.93)
192.3
(7.57)
179.4
(7.06)
123.8
(4.87)
14.9
(0.59)
0.1
(0.00)
1,074.5
(42.30)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.2 0.3 3.4 6.3 11.4 12.7 15.9 15.5 23.7 11.2 1.7 0.1 102.4
Average relative humidity (%) 29 26 35 48 62 71 76 77 74 69 48 35 54
Mean monthly sunshine hours 288.3 246.4 229.4 228.0 220.1 204.0 182.9 192.2 204.0 223.2 264.0 294.5 2,777
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.3 8.8 7.4 7.6 7.1 6.8 5.9 6.2 6.8 7.2 8.8 9.5 7.6
Percent possible sunshine 79 74 62 61 60 54 47 50 56 60 75 82 63
Source: NOAA[8]
Climate data for Juba, South Sudan (1971–2000, extremes 1931–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 42.2
(108.0)
43.0
(109.4)
43.6
(110.5)
42.4
(108.3)
43.7
(110.7)
38.5
(101.3)
37.0
(98.6)
38.5
(101.3)
39.0
(102.2)
39.6
(103.3)
40.4
(104.7)
42.8
(109.0)
43.7
(110.7)
Average high °C (°F) 36.8
(98.2)
37.9
(100.2)
37.7
(99.9)
35.4
(95.7)
33.5
(92.3)
32.4
(90.3)
31.1
(88.0)
31.6
(88.9)
33.1
(91.6)
34.0
(93.2)
34.7
(94.5)
35.9
(96.6)
34.5
(94.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 28.2
(82.8)
29.3
(84.7)
29.9
(85.8)
28.7
(83.7)
27.6
(81.7)
26.5
(79.7)
25.6
(78.1)
25.5
(77.9)
26.4
(79.5)
26.9
(80.4)
27.4
(81.3)
27.5
(81.5)
27.5
(81.4)
Average low °C (°F) 20.1
(68.2)
21.7
(71.1)
23.6
(74.5)
23.4
(74.1)
22.6
(72.7)
21.9
(71.4)
21.1
(70.0)
21.0
(69.8)
21.1
(70.0)
21.3
(70.3)
20.9
(69.6)
20.0
(68.0)
21.6
(70.9)
Record low °C (°F) 11.4
(52.5)
12.2
(54.0)
16.3
(61.3)
16.5
(61.7)
16.8
(62.2)
14.0
(57.2)
13.3
(55.9)
16.0
(60.8)
15.5
(59.9)
14.0
(57.2)
13.2
(55.8)
13.9
(57.0)
11.4
(52.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 5.1
(0.20)
11.0
(0.43)
36.7
(1.44)
111.5
(4.39)
129.9
(5.11)
117.8
(4.64)
144.7
(5.70)
127.5
(5.02)
103.7
(4.08)
114.5
(4.51)
43.1
(1.70)
8.2
(0.32)
953.7
(37.55)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.4 2.0 6.6 11.6 12.4 10.3 13.0 11.5 8.6 10.4 6.5 1.9 96.2
Average relative humidity (%) 44 42 51 64 73 76 81 80 77 73 69 53 65
Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0 235.2 210.8 198.0 207.7 207.0 182.9 204.6 228.0 241.8 237.0 260.4 2,692.4
Percent possible sunshine 76 67 57 54 62 58 50 57 63 64 68 68 62
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization,[9]
Source 2: NOAA (sun and humidity, 1961–1990),[10] Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes, mean temperatures)[11]
Climate data for Ad-Damazin, Sudan (1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 41.1
(106.0)
44.3
(111.7)
44.5
(112.1)
45.5
(113.9)
47.0
(116.6)
42.0
(107.6)
39.0
(102.2)
37.0
(98.6)
38.1
(100.6)
40.0
(104.0)
41.0
(105.8)
41.5
(106.7)
47.0
(116.6)
Average high °C (°F) 35.2
(95.4)
37.1
(98.8)
39.5
(103.1)
40.5
(104.9)
38.5
(101.3)
35.2
(95.4)
31.8
(89.2)
31.1
(88.0)
32.5
(90.5)
35.2
(95.4)
36.9
(98.4)
35.7
(96.3)
35.8
(96.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.0
(78.8)
27.7
(81.9)
30.7
(87.3)
32.2
(90.0)
31.7
(89.1)
29.1
(84.4)
26.7
(80.1)
26.1
(79.0)
26.7
(80.1)
28.2
(82.8)
27.9
(82.2)
26.3
(79.3)
28.3
(82.9)
Average low °C (°F) 16.8
(62.2)
18.4
(65.1)
21.9
(71.4)
23.9
(75.0)
24.8
(76.6)
22.9
(73.2)
21.5
(70.7)
21.2
(70.2)
21.0
(69.8)
21.2
(70.2)
19.0
(66.2)
17.0
(62.6)
20.8
(69.4)
Record low °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
10.4
(50.7)
13.4
(56.1)
16.3
(61.3)
18.0
(64.4)
17.5
(63.5)
15.9
(60.6)
17.5
(63.5)
17.5
(63.5)
14.3
(57.7)
12.0
(53.6)
8.7
(47.7)
8.5
(47.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.00)
2.8
(0.11)
12.9
(0.51)
40.2
(1.58)
114.4
(4.50)
189.2
(7.45)
171.8
(6.76)
133.6
(5.26)
45.7
(1.80)
2.1
(0.08)
0.1
(0.00)
712.9
(28.05)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.0 0.1 0.3 1.4 6.0 12.3 16.1 16.9 12.4 4.7 0.5 0.0 70.7
Average relative humidity (%) 29 23 21 24 43 59 72 79 76 67 38 32 46.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 303.8 280.0 294.5 288.0 257.3 201.0 170.5 182.9 204.0 251.1 279.0 294.5 3,006.6
Percent possible sunshine 85 85 79 78 66 53 44 45 56 68 83 83 69
Source: NOAA[12]

