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BMW 5 Series (E34)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

BMW 5 Series (E34)
1989 BMW 525i (E34) sedan (2015-11-13) 01.jpg
Overview
ProductionNovember 1987 – June 1996
Assembly
DesignerErcole Spada
J Mays
Body and chassis
ClassExecutive car (E)
Body style4-door sedan
5-door wagon
Layout
Powertrain
Engine
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,760 mm (108.7 in)
Length4,720 mm (185.8 in)
Width1,750 mm (68.9 in)
Height1,412–1,420 mm (55.6–55.9 in)
Curb weight1,440–1,800 kg (3,175–3,968 lb)[1][2]
Chronology
PredecessorBMW 5 Series (E28)
SuccessorBMW 5 Series (E39)
Interior
Interior

The BMW E34 is the third generation of the BMW 5 Series, which was produced from November 2, 1987 until 1996. Initially launched as a sedan in January 1988, the E34 also saw a "Touring" station wagon (estate) body style added in September 1992, a first for the 5 Series. BMW replaced the E34 with the E39 5 Series in December 1995, although E34 Touring models remained in production until June 1996.

The E34 generation marked the first time all-wheel drive was incorporated into the 5 Series with the 525iX, and the first V8 engine to be used in a 5 Series. The E34 also saw the introduction of stability control (ASC), traction control (ASC+T) a 6-speed manual transmission and adjustable damping (EDC) to the 5 Series range.

There was an unusually large range of engines fitted over its lifetime as nine different engine families were used. These consisted of straight-four, straight-six and V8 engines.

The E34 M5 is powered by the S38 straight-six engine and was produced in sedan and wagon body styles.

Development and launch

Development ran from July 1981 to early 1987, with the initial design proposal penned by Ercole Spada in 1982.[3] Under the guidance of chief designer Claus Luthe, BMW based much of the design on the E32 7 Series. Following Spada's departure from BMW and styling approval in 1983, J Mays finalized the design for production in mid-1985. Special attention was paid to aerodynamics, with the E34 basic sedan having a drag coefficient of 0.30.[4]

Series production began in November 1987.[citation needed] In December 1987, the E34 sedan was unveiled to global press.[5][6]

Body styles

Sedan models have a length of 4,720 mm (185.8 in), a width of 1,750 mm (68.9 in) and a height of 1,412 mm (55.6 in).[7][8] Wagon models have a length of 4,720 mm (185.8 in) and a height of 1,420 mm (55.9 in).[9] All models have a wheelbase of 2,760 mm (108.7 in).[10]

Engines

Official output figures are as follows:[11]

Petrol

M20 engine- used in early 520i/525i models
M50 engine- used in later 520i/525i models
BMW M30 engine- used in the 535i model
BMW S38 engine- used in the M5 model
Model Years Engine Power Torque
518i 1989–1994 M40B18
inline-4
83 kW (111 hp)
at 5,500 rpm
165 N⋅m (122 lb⋅ft)
at 4,250 rpm
1994–1996 M43B18
inline-4
85 kW (114 hp)
at 5,500 rpm
168 N⋅m (124 lb⋅ft)
at 3,900 rpm
520i 1988–1990 M20B20
inline-6
95 kW (127 hp)
at 6,000 rpm
164 N⋅m (121 lb⋅ft)
at 4,300 rpm
1989–1992 M50B20
inline-6
110 kW (148 hp)
at 6,000 rpm
190 N⋅m (140 lb⋅ft)
at 4,700 rpm
1992–1996 M50B20TU
inline-6
110 kW (148 hp)
at 5,900 rpm
190 N⋅m (140 lb⋅ft)
at 4,200 rpm
525i 1988–1991 M20B25
inline-6
125 kW (168 hp)
at 5,800 rpm
222 N⋅m (164 lb⋅ft)
at 4,300 rpm
1991–1992 M50B25
inline-6
141 kW (189 hp)
at 6,000 rpm
245 N⋅m (181 lb⋅ft)
at 4,700 rpm
1992–1996 M50B25TU
inline-6
141 kW (189 hp)
at 5,900 rpm
250 N⋅m (184 lb⋅ft)
at 4,200 rpm
530i 1988–1991 M30B30
inline-6
138 kW (185 hp)
at 5,500 rpm
260 N⋅m (192 lb⋅ft)
at 4,300 rpm
1992–1996 M60B30
V8
160 kW (215 hp)
at 5,800 rpm
290 N⋅m (214 lb⋅ft)
at 4,500 rpm
535i 1987–1992 M30B35
inline-6
155 kW (208 hp)
at 5,700 rpm
305 N⋅m (225 lb⋅ft)
at 4,000 rpm
540i 1992–1996 M60B40
V8
210 kW (282 hp)
at 5,800 rpm
400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft)
at 4,500 rpm
M5 1988–1992 S38B36
inline-6
232 kW (311 hp)
at 6,900 rpm
360 N⋅m (266 lb⋅ft)
at 4,750 rpm
1992–1996 S38B38
inline-6
250 kW (335 hp)
at 6,900 rpm
400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft)
at 4,750 rpm

