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Yashwantrao Chavan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Yashwantrao Chavan
Yashwantrao Chavan 2010 stamp of India.jpg
5th Deputy Prime Minister of India
In office
28 July 1979 – 14 January 1980
Prime MinisterCharan Singh
Preceded byCharan Singh
Jagjivan Ram
Succeeded byChaudhary Devi Lal
Minister of Home Affairs
In office
28 July 1979 – 14 January 1980
Prime MinisterCharan Singh
Preceded byHirubhai M. Patel
Succeeded byZail Singh
In office
14 November 1966 – 27 June 1970
Prime MinisterIndira Gandhi
Preceded byGulzarilal Nanda
Succeeded byIndira Gandhi
Minister of External Affairs
In office
10 October 1974 – 24 March 1977
Preceded bySardar Swaran Singh
Succeeded byAtal Bihari Vajpayee
Minister of Finance
In office
27 June 1970 – 10 October 1974
Prime MinisterIndira Gandhi
Preceded byIndira Gandhi
Succeeded byChidambaram Subramaniam
Minister of Defence
In office
14 November 1962 – 14 November 1966
Prime MinisterJawaharlal Nehru
Gulzarilal Nanda (Acting)
Lal Bahadur Shastri
Gulzarilal Nanda (Acting)
Indira Gandhi
Preceded byJawaharlal Nehru
Succeeded bySardar Swaran Singh
1st Chief Minister of Maharashtra
In office
1 May 1960 – 14 November 1962
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byMarotrao Kannamwar
Personal details
Born
Yashwantrao Balwantrao Chavan

(1913-03-12)12 March 1913
Sangli, Bombay Presidency, British India
Died25 November 1984(1984-11-25) (aged 71)
New Delhi, India
Resting placeYashwantrao Chavan Samadhi, Karad
Political partyIndian National Congress (Before 1977; 1981–1984)
Other political
affiliations
Indian National Congress-Urs (1977)
Janata Party (1977–1978)
Indian National Congress-Socialist (1978–1981)
Spouse(s)Venutai Chavan
Alma materUniversity of Mumbai
Chavan with his family.
Chavan with his family.

Yashwantrao Balwantrao Chavan (12 March 1913 – 25 November 1984) was the first Chief Minister of Maharashtra after the division of Bombay State and the fifth Deputy Prime Minister of India. He was a strong Congress leader, co-operative leader, social activist and writer. He was popularly known as Leader of Common People. He advocated social democracy in his speeches and articles and was instrumental in establishing co-operatives in Maharashtra for the betterment of the farmers.

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  • ✪ Yashwantrao Chavan Biography | यशवंतराव चव्हाण जीवनपट | द पोस्टमन
  • ✪ Speech on Yashwantrao Chavan in marathi /यशवंतराव चव्हाण भाषण/यशवंतराव चव्हाण जयंती भाषण
  • ✪ Dr Fouzia Khan.speaking in MISSION SAVE THE CONSTITUTION Yashwantrao Chavan Pratishthan, Mumbai
  • ✪ Smt Supriya Sule speaking in MISSION SAVE THE CONSTITUTION Yashwantrao Chavan Pratishthan, Mumbai
  • ✪ Adv Vandana Chavan speaking in MISSION SAVE THE CONSTITUTION Yashwantrao Chavan Pratishthan, Mumbai

Transcription

Contents

Early life

Yashwantrao Chavan was born in a Maratha-Kunbi[1][2] family on 12 March 1913 in the village of Devrashtre in Satara District (now in Sangli District) of Maharashtra, India. He lost his father in his early childhood and was brought up by his uncle and mother. His mother taught him about self-dependency and patriotism. From his childhood he was fascinated by the freedom struggle of India.

Despite the adverse family situation, Chavan was an active participant in the struggle for independence of India. In 1930, he was fined for his participation in the Non-cooperation Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. In 1932, he was sentenced to 18 months in prison for hoisting the Indian flag in Satara. During this period, he came in contact with Swami Ramanand Bharti, Dhulappa Bhaurao Navale, Gaurihar (Appasaheb) Sihasane, V. S. Page and Govind Kruparam Wani. Their friendship lasted forever.

Chavan obtained his B.A. degree in history and political science from the then Bombay University in 1938. In this period, he was involved in many social activities and was closely associated with the Congress party and its leaders, such as Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel and Keshavrao Jedhe. In 1940, he became President of Satara District Congress. In 1941, he passed his LLB. In 1942, he married Venutai at Phaltan in Satara district, in a match arranged by their families in the usual Indian way.

