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William Charles Osman Hill

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

William Charles Osman Hill
William Charles Osman Hill.jpg
Born (1901-07-13)13 July 1901
Died 25 January 1975(1975-01-25) (aged 73)
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
Nationality British
Alma mater University of Birmingham
Known for Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy
Author abbrev. (zoology) Hill
Spouse Yvonne Stranger (m. 1947 – 1975)

Dr William Charles Osman Hill FRSE FZS FLS FRAI (13 July 1901 – 25 January 1975) was a British anatomist, primatologist, and a leading authority on primate anatomy during the 20th century. He is best known for his nearly completed eight-volume series, Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy, which covered all living and extinct primates known at the time in full detail and contained illustrations created by his wife, Yvonne. Schooled at King Edward VI Camp Hill School for Boys in Birmingham and University of Birmingham, he went on to publish 248 works and accumulated a vast collection of primate specimens that are now stored at the Royal College of Surgeons of England.

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  • HMS Class Day 2016
  • NOVA Commencement 2016
  • GRCC Graduation 2016
  • UMUC 2014 Commencement: Sunday Afternoon 5/18


Good afternoon, everyone. How we feeling? Welcome to the class of 2016 Class Day ceremony here at Harvard Medical School and the Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Good afternoon to Dean Flier and to Dean Donoff, to Dean Hundert and to Dean Oriol, to Mr Lynch and to Dr. Cartsmere, to my fellow students and to our friends and family who have traveled far and wide to help us celebrate this very special day, thank you for coming. This afternoon, we celebrate the accomplishments of 164 graduating medical students and 36 graduating dental students. Their accomplishments over these past four, five, for some, even a dozen years, here at Harvard Medical School and Harvard School of Dental Medicine are vast and diverse. From publishing groundbreaking research in the world's leading journals to tackling complex issues in health care diversity and inequality. From creating startups that now allow us to detect lung cancer from a patient's breath to getting one, two, three, however many additional degrees are needed in nearly every field imaginable. From performing professionally on some of the world's most famous stages to an equally professional performance on the airs of YouTube through our big hits, "The Gunner Song" and "What Does The Spleen Do". This is truly a remarkable group of individuals. Let's give them a warm round of applause. So we've had some time between our last classes and graduation. And this time has given me the opportunity to reminisce. And in doing this reminiscing, it's well-- brought up a lot of I guess I'd say feelings. Thinking back on my four years at HMS, I remember feeling exhilarated the first time I walked across the quad, really full after the fifth time in a row we went to Tasty Burger during ITP, anxious before the first day of class, awe after an entire month dissecting humans in the anatomy lab, scared a little bit before our first day of clinical rotations, ecstatic after getting a correct diagnosis on a patient, shaken after the death of another, relieved after opening my match day envelope, and grateful that I got to embark on this incredible journey with each and every one of you. You see, medical education invokes an interesting paradox. It invokes nearly every emotion imaginable, while at the same time if we let it, deadening us to our ability to actually experience them. There have been times, maybe multiple times, as I'm sure during these past 4 plus years where you all of felt burned out or exhausted, where you felt that your ability to really feel anything at all was at an all time low. It's happened before and maybe somewhat unfortunately, it will likely happen again. In those moments, I want you to think back. I want you to reflect, as I've just done here, and think about the emotions that have colored your medical training, the emotions that have colored your life, and I want you to take a second to just-- feel. You see, our feelings are our humanity. And our humanity is the most important quality we have to offer to our patients, to our friends, families, and loved ones, to ourselves. So if I can leave you here with one message today, it'd be stay emotional. Your future happy, sad, angry, exhilarated, frustrated self will thank you. And before I hand it over to Hillary, I wouldn't be anywhere without thanking my wonderful parents, sister, grandma, who are all here, my beautiful girlfriend Catherine and her family, as well as all of you guys here at HMS and HSCM. You guys all rock. Good afternoon, everyone. My name is Hilary Lathrop, and I'm so honored to be here with Prat to be serving as co-moderator for the Harvard School of Dental Medicine in these class day activities. Welcome family and friends. I ask that you