To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

William of Zardana

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

William of Zardana
Lord of Saone
Reign1119–1132/33
PredecessorRobert the Leper
SuccessorBeatrice
Lord of Zardana
Reign1121–1132/33
Died1132/33
SpouseBeatrice
FatherRobert the Leper
ReligionRoman Catholicism

William of Zardana, also known as William of Saone (died in 1132 or 1133), was a powerful baron who held Balatanos, Saone and Zardana in the Principality of Antioch. After his father, Robert the Leper, was executed by the atabeg (or governor) of Toghtekin in 1119, William inherited Balatanos and Saone. Zardana, that his father had lost before his death, was restored to William by Baldwin II of Jerusalem in 1121. He supported Baldwin II's daughter, Alice, against her brother-in-law, Fulk of Jerusalem, in 1132, but Fulk defeated her allies. William died fighting either against Fulk's troops or against a Muslim army.

Family

William was the son of Robert the Leper, who held important fiefs in the Principality of Antioch.[1] Two of Robert's three castles—Saone and Balatanos—were located near Latakia, the third, Zardana, to the east of the Orontes River.[2] Zardana was taken by Toghtekin, atabeg of Damascus, in 1119.[2] Robert was captured during the siege and Toghtekin had him executed.[2] William and his brother, Garenton, inherited their father's domains.[2][3] Saone was strengthened during either his or his father's tenure.[4]

Antiochene baron

Ruined towers made of stone
Ruins of the fortress of Saone

King Baldwin II of Jerusalem ruled Antioch on behalf of the minor prince, Bohemond II, from 1119.[5] Historian Thomas Asbridge says, William may have been one of the barons who persuaded the king to pursue an aggressive policy against the Muslims of Aleppo.[6] Indeed, the 13th-century historian, Ibn al-Adim, mentioned that Baldwin II laid siege to Zardana "for William" in 1121.[6] Zardana surrendered to Baldwin who restored the fortress to William.[3] A year later, the Artuqid rulers, Ilghazi and Balak, jointly attacked Zardana.[7] William defended the fortress for fifteen days before he surrendered it, but he soon routed Ilghazi at Harbal.[8] Due to his proximity to Aleppo, Zardana was one of the strategically most important fortresses in the principality.[9]

Bohemond II assumed the government of Antioch in 1126, but died four years later.[10] His widow, Alice, wanted to secure the rule of Antioch for herself against her brother-in-law, Fulk of Jerusalem, in 1132.[11] William and his brother supported her, but Fulk defeated her allies and appointed Rainald I Masoir to administer the principality.[12][13] William died during either this conflict or a Muslim attack against Zardana.[14] His widow, Beatrice, married Joscelin II of Courtenay.[14][15]

References

  1. ^ Asbridge 2000, pp. 159-160.
  2. ^ a b c d Kennedy 1994, p. 85.
  3. ^ a b Asbridge 2000, p. 160.
  4. ^ Buck 2017, p. 130.
  5. ^ Asbridge 2000, pp. 143-144.
  6. ^ a b Asbridge 2000, p. 89.
  7. ^ Asbridge 2000, p. 180.
  8. ^ Asbridge 2000, pp. 160, 180.
  9. ^ Buck 2017, p. 25.
  10. ^ Asbridge 2000, pp. 89-90.
  11. ^ Barber 2012, pp. 151-152.
  12. ^ Asbridge 2000, pp. 160-161.
  13. ^ Barber 2012, p. 152.
  14. ^ a b Asbridge 2000, p. 161.
  15. ^ Barber 2012, p. 232.

Sources

  • Asbridge, Thomas (2000). The Creation of the Principality of Antioch, 1098–1130. The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-661-3. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  • Barber, Malcolm (2012). The Crusader States. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11312-9.
  • Buck, Andrew D. (2017). The Principality of Antioch and its Frontiers in the Twelfth Century. The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-78327-173-3.
  • Kennedy, Hugh (1994). Crusader Castles. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79913-9. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
This page was last edited on 18 February 2021, at 22:33
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.