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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Zhongyuan
中原
Central Plain
Map showing the province of Henan and two definitions of the Central Plain or Zhongyuan
Map showing the province of Henan and two definitions of the Central Plain or Zhongyuan
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHenan
Major CitiesZhengzhou
Luoyang
Kaifeng
Xinxiang
Population
 • Metro
~24,170,000

Zhongyuan (Chinese: 中原; pinyin: Zhōngyuán), the Central Plains, also known as Zhongtu (Chinese: 中土; pinyin: Zhōngtǔ, lit. 'central land') and Zhongzhou (Chinese: 中州; pinyin: Zhōngzhōu, lit. 'central region'), commonly refers to the lower and middle reaches of the Yellow River, centered on the region between Luoyang to Kaifeng.[1] It has been perceived as the birthplace of Chinese civilization.[2] Historically, the Han Chinese viewed Zhongyuan as 'the center of the world'.[3] Human activities in the Zhongyuan region can be traced back to the Palaeolithic period.[4]

In prehistoric times, Huaxia, a confederation of tribes that later developed into the Han ethnic group in China, lived along the middle to lower reaches of the Yellow River.[5] The term ‘Zhongguo’ (Central States) was used to distinguish themselves from the Siyi tribe that was perceived as ‘barbaric’.[6] In the pre-Qing era of ancient China, Zhongyuan had always been the political, economic, and cultural center of the country, as over 20 dynasties had established their regimes and located their capitals in this region.[7]

In the modern concept, the term ‘Central Plains Region’ is used to define the Zhongyuan area. In a narrow sense, it refers to the present-day Henan Province in the central part of China. A broader interpretation of the Central Plains' measure would also include Henan’s neighborhood province, Shaanxi, Hebei, Shanxi, and Shandong, as well as the northern part of Anhui and the northwestern part of Jiangsu.[8]

Definition

The concept of Zhongyuan had often been changing in different historical periods, under different contexts.

The term Zhongyuan first appeared in the Classic of Poetry, meaning ‘in the middle of wildness’, not specifying any exact geographic locations.[9] It was during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) that the word came to denote the Central Plains region. Only until the Northern and Southern dynasties (420-589 AD) onward, the term ‘Zhongyuan’ were widely accepted as a geographical concept.[10]

The geographical view of Zhongyuan may depict different regions. It usually refers to the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, but sometimes also encompasses the reaches along the Yangtze and Huai River, and even the whole North China Plain.

Apart from being a geographical location, the term 'Zhongyuan' is also used as a historical and cultural concept that represents the dominance of the Han ethnicity.[11]

Geography

The north, west, and south sides of Zhongyuan are encircled by mountains, predominantly the Taihang Mountains from the northwestern side, Funiu and Xionger Mountains to the west. The central and eastern areas of Zhongyuan form part of the North China Plain. The Yellow River flows through the region from west to east. The Huai River and Hai River, as well as Tributaries of the Yangtze River, also pass through Zhongyuan. Since ancient times, Zhongyuan has been a strategically important site of China, regarded as ‘The center and hub of the world’.[12]

The alluvial deposits of the Yellow River formed the vast plains of Zhongyuan in the Palaeozoic period.[13] The region has sufficient water resources for plant growth, making it the center of the Chinese agrarian civilization, known as the ‘Breadbasket of China’.[14]

Zhongyuan has a temperate monsoon climate with distinct seasons. It is usually hot and humid during the summer, cold and dry in the winter.[15]

History

The history of Zhongyuan can be dated back to prehistoric times. There were traces of human activities in Zhongyuan about half a million years ago. Archaeological studies have shown that as far back as 80,000 to 100,000 years ago, the ancient people of Zhongyuan were using stone tools.[16] The excavation of painted pottery and stone tools found from relics of Yangshao culture (5000 to 3000 BC) and Longshan culture (3000 to 1900 BC) prove that Zhongyuan was in the forefront of Chinese civilization throughout the Stone Age.[17]

After the rise of Erlitou culture (1900 to 1500 BC), Zhongyuan entered the Bronze Age.[18] The emergence of private ownership and social classes led to the formation of the first dynasty in Chinese history, the Xia dynasty.[19] The Xia dynasty established its regime centered on Zhongyuan, setting the tone for later dynasties to make Zhongyuan the central region.

