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American Society of Muslims

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The American Society of Muslims was a predominantly African-American association of Muslims which was the direct descendent of the original Nation of Islam. It was created by Warith Deen Mohammed after he assumed leadership of the Nation of Islam upon the death of his father Elijah Muhammad.[1] Imam W. Deen Mohammed changed the name of the Nation of Islam to the "World Community of Islam in the West" in 1976, then the "American Muslim Mission" in 1981, and finally the "American Society of Muslims".[2]

The group largely accepted beliefs and practices based on mainstream Sunni Islam, abandoning many of the distinctive claims of the founders of the Nation of Islam. W.D. Mohammed retired as the leader of the association in 2003 and established a charity called The Mosque Cares.

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Transcription

I am an American Muslim. And I, along with my mainstream Muslim brethren, in America and abroad, must come to terms with an ever more apparent truth: that we are the only ones who can lead a winning fight against the radicalism crippling our faith. If there was ever any doubt of this, just look at the nature of the terrorist attack in San Bernardino, California in December of 2015. What’s most troubling about the San Bernardino massacre is that Syed Farook, the husband half of the terrorist couple, seems to have been, by almost all accounts, an ordinary American. His was not a crime born of poverty or lack of opportunity, or an inability to integrate into American society. Just the opposite. He was raised in a middle class environment by first generation Pakistani immigrant parents. He was educated and earned a good living. I too, like many American Muslims, come from a background that is very similar, as the son of Pakistani immigrants, which makes the attack all the more concerning. It seems unthinkable that someone in such a position could be susceptible to radicalization. Yet we have seen it happen time and again among younger Muslims in the Middle East, Europe and now America. Attacks like San Bernardino underscore the importance of countering extremist propaganda. While sophisticated attacks by terrorist groups can be effectively prevented by law enforcement and national-security measures, the truth is there isn't much that can be done by any government—not even stricter gun-control laws—to eliminate the possibility of a radicalized lone wolf wreaking havoc. Only defeating the ideology that inspires these attacks can do that. A propaganda war must be waged against this radicalism and American Muslims have to be on the front lines for it to be credible. Merely condemning Islamist terror is not enough. We must actively engage in counter-extremism messaging. We must build an intellectual and theological case against radical Islam. Our religious leaders have to educate and warn our youth about the dangers of searching for spiritual guidance on the Internet. They must make it perfectly clear that anyone who engages in any act of terrorism is not doing God's work, they're doing the work of the devil. And we in the Muslim community have to continue to be vigilant. If someone who regularly attends mosque stops coming and disappears abruptly after marrying a Pakistani woman in Saudi Arabia whom he met online, it shouldn't take two years and 36 Americans getting shot (including one from that very mosque) before we notice. We have the benefit of living in a nation that protects freedom of speech and association, a nation that values the marketplace of ideas, a nation that allows us all to practice our faith, no matter our religion.We have the opportunity to speak out and challenge radicalism in a way others abroad cannot. There is a war going on that extends beyond Syria, and American Muslims are under siege – not by a fringe group of bigoted Americans, but by a fringe group of Muslims abroad who seek to tear our communities apart and take away the freedom that we all cherish. They are trying to target the disaffected among us, hijack the mosque pulpit, and convince us that we're unwelcome in our own country. But if we're serious about leading this fight with unified support, certain things will have to change. We can't call out prejudice against our own faith without also calling out the gender inequality and homophobia that we find in some of our own Muslim communities. We can't be champions of our own religious freedom without also championing the freedom of people of all religious traditions, including other Muslim denominations that we may disagree with. We have to change the way we think about Islamic law and vilify the medieval judicial practices that persist in the Middle East. And we must have the uncomfortable but necessary conversations about where much of the funding for this cancerous supremacist ideology is coming from—Saudi Arabia. We carry with us a responsibility to our country, our faith and our children. The majority of us are here because our parents or grandparents emigrated from oppressive and illiberal nations for the promise of a better life in America. But the way things are heading, our children may grow up with less opportunity and freedom than we did. I can think of no greater defeat and surrender to radicalism than that. I'm Khurram Dara for Prager University.

Contents

History

After the 1975 death of Elijah Muhammad, his son Warith Deen Mohammed took over leadership of the Nation of Islam. He quickly rejected many of his father's views, including black separatism and belief in the divinity of Wallace Fard Muhammad, founder of the Nation of Islam. He was "determined to bring it into conformity with mainstream Islam".[3] In 1976 he changed the name of the organization to World Community of Islam in the West. In 1981 it changed again to American Muslim Mission, a name that was retained until 1985. Finally it settled on the American Society of Muslims.[4]

In 1977, Louis Farrakhan resigned from Warith Deen's reformed organization, and with a number of supporters decided to rebuild the original Nation of Islam upon the foundation established by Wallace Fard Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad.[5] Over time Minister Farrakhan regained many of the Nation of Islam's original National properties including the flagship National Headquarters Mosque #2 (Mosque Maryam) in Chicago, IL.

