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Yami Khagan
First Khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate
SuccessorShibi Qaghan
BornAshina Jangan
SpousePrincess Anyi (安义公主) Princess Yicheng (義成公主)
Regnal name
Yìlì Zhēndòu Qǐmín Kěhàn
Wise thinking, great speaking, people leading khagan
FatherIshbara Qaghan

Yami Qaghan[1][2][3](Old Turkic: 𐰣𐰍𐰴𐰃𐰢𐰖‎, Jаmï qaγan,[4] Chinese: 啓民可汗, 啟民可汗/启民可汗, Modern Chinese: (Pinyin): Qǐmín Kěhàn, (Wade-Giles): Ch'i-min K'o-han, Middle Chinese: (Guangyun) [kʰiei˥mi̯en˩ kʰɑ˥ɣɑn˩˥]), personal name: Ashina Jankan (阿史那染幹/阿史那染干, āshǐnà rǎngān, a-shih-na jan-kan, [ʔɑʃi̯ə˥nɑ˩ nʑi̯ɛm˥kɑn˩˥]), at one point known as Tolis Qaghan (突利可汗, 𐱅𐰇𐰠𐰾𐰴𐰍𐰣‎, Töles qaγan) and after (意利珍豆啟民可汗/意利珍豆启民可汗, yìlì zhēndòu qǐmín kěhàn, yi-li-chen-tou ch'i-min k'o-han) was the first qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.


His parentage is uncertain as he was either son of Bagha Qaghan[5] or Ishbara Qaghan[6]. He was a subordinate khagan under Tulan Qaghan with title of Tolis Qaghan, ruling eastern tribes.

He sent an ambassador to Sui dynasty in 597, requesting to marry to a Chinese princess. Pei Ju saw this as opportunity and told him to kill Tulan Qaghan's Zhou origin khatun Princess Qianjin (who was styled as Princess Dayi by Sui dynasty). Princess was murdered and emperor fulfilled his promise, sending Princess Anyi (安义公主) to marry him.

However, Tolis' ambitious behaviour caused outrage to khagan. Tulan started to gather invasion party to attack Sui repeatedly in 597 and 599, only to be reported to emperor beforehand by Tolis every occasion. As a reaction, Tulan approached to Tardu to combine forces and attack Tolis. Attack was a success and Tolis had to flee to China after his brothers and nephews getting killed during invasion.

In winter 599, he was created Qimin Khagan by Emperor Wen. Meanwhile Princess Anyi died and he was married to Princess Yicheng this time, a daughter of Yang Xie (杨谐). Emperor also commissioned Zhangsun Sheng to build the city of Dali (大利, in modern Hohhot) to house Qimin's people, and also sent an army to protect Qimin.

Meanwhile Tulan was killed by his men causing Tardu to assume throne and claim title Bilge Khagan in 599/600.

In winter 601, Emperor Wen commissioned Yang Su to command an army, in association with Qimin Khan as to attack Tardu.


After Tardu's subsequent defeat in 603, he fled to Tuyuhun. Having a cleared way Qimin assumed Turkic throne, definitely starting division between Western and Eastern wings of khaganate.

In spring 607, he went to Luoyang to pay a visit to Emperor Yang. In summer, he was visited back by Yang. Khagan's display of submission and loyalty caused Emperor Yang to bestow much honor and wealth on him. When the senior officials Gao Jiong, Yuwen Bi (宇文弼), and Heruo Bi privately expressed disapproval, Emperor Yang discovered their criticism and put all of them to death, while removing Su Wei, who also discouraged him from giving excessive rewards to khagan, from his post.[7]

In spring 609, Qimin made another visit to Emperor Yang and was rewarded with much treasure. He died later from an illness.


He was married to Princess Anyi (安义公主) at first and later her death to Princess Yicheng (義成公主). He also had a Tuyuhun concubine or wive.[8] He had several issues:


  1. ^ 薛宗正, 突厥史, 中国社会科学出版社, 北京 (Xue Zongzheng, Tujie Shi, Chinese Social Sciences Press, Beijing, 1992, ISBN 7-5004-0432-8 / K-49 (精), p. 265.
  2. ^ Zhenping Wang, Ambassadors from the islands of immortals: China-Japan relations in the Han-Tang period, University of Hawaii Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-8248-2871-4, p. 140.
  3. ^ Zhu Zhenhong, "Taohuashi and Tiankehan (Tangri Qaghan)", Eurasian History 朱振宏,「桃花石」與「天可汗」, 欧亚学研究
  4. ^ Memorial Complex Eletmiš Yabgu (Bilge atačim), TÜRIK BITIG
  5. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 178
  6. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 175
  7. ^ Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2012). Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty: His Life, Times, and Legacy. SUNY Press. p. 39. ISBN 9780791482681.
  8. ^ Ahmet., Taşağil, (1995–2004). Gök-Türkler. Atatürk Kültür, Dil, ve Tarih Yüksek Kurumu (Turkey). Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi. ISBN 975161113X. OCLC 33892575.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  9. ^ a b c Mau-tsai, Liu (1958). Die chinesischen Nachrichten zur Geschichte der Ost-Türken (T'u-küe). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.


Yami Qaghan
Preceded by
Tulan Qaghan
Khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate
Succeeded by
Shibi Qaghan
This page was last edited on 6 September 2019, at 06:39
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