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Mongolia III.jpg
Historical era1st millennium
• Established
• Disestablished
Today part of Kazakhstan

Yueban (Chinese: 悅般), also written Üeban, Urpen literally: "Weak Xiongnu") was the name used by Chinese historians for remnants of the Xiongnu in Zhetysu, now part of modern-day Kazakhstan. In Chinese literature they commonly called Yueban. The Yuebans gained their own visibility after disintegration of the Eastern Xiongnu state, because unlike the main body of the Northern Xiongnu, who escaped from the Chinese sphere of knowledge, the Yueban tribes remained closer to China.

The Yueban emerged after the disintegration of the Xiongnu confederation. They underwent a strong influence of the Sogdian culture.[1]

Their name was later applied to the Chuy tribes of Chuyue, Chumi, Chumuhun, and Chuban. The Chuy tribes were also collectively named Chuyue (处月; 處月; 'Abode of the Moon [god]'). The present endoethnonym of the Chuy descendants is Chuy Kiji, Turkic for "Chuy People".[2]

The Yuebans later intermixing with Turkic peoples, formed the Shatuo of the Western Göktürk Khaganate.[3]

The Yueban-descended Shato played an important role in Chinese dynastic history. In the 10th century the remaining Shato branch of the Chuy tribe possibly joined Mongolic-speaking Tatar confederation in the territory of the modern Mongolia, and became known as Ongud or White Tatars[4] branch of the Tatars.

Another Chuy-descended tribe,[citation needed] the Kimek was one of the Turkic tribes known from Arab and Persian Middle Age writers as one of the seven tribes in the Kimek Kaganate in the period of 743-1050 AD. The other six constituent tribes of the Kimek Kaganate according to Abu Said Gardizi (d. 1061) were the Kipchaks, Imi, Tatars, Bayandur, Lanikaz, and Ajlad.


Rouran Khaganate and Yueban
Asia in 400 AD, showing the Yueban Khanate and its neighbors.
Asia in 400 AD, showing the Yueban Khanate and its neighbors.

Between 155 and 166, the Xianbei or Syanbi (Ch. , Wade–Giles Hsien-pi, Hsien-pei), a former vassal tribe of the Xiongnu, united under Tian-Shih-huai conducted a series of campaigns against Northern Xiongnu, eventually defeating them and forcing them to flee west, which started a series of Xiongnu migrations (93 CE - circa 380 CE) westward to southern Siberia and Central Asia.[5][6] (The Xiongnu have often been linked to the Huns that later invaded Europe from the Eurasian steppe, although the link has never been conclusively established. Likewise the Yueban of late antiquity have sometimes been known as the "Central Asian Huns".[citation needed])

The defeat ended the prominence of the Xiongnu as a major power in inner Asia. Tian-Shih-huai expelled the Xiongnu from Dzungaria to beyond the Tarbagatai Mountains, and pushed the Dingling beyond the Sayan Mountains. The defeat had cost the Xiongnu their revenue from the Silk Road in the agricultural dependencies in the Tarim Basin ("Western Territories", Xiyu or Xinjian of the Chinese annals), forcing them to find new dependencies, and the Xiongnu split again.

Tribes known as the "Weak Xiongnu" or Yueban took advantage of the vulnerability of the neighboring Uar (a people possibly linked to the Hephthalites and/or the "Avars" who later invaded Eastern Europe) and conquered Zhetysu, where they established the principality of Yueban. Later, some Uar returned to Zhetysu, and in cooperation with the Mukrins, a Xianbei tribe, occupied the Tianshan slopes in the 2nd century, retaining their independence for some time as the Western Xianbei Horde.[7]

Zhetysu was also populated by the Azi (who lived between Suyab and Uzkent) and the Tukhsi. (The Azi and Tukhsi are sometimes linked to the Tukhara/Tokhari, Asii and YuezhiIndo-European peoples who had conquered Bactria six centuries earlier, and formed the Kushan Empire. The pioneering medieval linguist Mahmud Kashgari listed the Tukhsi, as a male dynastic tribe with a Turkic language.[8] This may suggest that Indo-European peoples underwent language replacement, in the form of "Turkification", had occurred.)