Chavan was one of the delegates at the Bombay session of the A.I.C.C. in 1942 that gave the call for Quit India, and he was subsequently arrested for his participation in the movement. He spent around two years in jail, and was released only in 1944.[3]

Political career

Offices held in the State Government of Bombay

In 1946, he was first elected as Member of Legislative Assembly of the Bombay State from the South Satara constituency. In the same year he was appointed as parliamentary secretary to the Home Minister of Bombay State. In the next government of Morarji Desai he was appointed as Minister of Civil Supplies, Social Welfare and Forests. In 1953 he was a signatory to the Nagpur Pact that assured equitable development of all regions of what is now the state of Maharashtra. The 1950s witnessed the Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti (United Maharashtra Movement) leading struggle for United Maharashtra with Bombay (now Mumbai) as its capital. Chavan never joined the Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti (United Maharashtra Movement) and in fact called Prime minister Nehru, who opposed formation of language based state reorganization, as "Greater than Maharashtra".[4] In 1957 Assembly elections Yashwantrao Chavan was elected from the Karad constituency. This time he was elected as Leader of Congress Legislative Party and became Chief Minister of the bilingual Bombay state. The election saw the Congress party losing badly in the Marathi speaking areas to the Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti. However, he was able to persuade Nehru to agree to form Maharashtra and therefore he is regarded as the chief architect in the formation of Marathi speaking state of Maharashtra. On 1 May 1960, Yashwantrao Chavan became the first Chief Minister of Maharashtra.[5] From 1957 to 1960 he also served on the All India Congress Working Committee. Chavan's vision for Maharashtra for the development envisaged the equal development of both the industrial and agricultural sectors across all the regions of the state. He sought to realise this vision through the co-operative movement. Legislation regarding democratic decentralized bodies and the Agricultural Land Ceiling Act were passed during his tenure as Chief Minister.[citation needed]

Roles in Central Government

After the resignation of Krishna Menon as Defense Minister in 1962 in the wake of India-China Border Conflict, Yashwantrao was given that portfolio by Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru.[6] He handled the delicate post-war situation firmly and took several decisions to empower the armed forces and negotiated, along with Pandit Nehru, with China to end the hostilities. He also held the Defense portfolio in the Lal Bahadur Shastri Government during the Indo-Pakistan War of September 1965.

In the by-elections in 1962, Chavan was elected unopposed as Member of Parliament from the Nashik parliamentary constituency. On 14 November 1966, he was appointed Home Minister of India by Prime minister, Indira Gandhi. Yeshwantrao came in for criticism at the time of the first congress split in 1969. He had stuck to his earlier commitment to vote for the official Congress candidate, Sanjeeva  Reddy in the presidential elections and in doing so, had invited the ire of Mrs. Indira Gandhi, but later be shifted his ground and supported her. In doing so, he exposed himself to the charge of duplicity and of being a fence-sitter. According to Hatalkar, it might be said in his favour that he had nothing in common with the Syndicate faction of the Congress party but was fully in rapport with Mrs. Gandhi's views, if not her methods, that his prime anxiety was to maintain the unity of the Congress, but that when he found that the split was inevitable, he did not succumb to the blandishments held out before him by some members of the Syndicate[7].

On 26 June 1970, she appointed him the Finance Minister of India. During his term, Indian economy went into recession for the first time since 1966 and real GDP growth fell by 0.55% in 1972.

He was appointed as the Foreign Minister on 11 October 1974. In June 1975, an Internal State of Emergency was declared in India by the Indira Gandhi Government. This period saw a severe crackdown on leaders and parties opposed to Mrs. Gandhi's rule. Yashwantrao remained in her Government during this period. In the subsequent general elections 1977, the Congress was routed with the party leader and Prime minister, Indira Gandhi herself losing her parliamentary seat. Therefore in the new Parliament, Chavan was elected the Congress Party Parliamentary leader. As Congress now the biggest opposition party, he became the Leader of opposition.

Split in Congress

The annual session of the Congress party was held in Bengaluru at the end of 1978. On this occasion, the party suffered a split, and two separate political parties emerged, namely Congress (Indira) and Congress (Urs). While the former was led by Indira Gandhi, the latter was led by Devaraj Urs, powerful Chief Minister of Mysore. The other important leaders who joined the Congress Urs were Dev Kant Baruah, Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, Sharad Pawar, A.K. Antony, Sarat Chandra Sinha, Priyaranjan Das Munshi and Yashwantrao Chavan. On the other side, Indira Gandhi's new party included leaders like Shankar Dayal Sharma, Umashankar Dikshit, Chidambaram Subramaniam, Kamruddin Ali Ahmad, Abdul Rehman Antulay and Gulabrao Patil.

Yashwantrao Chavan's political career suffered a major setback following his decision to move away from Indira Gandhi. Devaraj Urs himself soon joined the Janata Party, following which the Congress(Urs) was renamed the Indian Congress (Socialist). Yeshwantrao was appointed as Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of India in the short-lived cabinet of Prime Minister Charan Singh in 1979.