Organizational reforms

Second renaming

On September 10, 1978 in an address in Atlanta, Georgia, Warith Deen Mohammed resigned from his position as Chief Imam of the World Community of Al-Islam in the West and appointed a Consultative Body of Imams (A'immah) to oversee the activities of the Community. Upon his resignation W. D. Mohammed pledged to serve as an ambassador at large for the community. This was his first step in separating his ministry from the narrow confines of the Nation of Islam/World Community of Islam. The original Council of Imams, according to Imam Muhammad, would consist of the 6 Imams over the Regions and it would have an accountant as a financial adviser, an attorney as a legal adviser and one of the headmasters over the schools to advise on education matters. The council would have at least two Imams affiliated with his leadership who were from outside of America who were over Islamic Studies departments. Also, extra support and protection for the council would come from every Imam in good standing. Each would have the power to criticize.[6][7]

The original Council of Imams consisted of:

  • Sheik James Abdul-Aziz Shabazz of Chicago, Illinois
  • Imam Ali Rasheed of Masjid Malcolm Shabazz, New York, NY
  • Imam Khalil Abdel Alim of Washington, DC
  • Imam Ibrahim Pasha of Atlanta, GA
  • Imam Ibrahim Kamal ud-Din of Houston, TX
  • Imam Abdul Karim Hasan of Los Angeles, CA.

The Auxiliary members were:

  • Imam Muhammad Abdullah of Oakland, CA, by way of Pakistan
  • Imam B. Mustafa Ali of Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  • Sheik Tajuddin B. Shuaib of Los Angeles, CA, by way of Africa
  • Imam Shakir Mahmood of Boston, MA
  • Sheik Ahmed Rufai of New York, NY, by way of Nigeria
  • Imam Nuridden Faiz of Hartford, Connecticut
  • Dr. R. Muhammad Mazen Al-Wan of Detroit, Michigan, by way of Iran
  • Imam Alfred Muhammad of Baltimore, MD
  • Imam Clyde Rahman of Masjid Bilal, Cleveland, Ohio
  • Sheik Muhammad Nur of Chicago, Illinois, by way of Sudan
  • Imam Nasir Ahmed of Miami, Florida.[7]

Third renaming

The change from the American Muslim Mission to the American Society of Muslims occurred in the context of problems following protracted legal challenges caused by financial claims on the estate of Elijah Muhammad made on behalf of children he had fathered out of wedlock.[8][9] In 1985 Warith Deen Mohammed ordered the dissolution of the American Muslim Mission. W.D. Mohammed said disbanding the American Muslim Mission means "we are members of the worldwide Muslim community...not to be identified in geographic terms or political terms or racial terms". The decision to break up the organization meant that each mosque would be autonomous.[10] Despite dissolving the movement legally, it continued informally, but this did not stop a legal judgement in 1987 which forced the sale of $10 million worth of property. W.D. Mohammed sold a number of properties to Farrakhan, including Temple No. 2, the headquarters mosque, which was purchased with a donation to Farrakhan from Muammar Gaddafi.[9][11] W.D. Mohammed reconstituted the movement as the American Society of Muslims in 1988. Warith Deen Mohammed and Farrakhan retained control of their rival groups before a phase of rapprochement in the 1990s.

In the July 9, 1999 issue of the Wall Street Journal an article cited the growing membership of the American Society of Muslims. In 2002 its numbers were estimated at "near 2.5 million persons with a percentage of immigrant and naturalized American citizens from various Muslim ethnic peoples, European Americans, and a majority of African Americans representing five generations since the earliest history of Elijah Mohammed's leadership (1933) and in some cases before."[12]

Warith Deen resigned from the leadership of the American Society of Muslims on August 31, 2003 and established The Mosque Cares. He gave as his reason for resigning that the imams within the organization continued to resist his reforms.[4][13][14]

On December 21, 2003, Imam Mustafa El-Amin was given W.D. Mohammed's blessing to attempt to maintain the AMS as an organization. El-Amin advertised in The Muslim Journal, expressing solidarity with the aims of the former leader. El-Amin received little support and the ASM did not reorganize. After W.D. Mohammed's death in 2008, its members have identified as the "Community of Imam Warith Deen Mohammed" or simply "Muslim Americans", and its national activities have been largely organized by The Mosque Cares, run by one of W.D. Mohammed's sons Wallace D. Mohammed II.[15]

Programs and aim

The aims of the American Society of Muslims were to establish an Islamic community life (New Africa) in America and the promotion of a positive image of Al-Islam in America and the world. Its organized school accreditation, publications and business ventures relate to Islamic communal life in America, including the sale and circulation of Halal food. At the time of Imam W. Deen Mohammed's death, the CPC (Collective Purchasing Conference) was under development.

