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Muhammad Abdul Aziz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Muhammad Abdul Aziz (formerly known as Norman 3X Butler; born 1938[1]) is an American who was convicted in 1966 for the assassination of Malcolm X. He was paroled in 1985[2] and maintains his innocence.[3][4][5][6] He was a member of the Fruit of Islam, the security arm of the Nation of Islam which later evolved to Sunni Islam under the leadership of Warithu Deen Mohammad, and changed his name to Muhammad Abdul Aziz while serving his sentence in prison.[1]

He is a former member of the United States Navy.[7] In March 1998, he was appointed as head of security of the Masjid Malcolm Shabazz.[2]

A few days after the release of Who Killed Malcolm X?, a six-part documentary series that aired on Netflix beginning in February 2020, New York County District Attorney Cy Vance announced a preliminary review of Aziz's conviction. The district attorney also met with the Innocence Project who are working to re-investigate the case.[8]

See also



  • Doeden, Matt (1 February 2013). A Marked Man: The Assassination of Malcolm X. Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 978-1-4677-1054-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • McFadden, Robert D. (31 March 1998). "An Assassin Of Malcolm X Gets Islam Post". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 February 2020.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Flynn, Meagan (10 February 2020). "Malcolm X assassination may be reinvestigated as Netflix documentary, lawyers cast doubt on convictions". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 February 2020.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • "An Innocent Man Spent 20 Years in Prison for Malcolm X's Murder". Innocence Project. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  • Weiss, Debra Cassens (7 February 2020). "Prosecutors consider reviewing convictions in Malcolm X's murder after documentary raises questions". ABA Journal. Retrieved 11 February 2020.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Leland, John (6 February 2020). "Who Really Killed Malcolm X?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 February 2020.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Romo, Vanessa (11 February 2020). "Malcolm X Doc Prompts 'Reexamination' Of Iconic Leader's Assassination Investigation". Retrieved 13 February 2020.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

Further reading

  • Felber, Garrett A. (June 2010). "Thomas 15X Johnson Oral History (2004): Transcript, Thomas 15X Johnson, Oral History Interview, 29 September 2004, by Dr. Manning Marable, pp. 14–33". Souls. 12 (2): 170–181. doi:10.1080/10999941003785224. ISSN 1099-9949.
This page was last edited on 25 April 2020, at 03:38
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