Diesel

BMW M51 engine- used in 525td/525tds models
BMW M51 engine- used in 525td/525tds models
Model Years Engine Power Torque
524td 1988–1991 M21D24
inline-6
85 kW (114 hp)
at 4,800 rpm
222 N⋅m (164 lb⋅ft)
at 2,400 rpm
525td 1993–1996 M51D25
inline-6
85 kW (114 hp)
at 4,800 rpm
222 N⋅m (164 lb⋅ft)
at 1,900 rpm
525tds 1991–1996 M51D25
inline-6
105 kW (141 hp)
at 4,800 rpm
260 N⋅m (192 lb⋅ft)
at 2,200 rpm

Drivetrain

Manual transmissions

Automatic transmissions

Suspension

Front suspension consists of double pivot MacPherson struts, with a replaceable shock absorber cartridge inside a steel strut housing. Control arms and thrust arms control front-to-back and side-to-side movement.[16](p300-1) Steering on most models is a recirculating ball design, however the all-wheel drive 525iX uses a rack and pinion steering system (along with front suspension) similar to the E30 3 Series 325iX model.[17] All front suspension components are steel, except that the lower control arms on some models are aluminum.[18]

Rear suspension consists of semi-trailing arms with coil springs integrated in a strut assembly.[19]

Models

Petrol-engined

The base model, available only in Europe,[11] was the petrol-powered four-cylinder 518i. Only available with a 5-speed manual transmission, with a total of 53,248 cars were produced.[20]

The next petrol model up was the six-cylinder 520i, which began production in January 1988. It was initially powered by the BMW M20 single overhead camshaft engine, which was replaced by the BMW M50 double overhead camshaft engine in 1990. The 520i was the second most popular E34 model globally, with 426,971 units produced.[21] The 525i was the most popular E34 model globally with 434,549 units produced.[21] As per the 520i, the 525i initially used the M20 engine, which was replaced by the M50 engine in 1990.

A rare E34 model is the petrol-powered six-cylinder 525iX, of which only 9,366 cars were produced.[21] The 525iX was the first all-wheel drive 5 Series, and the only all-wheel drive model in the E34 range. It was powered by the BMW M50 engine and was the first 5 Series to use a rack and pinion steering system.

There are two versions of the E34 530i: an inline-six model produced from 1988 to 1990, and a V8 model produced from 1993 to 1995. The earlier model was one of the last applications of the BMW M30 inline-six engine. The V8 version, which replaced the six-cylinder 535i in the lineup, was powered by the new BMW M60 V8 engine and was available with a 5-speed manual or 5-speed automatic transmission.[11] Initially, the V8 models were differentiated from other models by the wide grill; in 1994 the wide grill became available on other models. Between the two versions of the 530i, a total of 57,570 cars were produced.