From the rise of the Xia dynasty (c.2070–c.1600 BC) to the fall of the Song dynasty (960–1279), most of the legitimate dynasties established their capitals within the Zhongyuan area, except for Eastern Jin and the Southern Song. It was not until the Yuan (1271–1368) and Ming dynasties (1368–1644) that the political center of China re-located to North China, as the Mongol Empire established the Yuan dynasty in Dadu (Khanbaliq, now Beijing).[20] Later, Yongle Emperor of the Ming dynasty moved the capital at his power base in Beijing.[21]

Language

Central Plains Mandarin (or Zhongyuan Mandarin) is the major language and native tongue spoken in the Zhongyuan region. It is a variety of Mandarin Chinese, formed and developed gradually based on the standard pronunciations of Mandarin and its predecessor, Yayan.[22]

In the Yuan dynasty, the rime book ‘Zhongyuan Yinyun’ (Rhymes of the Central Plains) written by Zhou Deqing reflected the standard pronunciation of Early Mandarin. Some linguists argue that the Early Mandarin recorded in ‘Zhongyuan Yinyun’ was based on the pronunciation standards derived from the Luoyang and Bianliang dialects of Zhongyuan, which had been prevailed in the Song dynasty.[23]

In modern China, Central Plains Mandarin is mainly used in Henan, Shandong, Anhui, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, and Hebei. The population of native Central Plains Mandarin speakers is approximated to over 124 million.[24]