Publications

The organization's newspaper was Bilalian News (after Bilal ibn Rabah) in 1975. In 1981 it became The Muslim Journal.[16] It is currently edited by Ayesha K. Mustapha.[17] In 2011 due to low readership and the decline of newspapers nationwide due to the internet, the Muslim Journal downsized to a home office with an online presence http://themuslimjournal.com/, The Muslim Journal Editor, Ayesha Mustapha was forced to find a full-time job and work on the paper online.Memo from the editor, 2011.[18]

Education

After his father's death W. Deen Mohammed transformed the Muhammad University of Islam into the Clara Muhammad Schools,[1][19] or simply Mohammed Schools, replacing the University of Islam founded by his father. The school system is "an association of approximately 75 elementary, secondary, and high schools throughout the United States and the Caribbean Islands." The schools have been described by Zakiyyah Muhammad of the American Educational Research Association as "models of Islamic education that are achieving commendable results".[20][21]

After 2003

The Mosque Cares president, Wallace Deen Mohammed II, was seeking to take central control over the intellectual properties (his name, picture, quotes, writings etc.) of his father.[22] This matter is currently a part of the probate case between Imam W.D. Mohammed's family.[23]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Lincoln, C. Eric. (1994)The Black Muslims in America, Third Edition, William B. (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Company) page 263
  2. ^ Esposito, John. "On Faith Panelists Blog: W.D. Mohammed: A Witness for True Islam - John Esposito". Newsweek.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
  3. ^ Geneive Abdo, Mecca and Main Street: Muslim Life in America After 9/11, Oxford University Press US, 2006, pp. 8-9
  4. ^ a b Goldsborough, Bob. "Chicago Tribune, Wednesday, Sept 10, 2008". Archives.chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on May 28, 2009. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
  5. ^ Lincoln, C. Eric. (1994)The Black Muslims in America, Third Edition, William B. (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Company) page 265
  6. ^ Evolution of a Community, WDM Publications 1995 page 20
  7. ^ a b Bilalian News Muslim Journal September 29, 1978
  8. ^ Evolution of a Community, WDM Publications 1995 page 28-30
  9. ^ a b Stephen C. Finley, Torin Alexander, African American religious cultures, ABC-CLIO, 2009, p.84
  10. ^ Evolution of a Community, WDM Publications 1995 page 33-35
  11. ^ Jet, May 20, 1985
  12. ^ Jocelyne Cesari, When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, p.197.
  13. ^ Imam W.D. Muhammad, Leader of the American Society of Muslims Resigns, Jet, Johnson Publishing Company, Sep 22, 2003, Vol. 104, No. 13
  14. ^ Parsons, Monique. "''The Most Important Muslim You've Never Heard of''". Beliefnet.com. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
  15. ^ Wall Street Journal, Vol. CIV, No. 6, Friday, July 9, 1999
  16. ^ Lincoln, C. Eric. (1994)The Black Muslims in America, Third Edition, William B. (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Company) page 275
  17. ^ Rosemary Skinner Keller et al., Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America, Indiana University Press, 2006, p.752
  18. ^ "The Muslim Journal is in dire need !!!". You R A Creator. 2011-07-05. Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
  19. ^ Evolution of a Community, WDM Publications 1995 page 15
  20. ^ Zakiyyah Muhammad, "Faith and Courage to Educate our Own", in Joyce Elaine King, "Black Education: A Transformative Research and Action Agenda for the New Century", American Educational Research Association. Commission on Research in Black Education, Routledge, 2005, p. 264.
  21. ^ 20th Anniversary of Mohammed Schools in Atlanta, Jan 20, 2000, Religious Diversity News The Atlanta Journal and Constitution
  22. ^ Muhammad Siddeeq. "Why Give Wallace Mohammed II Power and Authority over You That He Does Not Have?". Siddeeq.com. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
  23. ^ Muhammad Siddeeq. "Why Is Wallace Ii Suing His Mother Shirley Muhammad? What Is This Law Suit All About?". Siddeeq.com. Retrieved 2012-09-19.

External links

This page was last edited on 21 January 2019, at 06:51
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