In the general elections of January 1980, Congress (I) won a majority in Parliament and came to power under the leadership of Indira Gandhi. In this election, Yashwantrao Chavan was the only candidate elected from Maharashtra as MP on a Congress(S) ticket. In 1981, Yashwantrao was allowed to return to the Indira-led Congress after a six month wait. Critics at that time commented that the "Fence-sitter has come home to roost"[7]. In 1982, he was appointed the Chairman of the 8th Finance Commission of India. He died in 1984.

Public office positions held

Chaven held many important positions during a long and distinguished career. These included:

Political offices
New office Chief Minister of Maharashtra
1960–1962
Succeeded by
Marotrao Kannamwar
Preceded by
Jawaharlal Nehru
Minister of Defence
1962–1966
Succeeded by
Sardar Swaran Singh
Preceded by
Gulzarilal Nanda
Minister of Home Affairs
1966–1970
Succeeded by
Indira Gandhi
Preceded by
Indira Gandhi
Minister of Finance
1971–1974
Succeeded by
Chidambaram Subramaniam
Preceded by
Sardar Swaran Singh
Minister of External Affairs
1974–1977
Succeeded by
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Preceded by
Charan Singh
Deputy Prime Minister of India
1979–1980
Succeeded by
Chaudhary Devi Lal
Preceded by
Jagjivan Ram
Preceded by
Hirubhai M. Patel
Minister of Home Affairs
1979–1980
Succeeded by
Zail Singh

Death and legacy

Yashwantrao Chavan died of a heart attack on 25 November 1984 in Delhi. He was 71. He was cremated in Karad with full state honours on 27 November and his Samadhi (resting place) is situated at Krishna-Koyna Pritisangam.

Legacy

  • Yashwantrao Chavan holds the record of being the only Maharashtrian leader who held the 4 most important portfolios in the Union government. They are Home, External Affairs, Defence and Finance. He ably discharged his duties as the minister of the concerned ministries.
  • When Yashwantrao was appointed Federal Defence minister following the China war in 1962, a popular saying arose in Maharashtra- "हिमालयाच्या हाकेला धावला सह्याद्री" ("Himalayachya Hakela Dhavla Sahyadri"), translated in English, Sahyadri (the mountain range that separates Konkan from the Deccan Plateau) came rushing on the call (for help) by the Himalaya.
  • During the 1960s and early 70s when Yashwantrao was at the peak of his power and influence, he was called Pratishivaji or New Shivaji.[8]

Yashwantrao Chavan Pratishtan (Foundation)

Places named after Yashwantrao Chavan

Literature

Yashwantrao Chavan took a keen interest in literature. He established the Marathi Sahitya Mandal and supported the Marathi Sahitya Sammelan(Conference). He was very closely associated with many poets, editors and several Marathi and Hindi writers. He initiated compilation of Marathi Vishwakosh (a Marathi language encyclopedia). For this, he nominated Lakshman Shastri Joshi as a chairman. He had planned to write his autobiography in three parts. The first part covers his early years in Satara district. Since his native place is situated on the banks of Krishna River he named the first volume as "Krishna Kath". His years as the Chief Minister of the bilingual Bombay state and later as that of the newly formed Maharashtra state were spent in Bombay and so the proposed name for the second volume was "Sagar Tir". Later in 1962 he was appointed Defence Minister of India by Nehru. From then he was in Delhi until his death in 1984; so he had proposed the name "Yamuna Kath" for his third volume. He was able to complete and publish only the first volume.

External links

References

  1. ^ R. D. Pradhan; Madhav Godbole (1999). Debacle to Revival: Y.B. Chavan as Defence Minister, 1962-65. Orient Blackswan. p. 95. ISBN 978-81-250-1477-5.
  2. ^ Jadhav, V., 2006. Elite politics and Maharashtra's Employment Guarantee Scheme. Economic and Political Weekly, pp.5157-5162.
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Purandare, Vaibhav (2012). Bal Thackeray & the rise of the Shiv Sena. Roli Books. ISBN 9788174369581. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  5. ^ http://www.legislativebodiesinindia.nic.in/STATISTICAL/Maharashtra.pdf
  6. ^ Pradhan, R. D. (1999). Debacle to Revival: YB Chavan as Defence Minister, 1962-65. Orient Blackswan, 11.
  7. ^ a b Hatalkar, V.G. (1986). Ray, N.R. (ed.). DICTIONARY    OF   NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY    (Supplement)  Volume I (A-D). Calcutta: N. R. Ray Director, Institute of Historical Studies. p. 245342. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  8. ^ Sirsikar, V.M. (1999). Kulkarni, A.R.; Wagle, N.K. (eds.). State intervention and popular response : western India in the nineteenth century. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. p. 9. ISBN 81-7154-835-0.
  9. ^ "Inaugural Y.B. Chavan Memorial Lecture". IDSA. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  10. ^ "Past Y B Chavan Memorial Lectures". IDSA. Retrieved 8 December 2012.


This page was last edited on 27 November 2019, at 17:48
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