To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

William Irwin (California politician)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

William Irwin
William Irwin painting.jpg
13th Governor of California
In office
December 9, 1875 – January 8, 1880
LieutenantJames A. Johnson
Preceded byRomualdo Pacheco
Succeeded byGeorge C. Perkins
13th Lieutenant Governor of California
In office
February 27, 1875 – December 9, 1875
GovernorRomualdo Pacheco
Preceded byRomualdo Pacheco
as Lieutenant Governor
Succeeded byJames A. Johnson
as Lieutenant Governor
Member of the California Senate
In office
Member of the California State Assembly
In office
Personal details
Born1827 (1827)
Oxford, Ohio
Died (aged 58–59)
San Francisco, California
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Amelia Elizabeth Cassidy
ProfessionEducator, laborer

William Irwin (1827 – March 15, 1886) was a California politician from the Democratic Party who served as the 13th governor of California between 1875 and 1880. He previously served as acting lieutenant governor for nine months in 1875.

Born in Butler County, Ohio, Irwin graduated in 1848 from Marietta College in Marietta, where he later became an instructor. After moving to California, Irwin worked in various private industries and was eventually elected to the California State Assembly as one of two members representing Siskiyou County. He became the editor of a newspaper and then was elected to the California State Senate. He served as president pro tempore of the Senate and as such, became acting lieutenant governor in 1875 when Lieutenant Governor Romualdo Pacheco became governor. Irwin was elected governor in his own right that same year. He died in 1886 in San Francisco, California and was interred in the Sacramento Historic City Cemetery in Sacramento, California.[1]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    566 202
    2 476
    11 860
  • ✪ 7 Kidnappings That Shocked The World
  • ✪ Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics - Part 1
  • ✪ Sirhan Sirhan and the Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy: Background (2012)