please turn your right and to your left and share a smile with the person next to you. If you haven't met before, introduce yourself. We are all part of the HMS/HSCM family now. I'd also like to acknowledge those who cannot be here today for whatever the reason. Your memory is with us. So thank you all for the impact that you've had on our lives. Now I know our hearts are full of anticipation over what's happening next, whether it's dinner celebrations, moving boxes, starting residency in a new state. But I just ask that we take a moment and take a breath to allow our minds to settle into this moment. This is a day we only get once. The day that we become doctors. As a girl from the west coast, I had little sense of what it meant to be a student here at HSCM. And it took a while to figure it out too because our first two years were fraught with a lot of identity issues of whether we were more medical students than dental students, doing double shifts in anatomy lab, and getting very bewildered looks when we were performing pelvic exams. However, we learned so much from our HMS counterparts, and maybe we at least taught you guys how to distinguish dentures from natural teeth. Maybe? Now I figured Harvard people must be smart, but never have I met so many brilliant compassionate people. I am truly amazed by the dedicated community I have found here, and I'd just like to offer some thanks. To our parents who raised us to become adults. To our teachers and mentors who raised us to become professionals. And to our classmates who raised our esteem and kept us sane. I am inspired by you each and every day. We would now like to take a moment to recognize some of the very special faculty members who have been so important in the lives of our class, and who will be moving on to new roles in this upcoming year. Would the following individuals please join us on stage when I call your name. Dean Jeffrey Flier. Dean Nancy Oriole. Ronald Arky Dr. David Cohen Dr. Orah Platt and Dr. Gordon Strewler Thank you for the dedication to our education and the community of HMS and HSDM. Let's give them a huge round of applause. We will now introduce our class day speakers. Some of you may recognize our first speaker from his fantastic performance as John Keasley in our very acclaimed "HMS and the Tiebreaker Tournament." or as the star of the viral YouTube videos, "What Does The Spleen Do" and "Gunner Song". But Daniel Brein is more than a handsome face with an excellent voice. Daniel graduated with highest distinction from Pennsylvania State University with a major in finance and a minor in economics. At HSDM, Daniel was selected as a fellow of the Harvard Graduate student Leadership Institute for his commitment to teaching and mentoring. His research interests have focused on developing greater understanding of the factors influencing oral hygiene and have recently culminated in a publication in the Journal of Periodontology. He enjoys sharing time with children and individuals with developmental delay as part of HSDM outreach programs, such as Action, iSCAPE, and Special Olympics. And he will continue his work as a resident in pediatric dentistry next door at Boston Children's University. The title of his talk is Final Impressions. Please join me in welcoming Daniel Brein. Good afternoon friends, family, faculty, and staff. On behalf of the HSDM class of 2016, I would also like to thank you for being here to acknowledge and celebrate this accomplishment that we all share today. Throughout the past four years, we have relied upon all of you for your support in our times of need. We are very much aware of the integral roles you have all played in our education and development, and we are truly grateful. So again, thank you. Now it's not often that I have the opportunity to address such a large group of people. So before I really get going here, I feel as if I need to take the time to dispel a myth that I've heard about dentists. It's come to my attention that many people feel we, as a group, often tell the same lame, corny, and tired jokes to our patients. Now this is just not true. And I've tried to brush comments like that off, to not be too impacted by them, to not get into the precarious situation of arguing about it, in hopes of getting to the root of the issue. And sure, maybe they say it in a tongue in cheek kind of way, but to tell you the tooth, it really hurts my feelings. And I have become abscessed with changing your minds today. So please, if you hear anything corny like that, even I'm only on the cusp of something truly lame, you are all now indentured to let me know. And if not, I hope these comments will make a lasting impression. But in all seriousness, my remarks today are not motivated by my strong appreciation for bad puns and formal environments, but rather by the sense of admiration I feel when I look across the faces of my classmates. The men and women who will cross the stage in front of you today are inherently self-motivated, thoughtful, and logical people. In addition to becoming proficient oral health care providers, they have