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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Film producers fill a variety of roles depending upon the type of producer.[1] Either employed by a production company or independent, producers plan and coordinate various aspects of film production, such as selecting script, coordinating writing, directing and editing, and arranging financing.[2] During the "discovery stage", the producer has to find and acknowledge promising material.[3] Then, unless the film is supposed to be based on an original script, the producer has to find an appropriate screenwriter.[4]

For various reasons, producers cannot always supervise all of the production. In this case, the main producer may appoint executive producers, line producers, or unit production managers who represent the main producer's interests.[5] The producer has the last word on whether sounds or music have to be changed, including deciding if scenes have to be cut. They are in charge of selling the film or arranging distribution rights as well. The producer's role can vary significantly from project to project, based on the circumstances and funding. They generally are in charge of things like hiring staff, creating filming schedules, checking and approving locations, and much more.[6]

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Transcription

Contents

The term "producers"

Producers are present in every single genre of television and film and play major roles in each type of production. Although each genre might be widely different from each other, a producer's role and job is the same throughout each and every genre. A producer from a sports program can be compared to a producer of a filmmaker despite how different each genre can be.[7] Although the primary role of the producer can be compared to that of a filmmaker, the role is something that isn't as cut and dry as a lot of people might expect it to be. The roles are very wide-ranging, due to the fact that this occupation has gone through an enormous amount of stages and phases as time went on.[8] Today, in most cases the roles range from supervising the film's editing process to hiring the main staff.[9]

The producer has a great amount of power in every single aspect of the production process. They are never left out and are heavily involved in every single stage of the production. There are times when a producer can try to find promising material to create either a feature film or a television program. If a producer decides to do this, it is usually done in the "discovery stage". The discovery stage is when a producer is actively looking for a variety of ideas, concepts, or promising scripts that could be made into a show or film. In this stage, a producers' power may even stretch to gathering workers for the selected project.[2] Even though a producer today can have a wide range of roles within the field, there are roles that only fit into different types of "producers". Within the industry, there are many different types of producers who are only designated to specific roles such as controlling the staff and handling the finances.[10] For example, to oversee and manage all aspects of video production the role may be filled by the line producer, but an executive producer would be selected to oversee all other producers work.[1]

Types

Different types of producers and their roles within the industry today include (in no order of seniority):

Executive producer
They oversee all of the other producers working on the same project. They make sure that the producers are fulfilling their roles on the given production. They can also be in charge of managing the film's finances and the handling of all other business aspects of the film.[1][11]
Line producer
Manages the staff and day-to-day operations, and the overseeing of each and every physical aspect that is involved in the making of a film or television program. The line producer can be credited as "produced by" in certain cases.[1][11]
Supervising producer
Supervises the creative process of screenplay development and often aids in script re-writes. They can also serve in place of the Executive producers' role of overseeing other producers.[1]
Producer
Within the production process they can oversee, arrange, manage and begin every single aspect. They are involved in every single stage of the overall production process.[1][11]
Co-producer
Is a part of a team of producers that perform all of the functions and roles that a single producer would have in a single given project.[1]
Coordinating producer or production coordinator
Coordinates the work/role of multiple producers that are trying to achieve a shared result.[1]
Associate producer
Helps the producer during the production process. They can sometimes be involved in coordinating others jobs, such as creating peoples schedules and hiring the main talent.[1][11]
Segment producer
Produces one or more single specific segments of a multi segment film or television production.[1]
Field producer
Helps the producer by overseeing all of the production that takes place outside of the studio in specific locations for the film.[11]

Responsibilities

Development (film rights)

During this stage of the production process, producers bring together people like the film director, cinematographer, and production designer.[12] Unless the film is supposed to be based on an original script, the producer has to find an appropriate screenwriter.[13][14] If an existing script is considered flawed, they are able to order a new version or make the decision to hire a script doctor.[15][16][17] The producer also has the final say on which film director, cast members, or other staff get hired.[18][19] In some cases, they also have the last word when it comes to casting questions.[20] A producer's role will also consist of approving locations, the studio hire, the final shooting script, the production schedule, and the budget. More time and money spent in pre-production can reduce the time and money wasted during production time.[12]

Pre-production

During production, the producer's job is to make sure the film stays on schedule and under budget.[6] They will always be in contact with directors and other key creative team members.[12][21][22] In addition to this, cast and film crew often work at different times or places, and certain films even require a second unit. Consequently, it is normal that the main producer will appoint executive producers, line producers, or unit production managers who represent the main producer's interests and vision.[5] The executive producer for Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, The Empire Strikes Back, and Return of the Jedi was George Lucas himself, the creator of the Star Wars universe.[23]