Number 7. “Who Stole Cal Ripken’s Mom?”: Cal Ripken, otherwise known as the “Iron Man”, was a famous baseball player for the Baltimore [“Bal-tee-more”] Orioles [“Or-ree-els”] from 1981 until 2001. During this time, he played an amazing 2,632 games in a row – the most ever in Major League Baseball history. As he approached the world record, he received a lot of death threats from people who did not want to see him succeed, but he bravely ignored them and followed through with his unbroken streak. Nothing could have prepared the Hall of Famer for what would happen to his own mother in 2011, however, long after he had retired. Violet Ripken was 74 years old at the time. She was minding her own business in her garage one evening when a man jumped out at her while wearing a mask and pointing a gun. The assailant [“ah-sail-lint”] then blindfolded her and shoved her into the backseat of her own Lincoln Continental. They sped off together. At one point they pulled into a Royal Farms convenience store for supplies, and a customer noticed Violet in the car. When he asked the kidnapper about the tied-up old woman in the backseat, the man quickly made up a story about how Violet was his mother, and since she had Alzheimer’s [“Owls-heim-ers”] Disease, keeping her tied up like was the only way to prevent her from wandering off on her own. Unsurprisingly, the man did not believe the story at all. He went inside and told the cashier about the suspicious encounter, who then called the cops and reported the car’s tags. By then, the car had already pulled off. Sometime during the night, the kidnapper took Cal Ripken’s mom with him to Walmart. She stayed tied up in the car while he used her credit card to buy more random items. The FBI quickly obtained the surveillance tape and released the footage to the public in hopes that they would be able to identify the abductor. When the police found out that someone had kidnapped Cal Ripken’s mother, they dispatched every available unit to look for her. Fortunately, they didn’t have to search for long. The very next morning, a 28-year-old neighbor by the name of Erick Snyder had spotted the silver Lincoln Continental sitting on the side of the road. There was a white sweater frantically [“fran-tick-lee”] waving out of the back window. It was Cal Ripken’s mother signaling for help. Her quick return was as confusing to police as it was a relief to the Ripken family. Why would anyone go to the trouble of kidnapping a famous athlete’s family member and safely bring them back the very next morning? He didn’t ask for any ransom money and he didn’t appear to have a personal vendetta [“ven-det-tah”] against the Ripkens. As the only witness to the event, Violet’s testimony held all the answers. Her story was not at all what the police were expecting. Violet said that her kidnapper had made it clear to her early on that he had no intention of bringing her harm. He was also extra polite to her at all times. At first he wanted to tape her eyelids shut, but when that idea scared her too much, he decided to use fabric instead. He did keep her hands tied the entire time, but he also lit her cigarettes for her and got food for her, too. He seemed genuinely concerned about her overall comfort the entire time. At no point did the kidnapper ask Violet about her son or his career as a major league baseball player. It appears that the guy was completely oblivious [“oh-bliv-vee-us”] that he had taken the mother of a famous celebrity. When he was finished using her credit cards to buy stuff all around town, he dropped her off on her own block and left. Cal Ripken initially offered a two-thousand-dollar reward for the man’s identity at first, but in 2012, he bumped it up to 100 thousand dollars instead. Popular television personality John Walsh even took up the case and put it on his show, America’s Most Wanted. Here, he calls the kidnapper a dirt bag while wearing an oversized trench coat and standing under a lamppost that’s surrounded by studio fog. Somehow, this helpful strategy was not enough to solve the case, and the man still remains at large to this day. Number 6. “The Facebook Police”: In 2014, three teenagers by the names of Jenna Montgomery [“Mount-gum-marie”], Jess Taylor and Blue Kalmbach [“Calm-bock”] decided to kidnap and torture an older kid by the name of Dustyn [“Dust-tin”] Murrain [“Mur-rain”] as payback for calling one of them a homophobic [“home-oh-pho-bic”] slur on Facebook. To do this, Jenna acted like she was interested in meeting Dustyn for some afterschool fun. When he showed up, they hit him in the back of the head with a crowbar and tied him up instead. The teens then went about spending the rest of the day methodically [“meth-thod-dick-cali”] torturing him in new and creative ways. First, Blue took a BB gun and alternated between shooting Dustyn in his chest, finger, and groin at point blank range. One of these areas required surgeries to remove the BB bullet, though news sources failed to say which. After that, Blue carved a swastika [“swah-stick-kah”] into his forehead using a box cutter while Taylor kept the gun on Dustyn. They hoped that the Nazi symbol would make him become hated by all and live life as an outcast forever. Next, they stole his iPod and drove him to an ATM so he could give them his money. After that, they wanted to steal his favorite skateboard. Instead, Dustyn jumped out of the car and ran to an auto repair shop to phone for help. All three teens have since been sentenced for their crimes. Jenna received nine years and 11 months for luring Dustyn in. Jess received seven years, nine months for his role. Since Blue committed the most acts of torture, he was sentenced to prison for the longest. 