Flora

Typical species are deciduous Terminalia trees with an undergrowth of shrubs and grasses such as Combretum and tall elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum). There are more than 1,000 endemic plant species.[13]

Fauna

Threatened species include the African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana) (in Chad and the CAE), East African wild dog (Lycaon pictus lupinus), Northeast African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii), African leopard (Panthera pardus paruds), lion (Panthera leo), and giant eland (Taurotragus derbianus).[13]

Urban areas and settlements

In Cameroon the region is more or less contiguous with the North Region, where Bénoué National Park and Bouba Njida National Park contain some of the endangered species mentioned above. In Chad East Sudanian savanna covers the south including the industrial city of Moundou, Chad's second largest city, the oil town of Doba and the cotton-growing towns of Sarh and Pala. In the Central African Republic the region covers the sparsely populated north of the country, the larger towns include Bossangoa. In Sudan west of the Sudd swamp east Sudanian savanna covers the Bahr el Ghazal area including the town of Wau. East of the Sudd the ecoregion runs north to south from northern Uganda, through south-eastern Sudan east of the White Nile (including the area around the southern cities of Juba and Eastern Equatoria around Torit), and up along the Ethiopia–Sudan border. Much of this area has seen combat in recent decades and is in various states of reconstruction.

Threats and preservation

Seasonal cultivation and herding are lifestyles which lead the population of the savanna to overgraze, overharvest the trees for firewood or charcoal and cause fires. This has reduced the woodland considerably. However large areas of unspoilt habitat remain even outside protected areas, especially compared with the more heavily populated West Sudanian savanna.

Poaching is another problem, indeed the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and northern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) were formerly native to the ecoregion but have been eliminated through over-hunting.

Protected areas

24.68% of the ecoregion is in protected areas.[1] Protected areas include Bouba Njida National Park in Cameroon, Bamingui-Bangoran National Park and Biosphere Reserve, Andre Felix National Park, and Manovo-Gounda St. Floris National Park in the Central African Republic, Zakouma National Park in Chad, Gambella National Park in Ethiopia, Dinder National Park and Radom National Park in Sudan, Boma National Park and Kidepo Game Reserve in South Sudan, and Kidepo Valley National Park in Uganda.[13][1]

Most protected areas are severely under-resourced, and apart from hunting for sport in the Central African Republic there is little wildlife-based tourism.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "East African savanna". DOPA Explorer. Accessed 5 March 2022. [1]
  2. ^ "Garoua Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
  3. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Sarh". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
  4. ^ "Sarh Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
  5. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Moundou". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
  6. ^ "Moundou Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
  7. ^ "Climate: Birao". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  8. ^ "Wau Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  9. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Juba". World Meteorological Organization (UN). Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  10. ^ "Juba Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  11. ^ "Klimatafel von Juba / Sudan" (PDF) (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  12. ^ "Damazin Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  13. ^ a b c "East Sudanian savanna". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.

External links

This page was last edited on 22 January 2023, at 00:54
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.