Production

For various reasons, producers cannot always personally supervise all parts of their production. For example, some producers run a company which also deals with film distribution.[24][25] Also, cast and film crew often work at different times and places, and certain films even require a second unit. Consequently, it is normal that the main producer will appoint executive producers, line producers, or unit production managers who represent the main producer's interests.[26]

Post-production

During post-production, the producer has the last word on whether sounds, music, or scenes have to be changed or cut. Even if the shooting has been finished, the producers can still demand that additional scenes be filmed. In the case of a negative test screening, producers may even demand and get an alternative film ending. This happened, for example, with First Blood. The test audience reacted very negatively when Rambo died, so the producers re-shot a new ending.[27] In addition to this, producers work with marketing and distribution companies in order to sell the film or arrange its distribution rights.[6]

The union

Within the industry, all of the producers union contracts are negotiated by The Alliance of Motion Picture and Television Producers (AMPTP). It was founded in 1924 by the U.S Trade Association as the Association of Motion Picture Producers.[28] It was originally created to only negotiate labor contracts, but during the mid-1930s they took over all contract negotiation responsibilities that were once controlled by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.[28] This alliance negotiates with a wide range of other associations when dealing with producers union contracts. These associations include, the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA), the Directors Guild of America (DGA), and the Screen Actors Guild (SAG).[29] They negotiate over eighty industry wide union agreements and on behalf of 350 producers within the industry. It has been responsible for negotiating all of these union contracts within the industry since 1982. Today, it is considered the industry's official contract negotiation representative for everyone within the industry.[30]

Career process

There are many different ways to become a film producer. Stanley Kramer started as an editor and writer, while other producers started as actors or directors.[31]

However, most producers start in a college, university or film school. On the occasion of announcing his own film school, 'École de la Cité, film producer Luc Besson admitted that at the beginning of his career, he would have appreciated the chance to attend a film school.[32][33] Film schools and many universities offer degree courses that include film production knowledge, with some courses that are especially designed for future film producers.[34][35] These courses focus on key topics like pitching, script development, script assessment, shooting schedule design, and budgeting.[36][37][38][39] Students can also expect practical training regarding post-production.[40] Training at a top producing school is one of the most efficient ways a student can show professionals they are not a rookie.[41]

While education is one way to begin a career as a film producer, experience is also required to land a job. Internships are a great way to gain experience while in school and give students a solid foundation on which to build their career. Many internships are paid, which enable students to earn money while gaining hands-on skills from industry professionals.[42][43] Through internships, students get to network with people in the film industry as well. This pays off in the end when looking for jobs after school. Once an internship is over, the next step typically will be to land a junior position, such as a production assistant.[41]

Although rates can vary based on a producer's role and the location of filming, the average salary can start anywhere from $20,000 to $70,000, even doubling when working in Los Angeles.[44] The average annual salary for a producer in the U.S. is $109,844. When examining more than 15,000 producers in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the average annual salary is $138,640.[45] Producers can also have an agreement to take a percentage of a movie's sales.[45]

There is no average work day for a film producer, since their tasks are changing from day to day. A producer's work hours are often irregular and can consist of very long days with the possibility of working nights and weekends.[46]