11 years. He will be 27 upon release. Another teenager, Shane Connell, 14, was not present during the attack, but since he gave permission to let it happen in his grandparents’ shed, he was sentenced to 10 years. Dustyn’s swastika scar has since healed almost completely. He keeps his hair long to cover it up. Number 5. “I Did It Their Way”: Barry Keenan [“Key-nan”] was 23 and on drugs when he got the brilliant idea to kidnap the son of a wealthy singer with mafia connections, none other than Frank Sinatra [“Sin-not-trah”] Junior. Together, he and two of his friends, John Irwin and Clyde [“Clide”] Amsler [“Am-slur”], quickly agreed to the bad plan. In December of 1963, the trio went to the Harrah’s [“Hair-ruh’s”] casino in Lake Tahoe [“Taa-hoe”]. Keenan dressed up like he was with room service and knocked on Frank Sinatra Junior’s dressing room door. When Sinatra Junior answered, the three burst into the room and pointed a gun at him. There was also a trumpet player named John Foss who was there with Sinatra as well. The trumpet player was bound and gagged with tape, and Frank Junior was blindfolded and removed from the room. A short time later, John Foss broke free of his restraints and quickly called the authorities. Meanwhile, nineteen-year-old Sinatra Junior was held captive for two days while the kidnappers communicated back and forth with the FBI. Eventually, they set the ransom amount at 250 thousand dollars and agreed on a drop point to make the exchange. Barry and Clyde go out to get the money, John Irwin stays behind to watch over Sinatra. He gets nervous though and lets him go. When federal authorities spotted Sinatra Junior walking around in Bel Air a short while later, they actually put him in their trunk so that the general public wouldn’t notice as they take him back home. Two days later, John Irwin gave himself up and ratted out all of his buddies. The rest of them get arrested shortly after. Their defense team makes up a story that Sinatra Junior was in on the kidnapping this whole time because he wanted to became a bigger name in the entertainment industry. This story has since been discovered to be a lie, but it worked well enough at the time. The three were originally sentenced to life in prison, but each served less than five years. The Sinatra family has never forgotten the terrifying ordeal [“or-deal”] ever since. Number 4. “Off with His Ear”: John Paul Getty the Third was the grandson of John Paul Getty the Second, an oil tycoon who was one of the richest men in the world. In 1973, John Paul Getty the Second was 16 and living a carefree lifestyle in Rome, where his father was doing business at the time. While the younger Getty was busying himself by doing drugs, selling paintings and making jewelry, he managed to get himself kidnapped by Italian gangsters. The gangsters told the Getty family that they had to pay 17 million in cash for the return of their son, but police investigators doubted this was a real kidnapping at first. If anything, they believed that John Paul Getty the Third had staged his own kidnapping in order to get more money out of his parents. The Getty family decided not to pay the kidnappers anything. His grandfather even famously said that he would have 14 kidnapped grandchildren later if he paid the ransom for one grandchild now. Three months later, however, a grizzly [“griz-lee”] package made the Gettys change their mind. In this package was a picture of John Paul Getty with his ear missing, along a lock of his hair the severed ear itself. They also made him write a letter begging his family to pay. Eventually, the grandfather agreed to pay 2.2 million instead of 17 million. This was the maximum amount that they could give the kidnappers and still write off as a tax break. Ever the businessman, grandpa Getty let his son, John Paul Getty the Second, borrow the rest of the ransom money from him at a 4 percent interest rate. John Getty was eventually returned to his family on December 15th, five months later. They found him at an abandoned gas station, bruised, starving and shaking. He led a reckless [“wreck-less”] life afterwards and died in 2011 of complications resulting from his long-term drug use. Of the nine men arrested for his kidnapping, only two were convicted. Number 3. “Beaten, Raped and Brainwashed”: Patty Hearst is the wealthy daughter of William Randolph Hearst, the former owner of the San Francisco Examiner. On February 4th, 1974, the 19-year-old student was with her fiancé in their Berkley, California apartment. From that day forward, things would never be the same. At 9 that morning, a large group of men and women kicked in the door and began firing machine guns straight into the air. They beat Patty’s fiancé with a wine bottle and gagged her. She could hear her neighbors screaming as she was stuffed into a trunk and taken away. She had been taken by the Symbionese [“Sim-bee-on-knees”] Liberation Army, or SLA for short. They were a left-wing group who wanted to overthrow the government through anarchy and violence, and they felt like Patty Hearst was the perfect target to symbolize their power over the media. They kept Patty in a closet for months, beating and raping her into submission. During this time, she is completely brainwashed into believing their agenda. Meanwhile, the SLA demanded that her father use his money to feed all of the homeless people in California if he wants to see his daughter ever again. Even though he spends millions to feed hundreds of thousands of people, it was not enough to earn the SLA’s approval, or his daughter’s release. On April 15th, two months later, Patty Hearst is seen holding a gun as she robs a bank with other members of the SLA. Her new name is now “Tania” and she is completely loyal to the organization that stole her out of her apartment and severely beat her fiancé. She and the other robbers get