In terms of tone, the preeminent characteristics of modern Central Plains Mandarin are: The neutral and aspirational voiced initial consonants of entering tone in Early Mandarin are now pronounced in Yin-ping (‘dark level’) and voiced initial consonants of entering tone in Early Mandarin are now pronounced in Yang-ping (‘light level’).[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ Yeqiu, Wu, Zeyan Huang, Qiuyun Liu (1996). Ciyuan. Shangwu Yinshuguan. pp. 5–11. ISBN 7-100-00124-2. OCLC 475148039.
  2. ^ Duara, Prasenjit (2003). Sovereignty and authenticity : Manchukuo and the East Asian modern. Lanham. p. 7. ISBN 0-7425-2577-5. OCLC 50755038.
  3. ^ Zhang, Xin-bin; 张新斌 (2007). "中原文化与商都初论 Initial Remark on the Central Plains Culture and the Shang Dynasty-Capital Culture". Journal of Huanghe S&T University. no.4, 2007: 17–24. doi:10.19576/j.issn.1008-5424.2007.04.006.
  4. ^ Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Wang, Youping (2012). "Paleolithic Archaeology in China". Annual Review of Anthropology. 41: 319–335. doi:10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145832. ISSN 0084-6570. JSTOR 23270714.
  5. ^ Cioffi-Revilla, Claudio; Lai, David (1995). "War and Politics in Ancient China, 2700 B.C. to 722 B.C.: Measurement and Comparative Analysis". The Journal of Conflict Resolution. 39 (3): 467–494. doi:10.1177/0022002795039003004. ISSN 0022-0027. JSTOR 174577.
  6. ^ Holcombe, Charles (2011). A history of East Asia : from the origins of civilization to the twenty-first century. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51595-5. OCLC 643762927.
  7. ^ Zhaoguang, Ge (2018-01-02). "The "interior" and the "exterior" in historical China: A re-clarification of the concepts of "China" and the "periphery"". Chinese Studies in History. 51 (1): 4–28. doi:10.1080/00094633.2018.1467668. ISSN 0009-4633.
  8. ^ Xianglong, Yu; 喻湘龙 (2004). 中国民间图形创意设计 Chinese Folk Graphics Creative Design. Guangxi Fine Arts Publishing House. p. 10. ISBN 7-80674-440-1.
  9. ^ Hua, Feng; 华峰 (2002). "从《诗经》看中原文化 Culture of Zhong Yuan Viewed from the Book of Poetry". Journal of Henan Education Institute (Philosophy and Social Science). 1, 2002 (21): 43–49 – via CNKI.
  10. ^ Xue, Ruize; 薛瑞泽 (2005). "中原地区概念的形成 Formation of the Concept of the Central Plains". Root Exploration. no.5, 2005: 10–12 – via CNKI.
  11. ^ Wang, Q. Edward (1999). "History, Space, and Ethnicity: The Chinese Worldview". Journal of World History. 10 (2): 285–305. ISSN 1045-6007. JSTOR 20078782.
  12. ^ Sha, Hsueh-chuen; 沙學浚 (1972). 地理学论文集 Discourses on Geography Studies. Taiwan: The Commercial Press Taiwan. p. 11. ISBN 957-05-0976-7. OCLC 813452544.
  13. ^ Lattimore, Owen (1947). "An Inner Asian Approach to the Historical Geography of China". The Geographical Journal. 110 (4/6): 180–187. doi:10.2307/1789948. ISSN 0016-7398. JSTOR 1789948.
  14. ^ Yin, Fang; Sun, Zhanli; You, Liangzhi; Müller, Daniel (2018-09-03). "Increasing concentration of major crops in China from 1980 to 2011". Journal of Land Use Science. 13 (5): 480–493. doi:10.1080/1747423X.2019.1567838. ISSN 1747-423X.
  15. ^ Kwon, Jong-Wook; Shan, Chuanxuan (2012). "Climate and Work Values: A Comparison of Cold, Warm, and Hot Regions in China". MIR: Management International Review. 52 (4): 541–564. doi:10.1007/s11575-011-0120-1. ISSN 0938-8249. JSTOR 41682273.
  16. ^ Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Wang, Youping (2012). "Paleolithic Archaeology in China". Annual Review of Anthropology. 41: 319–335. doi:10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145832. ISSN 0084-6570. JSTOR 23270714.
  17. ^ Zhimin, An (1988). "Archaeological Research on Neolithic China". Current Anthropology. 29 (5): 753–759. doi:10.1086/203698. ISSN 0011-3204. JSTOR 2743616.
  18. ^ Allan, Sarah (2007). "Erlitou and the Formation of Chinese Civilization: Toward a New Paradigm". The Journal of Asian Studies. 66 (2): 461–496. doi:10.1017/S002191180700054X. ISSN 0021-9118. JSTOR 20203165.
  19. ^ HUBER, LOUISA G. FITZGERALD (1988). "The Bo Capital and Questions Concerning Xia and Early Shang". Early China. 13: 46–77. doi:10.1017/S0362502800005204. ISSN 0362-5028. JSTOR 23351321.
  20. ^ Biran, Michal (2015). "The Mental Maps of Mongol Central Asia as Seen from the Mamluk Sultanate". Journal of Asian History. 49 (1–2): 31–51. doi:10.13173/jasiahist.49.1-2.0031. ISSN 0021-910X. JSTOR 10.13173/jasiahist.49.1-2.0031.
  21. ^ Wang, Yuan-Kang (2011). Harmony and war : Confucian culture and Chinese power politics. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 101–144. ISBN 978-0-231-52240-3. OCLC 695655086.
  22. ^ "History of the Mandarin language". GoEast Mandarin. 2020-11-30. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  23. ^ Coblin, W. South (2000). "A Brief History of Mandarin". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 120 (4): 537–552. doi:10.2307/606615. ISSN 0003-0279. JSTOR 606615.
  24. ^ He, Wei; 贺巍 (2005). "中原官话分区(稿) Classification / Distribution of Middle Area Mandarin (Zhongyuan Guanhua)". Dialect (2, 2005): 136–140. ISSN 0257-0203.
  25. ^ He, Wei; 贺巍 (2005). "中原官话分区(稿) Classification / Distribution of Middle Area Mandarin (Zhongyuan Guanhua)". Dialect (2, 2005): 136–140. ISSN 0257-0203.
This page was last edited on 1 September 2021, at 04:18
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