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Zhang Zhen (general)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Zhang Zhen
张震
Zhang Zhen 1955.jpg
Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party
In office
18 October 1992 – 18 September 1997
ChairmanJiang Zemin
Head of the PLA–CMC General Logistics Department
In office
February 1978 – January 1980
Preceded byZhang Zongxun
Succeeded byHong Xuezhi
Head of the PLA–CMC General Staff Operations Department
In office
March 1952 – December 1954
Preceded byLi Tao
Succeeded byWang Shangrong
Personal details
Born(1914-10-05)5 October 1914
Pingjiang County, Hunan Province, Republic of China
Died3 September 2015(2015-09-03) (aged 100)
Beijing, China
Political partyCommunist Party of China
Military service
AllegiancePeople's Republic of China
Branch/servicePeople's Liberation Army
Years of service?–1997
RankGeneral

Zhang Zhen (Chinese: 张震; pinyin: Zhāng Zhèn; 5 October 1914 – 3 September 2015) was a general of the People's Liberation Army of China and a member of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China.

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Transcription

If you've had surgery, you might remember starting to count backwards from ten, nine, eight, and then waking up with the surgery already over before you even got to five. And it might seem like you were asleep, but you weren't. You were under anesthesia, which is much more complicated. You were unconscious, but you also couldn't move, form memories, or, hopefully, feel pain. Without being able to block all those processes at once, many surgeries would be way too traumatic to perform. Ancient medical texts from Egypt, Asia and the Middle East all describe early anesthetics containing things like opium poppy, mandrake fruit, and alcohol. Today, anesthesiologists often combine regional, inhalational and intravenous agents to get the right balance for a surgery. Regional anesthesia blocks pain signals from a specific part of the body from getting to the brain. Pain and other messages travel through the nervous system as electrical impulses. Regional anesthetics work by setting up and electrical baracade. They bind to the proteins in neurons' cell membranes that let charged particles in and out, and lock out positively charged particles. One compound that does this is cocaine, whose painkilling effects were discovered by accident when an ophthalmology intern got some on his tongue. It's still occasionally used as an anesthetic, but many of the more common regional anesthetics have a similar chemical structure and work the same way. But for major surgeries where you need to be unconscious, you'll want something that acts on the entire nervous system, including the brain. That's what inhalational anesthetics do. In Western medicine, diethyl ether was the first common one. It was best known as a recreational drug until doctors started to realize that people sometimes didn't notice injuries they received under the influence. In the 1840s, they started sedating patients with ether during dental extractions and surgeries. Nitrous oxide became popular in the decades that followed and is still used today. although ether derivatives, like sevoflurane, are more common. Inhalational anesthesia is usually supplemented with intravenous anesthesia, which was developed in the 1870s. Common intravenous agents include sedatives, like propofol, which induce unconsciousness, and opioids, like fentanyl, which reduce pain. These general anesthetics also seem to work by affecting electrical signals in the nervous system. Normally, the brain's electrical signals are a chaotic chorus as different parts of the brain communicate with each other. That connectivity keeps you awake and aware. But as someone becomes anesthetized, those signals become calmer and more organized, suggesting that different parts of the brain aren't talking to each other anymore. There's a lot we still don't know about exactly how this happens. Several common anesthetics bind to the GABA-A receptor in the brain's neurons. They hold the gateway open, letting negatively charged particles flow into the cell. Negative charge builds up and acts like a log jam, keeping the neuron from transmitting electrical signals. The nervous system has lots of these gated channels, controlling pathways for movement, memory, and consciousness. Most anesthetics probably act on more than one, and they don't act on just the nervous system. Many anesthetics also affect the heart, lungs, and other vital organs. Just like early anesthetics, which included familiar poisons like hemlock and aconite, modern drugs can have serious side effects. So an anesthesiologist has to mix just the right balance of drugs to create all the features of anesthesia, while carefully monitoring the patient's vital signs, and adjusting the drug mixture as needed. Anesthesia is complicated, but figuring out how to use it allowed for the development of new and better surgical techniques. Surgeons could learn how to routinely and safely perform C-sections, reopen blocked arteries, replace damaged livers and kidneys, and many other life-saving operations. And each year, new anesthesia techniques are developed that will ensure more and more patients survive the trauma of surgery.

Contents

Biography

Zhang was born in Pingjiang County, Hunan Province, with Hakka ancestry from Pingyuan County, Guangdong Province.[1] His original name was Zhang Jiansheng (Chinese: 张见生), also named as Zhang Zushou (Chinese: 张祖寿), Zhang Zhongtian (Chinese: 张中天). He joined the Communist Youth League in April 1930, and the Communist Party of China that summer.

From 1957–66, Zhang was vice president, and later president of PLA Nanjing Military Academy. Purged during the Cultural Revolution, he was rehabilitated in 1975 and appointed vice director, and later director of the PLA General Logistics Department, and a member of the CCP Central Military Commission. From 1980–85, he was the vice chief of staff in PLA General Staff Department. From 1985–90, he served as the president of National Defense University.

In 1990, Zhang became president, political commissar and CCP chief of the PLA National Defense University. He was an alternate member of the 11th CCP central committee, and a full member of the 12th CCP central committee. He celebrated his 100th birthday in October 2014 and died on September 3, 2015, just over a month before his 101st birthday.[2]

Children

References

  1. ^ "张震将军:"我既是平远人,也是平江人"".
  2. ^ 上将"张震100岁生日岳阳平江父老乡亲齐祝寿 (in Chinese). 岳阳网. 2014-10-06. Archived from the original on 2014-10-09. Retrieved 2014-10-06.

External links

Academic offices
New title President of the PLA National Defense University
1985–1992
Succeeded by
Zhu Dunfa
This page was last edited on 18 September 2019, at 20:28
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