The highest six-cylinder model (except for the M5) was the 535i. Despite the '535i' model designation and '3.5' casting on the intake manifold, the BMW M30 engine found in the E34 535i actually has a displacement of 3.4 litres (207 cu in). A total of 97,679 cars were produced,[21] including the Alpina B10 (BiTurbo, 3.5) models. The 535i was replaced by the V8-engined 530i and 540i models in 1993.

In 1993, the 540i model was added to the top of the 5 Series lineup, powered by the BMW M60 V8 engine and available in both sedan and wagon body styles (the latter not in US). Transmission options were a 6-speed manual or a 5-speed automatic. A total of 26,485 units were produced.[21] Initially, the V8 models were differentiated from other models by the wider grilles. In 1994 the wide grilles became available on other models as well.

Diesel-engined

The first diesel model was the 524td, which was introduced in 1988. This model was replaced by the 525tds in 1991, and a lower-specification 525td was introduced in 1993. All diesel models were powered by turbocharged inline-six engines.

North America

In the United States, the E34 model range was launched in October 1988 with the 525i and 535i 6-cylinder models (for the 1989 model year).[22] Over the course of the E34 generation, the 525i Touring, 530i, 530i Touring, 540i and M5 models were sold in the United States. The 3.6 L (220 cu in) version of the M5 remained in production until 1993,[23] by which time the 3.8 L (232 cu in) version was being produced for other countries.

M5 model

M5 model
M5 model

Introduced in September 1988[24] and produced until August 1995, the E34 M5 was produced in both sedan and station wagon ('Touring') body styles, the latter being the first M5 to be available as a wagon.

The E34 M5 is powered by the BMW S38 inline-six engine, originally with a displacement of 3.6 L (220 cu in) and an output of 232 kW (311 hp), later upgraded to a 3.8 L (232 cu in) engine rated at 250 kW (335 hp). This 3.8 litre version of the M5 was first seen by the public at the 1991 Frankfurt Motor Show, where the E34 M5 Touring also saw its debut.[24]

In its last year of production for the M5, the transmission was upgraded from a 5-speed manual to the Getrag 420G 6-speed manual (which was also used by the 540i model).

Special models

518g

A model which could run on natural gas (as well as petrol) and was only sold in Germany. The 518g was based on the 518i Touring model and the only transmission available was a 5-speed manual.[25] The engine, also used by the 1995-2000 3 Series Compact 316g model, was a re-tuned version of the BMW M43 four-cylinder engine.[26] When running on natural gas, the engine produced 73 kW (98 hp),[27] compared with 84 kW (113 hp) when running on petrol. It was only produced in 1995 and just 298 units were built.[21]

518iev prototype

After unveiling the BMW E1 and E2 concept car electric vehicles in 1992, BMW began a project to show it was possible to make a full-sized electric car, despite the obstacle of the weight of the lead-acid battery technology at the time.[28] The batteries were a lead-acid type and the electric motors used a rotating-field AC electric drive. To assist the electric drivetrain, the 518iev also had a four-cylinder petrol engine and a continuously variable transmission, a configuration similar to the first production hybrid cars produced by other manufacturers several years later.[29] BMW built at least one fully functional E34 prototype, which was tested in the late 1990s by Deutsche Post and others.[citation needed]

540i M-sport / M540i / 540i LE

540i model with "throwing star" wheels
540i model with "throwing star" wheels

Because the M5 was discontinued for non-European markets in 1993, the 540i M-Sport model was built in 1995 for the North American market.[30] On top of the regular 540i features, additional features included sports suspension equipped with EDC, bolstered sport seats, servotronic steering, and US-spec M5 brakes.[31] 205 "M-Sport" models were built, 139 of them with the 6-speed manual transmission.[30]

An M540i model was produced for in Canada. It includes the features of the North American 540i M-sport, plus upgraded Euro-spec M5 brakes, 18-inch M-parallel wheels, and various trim pieces.[32] Only 32 of these cars were built, all with a manual transmission.[30]

The 540i LE (i.e. Limited Edition) sedan was sold in Australia and the United Kingdom.[33][34] The 540i LE included the interior from the M5, "throwing star" M-System II wheels, EDC suspension with self leveling rear, Servotronic power steering, and front air dam. 70 of these 540i LE sedans were produced, all with a manual transmission, each individually numbered using an engraved metal plaque stuck onto the centre console beneath the handbrake lever.[30]

Model year changes

Most changes occur in September each year, when the changes for the following model year go into production, as is typical BMW practice. Therefore, the changes for 1988 represent the 1989 model year, for example.