followed their instinctive desires to discover, innovate, and lead. Sitting amongst us our talented researchers, whose breakthroughs have provided insights into biological phenomena, never before understood, and shed light on clinical truths that will directly improve the treatment of our patients. In these rows are natural born leaders who have taken to organized dentistry with enthusiasm, advocating for students and young professionals alike. You don't have to search hard to find champions of public health who have somehow found the time to create, manage, and maintain volunteer based clinics that improve access to care for a number of under-served populations throughout our community. And we're lucky to have students with deep understanding of dental education and great vision for its future, who have had meaningful influence on the new curriculum. Curriculum which will likely be scrutinized and utilized as a model for others around the country. And while this list is indeed impressive, it isn't only this set of accomplishments that inspires me when I look at my classmates. It's the overwhelming sense of community and support, so naturally fostered by our class, in which these accomplishments have been achieved. We help each other. We care about one another. We praise each other's accomplishments with sincere enthusiasm, and we mourn each other's failures with earnest empathy. We so easily understand that success of one is the success of all. We celebrate each other's happiness, coming together for engagements and thesis defenses, and graduate school acceptances. And occasionally, we've been known to blow off some steam together on championship IM sports teams, over dinner and drinks, on ski trips, during second year show, and on a lot of different dance floors all throughout Boston. We've had fun together and formed personal and professional relationships that will last. I'm certain of that. Now as your classmate, I feel there is a little wisdom that I can provide to help you down your future paths. The only thing I know with certainty is that countless uncertainties lay ahead. There will be challenges that are bound to test all of us in ways we've never imagined. But if I may, there is one thing I'd like to say-- one piece of advice I'd like to offer. Trust your instincts. Rather, continue to trust your instincts. Today, allow me to act as a mirror, reflecting back to you what I see so clearly. Your natural tendency towards curiosity, innovation, and leadership with equal parts empathy, community, and kindness have served and carried you far. And while the future is full of unknowns, if you continue to trust in and listen to yourselves, nothing will be out of reach. So here's to us, class of 2016. Congratulations, good luck, and I'll see you soon. Thank you. Thank you, Dan. It is now my distinct privilege to introduce our two medical school student speakers for this afternoon. Our first speaker, Hisham Yousif, is not only the youngest graduate of our medical school class, but is also one of my closest friends and mentors. Hisham grew up in Scottsdale, Arizona where he attended the University of Arizona, majoring in physiology with minors in chemistry and biochemistry. At HMS, Hisham was honored with the prestigious Linan award for his outstanding community leadership and academic excellence. Originally focused on cancer biology, Hisham switched his research interests after working with refugee and immigrant communities. His goal is to understand health systems, with a specific emphasis on delivery of care in resource limit of contexts. He's worked for the International Red Cross, the United Nations, and spent a gap year as fellow at the Global Health Delivery Project, a joint initiative between Harvard Business School, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women's Hospital. He is an avid dancer, a music aficionado, and a world traveler. Between work and pleasure, Hisham has traveled to over 25 countries during medical school. His remarks are titled, "From Pipe Dreams to Pipelines". Please join me in welcoming Hisham Yousif. I've been fortunate to spend the last five years studying medicine here at Harvard. Throughout my time here, I've been at the forefront of recruitment mentoring effort for applicants for marginalized communities and communities of color. Two communities that intersect more often than not. To me, such work has become a calling. You see, I'm black and Sudanese, yet equally Arab, and no less than that, a proud Muslim. People don't know quite where to place me. And for a long time, I wasn't quite sure where to place myself. You see, we live in a time in which mainstream media and leading political figures malign Islam and vilify Muslims, Arabs, and African-Americans alike. Islamophobic attacks, surveillance of my community spaces, racial bigotry, police brutality, and stop and frisk programs all included free of charge with my morning Coffee. It seems that each day I have to justify my right to belong as an American due to some controversial segment of my identity. The solution I came up with was