away with 10 thousand dollars. The FBI launches a massive manhunt to find Hearst and stop the SLA. Eventually, they get a break after two SLA members tried to steal ammo from a store. Authorities followed their getaway car to an SLA safe house, where a massive firefight ensued and 6 key figures died. For over a year, Patty went on the run with the remaining members of the SLA. During this time, she continued to taunt the police with audio recordings showing her support. Despite a 2-million-dollar reward offered by her family, she is not returned. In 1975, Hearst was finally arrested in a San Francisco apartment with other members. She was sentenced to seven years in prison, but President Carter pardoned her after two. Overall, the SLA considered this kidnapping operation to be one of their greatest achievements. Number 2. “The Kidnap Game”: This was the name of a game created by five kids in Chihuahua [“Chi-wa-wa” (say it just like the small dog)], Mexico. Christopher Raymundo [“Ray-mun-dough”] Marquez [“Mar-qezz”] was only 6 when he was invited to collect firewood with neighborhood kids who were between the ages of 12 and 15. They went down to a stream, but instead of collecting wood like they said they would, they changed their mind and told Christopher that they were going to fake a kidnapping instead. They tied Christopher’s hands and feet and beat him with a stick covered in thorns. Next, they beat him with stones as they slowly suffocated him with the stick by pressing the thorns into his neck. Once he was finally dead, they stabbed him in the back for good measure. Then they dug a hole with their hands and dumped him in with a dead animal to cover up their tracks. They were all found out after one of the boy’s told his mother. Since three of the children are under the age of 14, they are protected from murder charges. The others have been taken to prison. The mother of Christopher has vowed to take her revenge, though she fails to say if she’s created a “kidnap game” of her own. Number 1. “Child Slavery Rings”: Johnny Gosch [“Gosh”] was just an ordinary 12-year-old kid on a paper route in West Des Moines [“Deh” “Moine” (pronunciation), Iowa [“Eye-oh-ah”]. On this September day in 1982, a man stops and asks Johnny for directions. There was something about him that didn’t seem right. After he leaves, a second car watches Johnny for a bit and then pulls up. Two men jump out, grab the and throw him in the back seat. The car peels off, wheels scratching. When the Gosch family receives phone calls from neighbors complaining that Johnny hadn’t delivered their paper to them, the father searches the neighborhood for the boy. Instead, he only finds Johnny’s abandoned bike – along with a basket full of undelivered newspapers. Johnny’s mother, Noreen [“Nore-reen”], contacts the police. Even though there are witnesses who saw Johnny get thrown into the car, the authorities are quick to write the case off as a runaway. The FBI proves to be of no help either. Desperate now, Noreen contacts a series of private detectives to investigate what could have happened. Two of them, a man named Jim Rothstein [“Roth-steen”] and a retired cop named Ted Gunderson [“Gun-der-son”], tell her that Johnny has become the victim of an international child exploitation ring. Members of the CIA, FBI, and various politicians are all involved, which is most likely why the case did not go anywhere when reported. There is even some indication of satanic rituals and mind control. Other victims who have since been rescued agree with these claims. Six months after Johnny’s disappearance, a woman says that a boy ran at her screaming that his name was Johnny Gosch, and that he had been kidnapped. Two men then grabbed him and took off. Years later, a special dollar bill surface. On it was a handwritten message that said, “I’m still alive. Johnny Gosch.” Noreen confirmed that it was her son’s handwriting. The trail goes dead for a while. Then in 1997, Noreen is awakened at 2:30 in the morning by urgent knocking. The long-haired man claims on her doorstep claims to be her son. Only when he shows her a birthmark on his chest does she believe him. He tells her that he can’t speak for long and that he is still being hunted, but that he needs her help in bringing down his captors. The visit only lasts for a few hours before he slips away, never to be seen again. More than 10 years later, in 2006, Noreen receives a haunting package from an anonymous source. Left on her doorstep are old pictures of her 12-year-old son, Johnny, bound and gagged. In the other pictures two other bound boys are laying on the bed with him. One of them is believed to be Eugene Martin, another paperboy who was kidnapped in the 1980s shortly after Johnny’s disappearance. Police have never confirmed or denied the newest photos as being Johnny. The boy’s mother, however, is convinced that someone is still out there with the information she needs, someone who isn’t afraid to let her know that, to them, her son was just another trophy.


  1. ^ "California Governor William Irwin". National Governors Association. 2004. Retrieved February 14, 2013.

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by
Henry Huntly Haight
Democratic nominee for Governor of California
Succeeded by
Hugh J. Glenn
Political offices
Preceded by
District created
California State Assemblyman, 28th District
(with Caleb N. Thornbury, then Benjamin F. Varney)
Succeeded by
S. L. Littlefield, R. C. Scott
Preceded by
Romualdo Pacheco
Lieutenant Governor
Acting Lieutenant Governor of California
Succeeded by
James A. Johnson
Lieutenant Governor
Preceded by
Romualdo Pacheco
Governor of California
Succeeded by
George Perkins
This page was last edited on 1 May 2020, at 04:05
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.