1988

  • M5 model introduced
  • 524td diesel model introduced
  • 518i four-cylinder model introduced
  • Driver's side airbag introduced

1989

  • 520i engine updated to the BMW M50,[35] the first model to use the new twin-cam straight-six engine

1990

  • 525i engine updated to the BMW M50 in some markets, 1991 in others.
  • 525iX all-wheel drive model introduced
  • 525tds diesel model introduced

1991

  • 525i engine updated to the BMW M50 in the US market.
  • Touring (station wagon/estate models) introduced: 520iT and 525iT.
  • Leather seat stitching pattern changed from double to single.
  • Steering columns and wheels changed from E30-compatible (22mm nut) to E36-compatible (16mm bolt).

1992

  • 520i and 525i engines updated to the BMW M50TU, which added variable valve timing (VANOS)
  • V8 engines introduced in the 530i and 540i models. The V8 models adopted a wider grille than other models.[36]
  • M5 engine enlarged from 3.6 litres to 3.8 litres
  • Revised exterior mirrors and hubcaps
  • Revised interior electrics, primarily with central locking. General Modules were black on early cars, green on later, and not interchangeable.
  • 525i manual transmission changed from ZF 310Z to Getrag 250G, US market only.

1993

  • 525td diesel model introduced
  • Last year for 535i six-cylinder model,[37][38] marking the end of the 24-year production run of the M30 engine
  • 6-speed manual transmission available for 540i model (the first 6-speed manual available in a 5 Series), non-US markets.
  • ASC became available

1994

  • 518i engine upgraded from BMW M40 to BMW M43
  • M5 transmission upgraded from 5-speed manual to 6-speed manual
  • Wider grille (previously used for V8 models only) became available for other models, non-US markets.
  • US-market Touring models no longer equipped with self-leveling suspension as standard.
  • EWS 1 drive-away protection used in some models.

1995

  • All models equipped with wider grill and body-color lower body trim (US market).
  • Interior materials revised: steering wheel slightly different design with color emblem, door cards ruched/gathered leather and with different glue (more durable between panel and its vinyl/leather covering, less durable between panel and mounting clips).
  • EWS drive-away protection updated to EWS 2.
  • 540i available with 6-speed manual transmission for the US market, all with Sport seats and suspension.
  • 540i automatic and manual models equipped with 2.93 final drive, previously 2.81 (US market, at least).

Production

Production of the E34 commenced on November 2, 1987 for the 535i,[39] with 535i market launch being in January 1988 and other variants following a staggered launch. 520i and 530i production began in January 1988, for March 1988 market launch. Production of the 525i began in February 1988, being launched to market in April 1988, with the 524td entering production in March 1988 for May 1988 introduction. Touring production began in November 1990. Production ended for the sedan in December 1995 and Touring in June 1996.[40]

The production plants for the E34 were the Dingolfing plant in Germany and Rosslyn in South Africa.[41][42] Total production was 1,333,412 units.[43][44]