straightforward, building pipelines. Now I know what you're all thinking. He's Arab. But I'm actually not talking about oil. Let me share a fact with you. There are fewer black men in medical school today in 2016 than there were in 1978. Think about that for a second. There are fewer black males applying and matriculating to medical schools today than there were nearly four decades ago. This statistic is perplexing to many, but to me it's hardly surprising. I think back to when I was in college sitting amongst a group of friends. They asked me, so what are you going to study? I responded, "I'm thinking about going to medical school." They laughed hysterically for what felt like an eternity. You? A doctor? Those were the same words that my hospitalized diabetic patient uttered to me, as she handed me her partially finished food tray. You? A doctor? I can't recount the number of times I've been assumed not to be a doctor because of the color of my skin or even mistaken for a room intruder. The painful reality is that people don't expect black males, or frankly individuals from marginalized communities, to be in positions of influence or prestige. These anecdotes and behaviors transmit a hidden, yet destructive message. No matter how qualified, educated, or dedicated, I or others who come from similar life circumstances, cannot be taken seriously and could not possibly be long as productive, contributing members of society. That's where the pipeline comes in. Every year in mid April, Harvard Medical School invites accepted students for a second look. And every year, I, along with other dedicated students and faculty, spend those days hosting, chatting with, answering questions from minority students from black and Latino backgrounds, LGBTQI, Muslim, you name it. One of the reasons that people choose not to attend Harvard year after year is that they don't believe that Harvard has an institutional commitment to the career advancement of individuals for minority communities. In short, they don't see the pipeline. Building successful pipeline at Harvard means walking into a classroom and seeing yourself reflected amongst other students and faculty. It means walking into a hospital or a research institution and meeting trainees, physicians, and other researchers from your communities who are five, 10, or 20 years ahead of you. It's that moment when you can look at someone and think to yourself, that could be me in 10 years. Getting there is by no means easy. It means engaging with communities in a way that extends beyond a day long diversity training or a cultural competence module completed online. It means building long term relationships and understanding the needs of individuals from under-represented and marginalized communities. During my five years, I've seen wonderful examples of community engagement and intersectionality in working toward more inclusive, diverse, and stronger Harvard. I've worked alongside many of you as we organize conferences, drafted petitions, protested broken policies, all with one goal, advocating on behalf of our communities. Today, we graduate at a unique moment. We're positioned in a time when social consciousness is growing and movements continue to shift the national discourse. As socially conscious individuals, we must realize that manifestations of systemic discrimination and inequity exist at the highest echelons of our institutions of higher learning, even here at Harvard. Moving forward in our careers, we must remain committed to openly confronting and challenging these issues. Today, we walk as Harvard graduates. That connects us, binds us. So continue to learn from each other, lean on each other, and remain steadfast and relentless in your pursuit of justice. I'm not asking you to pay it back. Well I mean, if you have loans like me, the interest rates are staggering. You may want to pay it back. No, but seriously. As graduates today, we're inheritors of tremendous opportunity and privilege. Pay it forward. The acclaimed poet, Khalil Gibran, who spent much of his youth in Boston, once said that a single leaf turns not yellow but with the silent knowledge of the whole tree. We're all responsible in some way. And my message to you is not to shirk that doity. Don't pay it back, pay it forward. Send the ladder down, extend your hand, and lift someone up. Let's build these pipelines together. Thank you. Thank you, Hisham. I'd now like to introduce our next medical school student speaker. Well, I guess two speakers. But as you'll see soon, they're really one and the same. So I asked this speaker/speakers today to provide us with some material to help with writing their introductions. And so they sent me a little blurb saying that this is how they'd like to be introduced. So in their own words, It is was great consternation that I introduce our next student speakers, John Williams and John Watson. John and John are well known at HMS for saying the wrong thing, exacerbating awkward situations, or just mumbling through unintelligible jibberish. Their self-written introduction reflects their light Harvard