In 448 the Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei received an envoy from the Yueban to negotiate a war with the Rouran. If the Yueban would pressure them from the west, the Rouran would lose any freedom to maneuver. Though no direct records exist about the war in Dzungaria, by the course of the events, there was no peace, and the nomadic empire of Rouran began to decline.[9]

In the late 5th century the Yueban were attacked by the Tiele (also known as the Gaoche and linked to the modern Teleuts), who had split from the Rouran in 487. The Yueban principality ceased to existed during the 480s and split into four tribes, known as the Chuyue, Chumi, Chumuhun, and Chuban.[10] These tribes became major players in the later Turkic Khaganate and thereafter[11] The Chuyue branch, intermixing with the Turkuts (Uyghurs), formed the Shato tribe in Southern Dzungaria, west of Lake Barkol.[12] The dominance of the Tiele was short-lived: firstly the Hephthalites conquered them (495-496), followed by the Rouran and finally in 547, the Turkut conquered the Tiele.[citation needed]

Based on a reconstruction of Yueban history, Lev Gumilev argued against a then-widespread view that the Rouran were synonymous with the "Avars" or "Pseudo-Avars" (who attacked the Sabirs before invading Eastern Europe), because the Rouran would have had to pass through the Chuban state to attack the Sabirs.[13]

By the late 7th century, Yueban, Uar, Hephthalites, and Mukrin tribes had merged to form the Turgesh people.[citation needed]

Theism, spirits, and magic

No records address the Yueban religion, though Chinese annals depict some manifestations of religious rites and magic. A narration about the Yuebans tells about sorcerers, able to cause frost and rainstorm. During a war with the Rouran, Chuban sorcerers incited a snowstorm against them, making the Rouran so frostbitten they had to stop their campaign and retreat. A similar legend is later told about the Eurasian Avars sorcerers in their war with the Francs, and Naiman sorcerers against Chingis-Khan.[14]

The reigning clan of the western Turkic, initially Manichaean Chigil (Persian cihil "forty") tribe was Shato (Persian Sada "Hundred"), which later founded the Chinese state Hou-Tang (Later Tang, 923-936) in Northern China, and adopted a Chinese surname Li. The Shato had a predominant Dragon cult. Later Tang's founder Li Keiun also came from the Dragon tribe. The annals even noted that the Shato were praying "old services following the custom of the North" at the Thunder-mountain, at the Gates of Dragon.[15] Within China, Chuy Shato became active adherents and protectors of Buddhism and Taoism, and initiated construction of many Buddhist temples. Subsequent to Shato, most of these temples were demolished.[16]

See also


  1. ^ Gumilev L.N., "History of Hun People", Moscow, 'Science', Ch.15 (In Russian)
  2. ^ Gumilev L.N., "Ancient Türks", Moscow, 'Science', 1967, Ch.20 (In Russian)
  3. ^ C. P. Atwood, Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, p.424
  4. ^ Ozkan Izgi, "The ancient cultures of Central Asia and the relations with the Chinese civilization"//The Turks, Ankara, 2002, p. 98, ISBN 975-6782-56-0
  5. ^ L.T. Yablonsky "Stock-Breeders of the Ancient Khorezm", Russian Academy Of Sciences Institute Of Archaeology, Bulletin of Russian Humanities Foundation, 1999, Iss. 1-2, p. 198
  6. ^ E.A.Tsvetsinskaya "Integrated assessment of landscape evolution in the Amudarya Prisarykamysh delta, 2001
  7. ^ Gumilev L.N., "Hunnu in China", Moscow, 'Science', 1974, Ch. 9, (In Russian)
  8. ^ Yu. Zuev, "Early Türks: Sketches of history and ideology", Almaty, Daik-Press, 2002, p. 152-153, ISBN 9985-4-4152-9
  9. ^ Gumilev L.N., "Hunnu in China", Moscow, 'Science', 1974, Ch. 9, (In Russian)
  10. ^ Gumilev L.N., "History of Hun People", Moscow, 'Science', Ch.16, (In Russian)
  11. ^ Gumilev L.N., "Hunnu in China", Moscow, 'Science', 1974, Ch. 9, (In Russian)
  12. ^ Gumilev L.N., "Ancient Türks", Moscow, 'Science', 1967, Ch.20 (In Russian)
  13. ^ Gumilev L.N., "Hunnu in China", Moscow, 'Science', 1974, Ch. 9 Note 26, (In Russian)
  14. ^ Gumilev L.N., "Ancient Türks", Moscow, 'Science', 1967, Ch.7 (In Russian)
  15. ^ Yu. Zuev, "Early Türks: Sketches of history and ideology", Almaty, Daik-Press, 2002, p. 145, ISBN 9985-4-4152-9
  16. ^ Ozkan Izgi, "The ancient cultures of Central Asia and the relations with the Chinese civilization"//The Turks, Ankara, 2002, p. 100
This page was last edited on 29 August 2019, at 00:38
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