References

  1. ^ "Specifications for BMW 518i E34 Sedan (1989-1994)". www.bmwheaven.com. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  2. ^ "Specifications for BMW 540i E34 LCI Touring (1993-1994)". www.bmwheaven.com. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  3. ^ "Ercole Spada, der Brief". www.e34-ig.de. Archived from the original on May 6, 2013.
  4. ^ "BMW Remembers Third-Gen E34 5-Series, You Should Too". www.carscoops.com. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  5. ^ https://www.welt.de/motor/news/article115355125/Tradition-25-Jahre-BMW-5er-E34.html
  6. ^ "Ercole Spada Wanted to Make the E34 5 Series Look More Like the 8 Series". www.autoevolution.com.
  7. ^ "1993 BMW 525td E34 specifications". www.carfolio.com. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  8. ^ "1989 BMW 525i specifications". www.automobile-catalog.com.
  9. ^ "BMW E34 525i touring". www.carfolio.com. 2008-04-03. Retrieved 2010-12-07.
  10. ^ "BMW E34 530i sedan". www.carfolio.com. 2008-04-03. Retrieved 2010-12-07.
  11. ^ a b c "BMW 5-Series E34 versions & types". www.automobile-catalog.com. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  12. ^ "5' E34 M5 3.6 Manual gearbox". www.realoem.com. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  13. ^ "5' E34 525i Manual gearbox S5D...Z". www.realoem.com. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  14. ^ "GM transmission and oil application chart" (PDF). www.taligentx.com. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  15. ^ "5' E34 525i Automatic gearbox A5S310Z". www.realoem.com. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  16. ^ BMW 5 Series Service Manual- 1989 to 1995. Bentley Publishers.
  17. ^ "Any 525iX Owners?". www.bmw5.co.uk. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  18. ^ "5' E34 525i Cross member/wishbone/rod". www.realoem.com. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  19. ^ "BMW E34 5 Series 520i Specs". www.ultimatespecs.com.
  20. ^ "5'E34 model selection". www.realoem.com.
  21. ^ a b c d e f BMW Production Data (PDF). e30ic.com. p. 14. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  22. ^ https://bmw-grouparchiv.de/research/detail/index.xhtml?id=3711392
  23. ^ "Model selection: 5'E34 - Saloon - M5 3.6 - USA". www.realoem.com. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  24. ^ a b "BMW M Registry - FAQ E34 M5". www.bmwmregistry.com. Retrieved 2017-09-28.
  25. ^ "Model selection: 5'E34 > Touring > 518g". www.realoem.com.
  26. ^ "BMW 518g Touring – Nothing But a G-thang". www.curbsideclassic.com. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  27. ^ "BMW 5 series E34 history and characteristics". BMW Guide (in Russian). 16 February 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  28. ^ "Back from the future: BMW prototype with hybrid drive" (PDF). MOT magazine. 1995-04-02. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-02-19. Retrieved 2004-02-19.
  29. ^ "BMW 5 Series (E34) - Rewind Wednesday". www.whatcar.com. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  30. ^ a b c d "BMW M Registry - FAQ E34 M540i". www.bmwmregistry.com. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  31. ^ "M5 Alternative: 1995 BMW 540i M Sport". Bring a Trailer. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  32. ^ "The 1995 540i M-Sport and 540i". www.kindel.com. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  33. ^ "1995 BMW 540i Limited Edition E34 Manual". www.redbook.com. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  34. ^ "UK LE brochure". www.m5board.com. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  35. ^ "Model selection - 5'E34 - saloon - 520i - EUR - 09/1989". www.realoem.com. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  36. ^ "E34 facelift or not?". www.bmw5.co.uk. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  37. ^ "5'E34 535i model selection". www.realoem.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  38. ^ "Used BMW 535i review: 1988-1993". www.carsguide.com.au. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  39. ^ https://bmw-grouparchiv.de/research/detail/index.xhtml?id=3711210
  40. ^ "Der erste Winter des neuen 5er BMW". bmw-grouparchiv.de. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  41. ^ "Vehicle manufacturer profiles". www.automotiveworld.com. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
  42. ^ "History of the BMW 5 Series in SA". www.wheels24.co.za. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  43. ^ https://bmw-grouparchiv.de/research/detail/index.xhtml?id=3894795
  44. ^ Kittler, Eberhard (2001). Deutsche Autos seit 1990, vol.5. Stuttgart: Motorbuch. p. 165. ISBN 3-613-02128-5.
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