Notable producers

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Frequently Asked Questions - Producers Guild of America". www.producersguild.org. Retrieved 2017-03-19. 
  2. ^ a b "Producing | London Film School". lfs.org.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-19. 
  3. ^ "Production". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  4. ^ "27-2012.01 - Producers". www.onetonline.org. Retrieved 2017-03-19. 
  5. ^ a b Cieply, Michael (8 November 2012). "Three Studios Agree to Let a Guild Certify Credits for Film Producers". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c "TV or film producer". nationalcareersservice.direct.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-18. 
  7. ^ Tunstall, Jeremy (2003). Communication and Society: Television Producers(1). Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 9780203180358. Documentary film- makers are compared with producers of news, current affairs, sport and 'infotainment'. Each genre is a separate world with its own distinctive use of TV technology and money, pattern of recruitment and career, and worldview.
  8. ^ Spicer, Andrew (2004). "The Production Line: Reflections on the Role of the Film Producer in British Cinema.". Film & Television Literature Index with Full Text. 1: 35–50 – via EBSCOhost.
  9. ^ Pardo, Alejandro (2010). ""The Film Producer As A Creative Force."".Film & Television Literature Index with Full Text. 2: 1–23 – via EBSCOhost.
  10. ^ "All the projects that I have been involved with have allowed me to see how important it is to get things right from the beginning. Production standards – good or bad – can cause a domino effect in the chain of command all the way through the process.". Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d e Zetti, Herbert (2011). Television Production Handbook 12th Edition. Cengage Learning. p. 7. ISBN 978-1285052670
  12. ^ a b c "Producer". creativeskillset.org. Retrieved 2017-02-18. 
  13. ^ "writers Neal Purvis and Robert Wade have been hired to pen the screenplay for producer Dino de Laurentiis". Retrieved 13 April 2007. 
  14. ^ "Goldman was contacted by director/producer Rob Reiner to write the screenplay". Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
  15. ^ "He began work on the script. And worked on it and worked on it, pushing it through seven drafts before arriving at a version with which de Laurentiis was satisfied". Retrieved 11 November 2010. 
  16. ^ "Broccoli insisted on a rewrite, claiming to the story was too political for a 007 film. Writer Christopher Wood was brought on board to collaborate with Maibaum and expand upon Broccoli’s personal concept for the film". Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  17. ^ Bergan, Ronald (4 August 2010). "the producers Albert R Broccoli and Harry Saltzman hired him for two weeks to doctor the Richard Maibaum script of Diamonds Are Forever". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 August 2010. 
  18. ^ "Next De Laurentiis hired King Vidor, director of Duel in the Sun (1946) and The Fountainhead (1949) to make the movie". Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  19. ^ "He also stuck loyally by gifted American directors when they were out of favour or off form. Robert Altman made one of his less successful pictures, Buffalo Bill and the Indians (1976), for De Laurentiis, who also helped the luckless Michael Cimino back on his feet after the commercial disaster of Heaven's Gate". The Daily Telegraph. London. 11 November 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2010. 
  20. ^ "Cubby Broccoli personally broke his own golden rule and cast her as the mysterious Octopussy". Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  21. ^ Bergan, Ronald. "In 1979, Eichinger bought a large stake in the Munich-based production and distribution company Constantin Film, which he ran as a hands-on producer for over 30 years". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 
  22. ^ "Europacorp studio posted $186 million in revenues last year, making it second only to Germany's Constantin Film as Europe's largest independent studio". Retrieved 10 March 2009. 
  23. ^ "Lucas continued the Star Wars saga as story writer and executive producer with The Empire Strikes Back in 1980 and Return of the Jedi in 1983.". Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  24. ^ Bergan, Ronald. "In 1979, Eichinger bought a large stake in the Munich-based production and distribution company Constantin Film, which he ran as a hands-on producer for over 30 years". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 
  25. ^ "Europacorp studio posted $186 million in revenues last year, making it second only to Germany's Constantin Film as Europe's largest independent studio". Retrieved 10 March 2009. 
  26. ^ Cieply, Michael (8 November 2012). "Three Studios Agree to Let a Guild Certify Credits for Film Producers". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  27. ^ "test audiences nearly rioted after cheering for Rambo and then seeing him die. So the producers went back to Hope, British Columbia, the location for the film, and shot a new ending in which Rambo lives". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  28. ^ a b "Special Collections | Margaret Herrick Library | Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences". collections.oscars.org. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  29. ^ "AMPTP". amptp.org. Retrieved 2017-03-19. 
  30. ^ "A Guide to Hollywood Unions | FilmmakerIQ.com". filmmakeriq.com. Retrieved 2017-02-19.
  31. ^ "Mr. Kramer began his career in the 1930s as an editor and writer, later forming an independent production company". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  32. ^ L'École de la Cité
  33. ^ "Luc Besson launches film school". Variety. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  34. ^ "The MFA Advanced Film Practice programme aims to equip you with the creative, professional and technical knowledge you will need to enter the professional arena as a writer, producer or director.". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  35. ^ "The training course last three years and the interdisciplinary teaching programme prepares students in the specific areas of directing, scriptwriting, acting, photography, editing, sound techniques, production, set design, props and wardrobe". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  36. ^ "Production". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  37. ^ "Production". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  38. ^ "Our BA in Film Production is one of our most highly sought-after courses.". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  39. ^ "Producing seminars teach through practical studies in production, script development, budgeting, and media economics". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  40. ^ "All student films are developed, shot and post-produced in teams, closely mirroring a realistic industry work process in order to ease graduates’ transitions to the professional environment". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  41. ^ a b "Becoming a Producer - Tried and Tested Career Paths". Student Resources. 2015-06-12. Retrieved 2017-02-20. 
  42. ^ "Where to Look for Internship Programs in Entertainment". The Balance. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  43. ^ "Ways into the film industry - Film Industry - Creative Skillset". creativeskillset.org. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  44. ^ "Jobs in Film: Average Salary & Career Paths". Student Resources. 2014-12-01. Retrieved 2017-02-20. 
  45. ^ a b http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/highest-paying-jobs-film-industry.htm#page=1
  46. ^ "Television/film/video producer job profile | Prospects.ac.uk". www.prospects.ac.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-20. 

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 2 September 2017, at 01:08.
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