personalities. Personalities that have blessed our class with endless humor and genuine compassion. It is my absolute pleasure to introduce our next speakers, John Williams and John Watson. John Williams was born in Katy, Texas, and after graduating from Loyola Marymount University, worked as a case manager for people struggling with homelessness and addiction. While here at HMS, John has served on the student leadership committee of the Center for Primary Care and has worked to educate his classmates and other health care providers in caring for patients with opiate addiction. After medical school, he will be pursuing primary care through internal medicine residency at Massachusetts General Hospital. John Watson was born in San Diego, California, and after graduating from UC Berkeley, worked as a case manager for people struggling with homelessness and addiction. Sound familiar? While here at HMS, John has served as co-president of the LGBT and Allies at Harvard Medical School and has been committed to improving sexual health education here and in the community. After medical school, he will be pursuing primary care through family medicine residency at Harborview UCLA. They both wish to express full hearted gratitude to their families for their limitless sacrifice, support, role modeling, encouragement, teaching, and love. Their remarks are titled, 'What Are We Doing Here?". Please join me in welcoming John Williams and John Watson. Thank you, Prat for that semi-accurate introduction. OK. So before we get started, a couple housekeeping things. First, how amazing were those students speakers? Seriously, all three. Wow. Amazing. -See, other things-- I don't think I've ever addressed a group of the students here without mentioning this, so I went through the amphitheaters and I found some things, notably a pair of black flip-flops, have a name Ashley on them. Come get them after the show. Thank you very much. All right. So we are here to thank the most important people in our medical education and that's patients. We're going to express our gratitude towards one particular patient, we'll call Mrs. M, who welcomed us as guests during our third year medicine rotation. But to give you an idea of what she was working with when she had to work with us, we're going to tell you a little bit more about ourselves. So, this fine gentleman, this is John W. And as you may remember, one of the first diseases we learned about here at Harvard was carbon monoxide poisoning. Well on that fateful day, his lovely wife Tanya gave him a call. Yes, back there. And she said, hey, I have a nosebleed. In response, John Williams panicked. He said, it's carbon monoxide poisoning. Get out quick. Grab the dog. Leave your shoes. He sprinted home and ushered her straight to urgent care. So Tanya had a bloody nose. This is my bad. But this is John W, I recently found out from his dad, until the age of 13, almost exclusively wore speedos. On the first week of our surgery clerkship, a resident asked John to fetch some gauze. So he hauled out of the room, he went straight for the code cart, rifled through, found some gauze and gained the attention of the code nurse. So code almost got called over gauze. That's what we're working with. But I got the gauze. That's right. So, that's us. Mrs. M, on the other hand, she had a lightning quick sense of humor, seemingly endless patience, and a warm inviting smile. She had been a dialysis nurse early in life, and now she required dialysis herself. She was in the hospital with complications of her kidney failure when she met the two of us. She understood immediately that we had no idea what we were doing there. She dubbed us with the nicknames, Tweedledee and Tweedledum and began our education. She taught us how the hospital worked, who the techs were, who the nurses were, what a graft was, and how the dialysis machine would keep her alive. When her patient was done teaching and her smile faded, she told us how frustrated she was, how badly she wanted her old life back, and just how fragile she felt laying there in that bed. She welcomed us into her experience, letting us in because she knew we had no idea what we were doing without her. By acknowledging us, Mrs. M did what so many patients did for all of us graduating today. She transformed us into doctors. Now rarely are these lessons so explicit. Our experience required an especially expert patient and two exceptionally clueless medical students. Yet, all of us have found our way to being doctors through the bonds that patients have allowed and avowed. The neurosurgeon, Paul Kalanithi, described being with patients this way. Being so close to the fiery light of moments with patients only blinded me to their nature, like trying to learn astronomy by staring directly at the sun. So what are we all doing here today? We're here because we've convinced these people that we have learned enough to be listeners, to hear, and to understand, to build relationships, and to see the universe through that blaze. This whole industry is built around the meticulous extraction and refinement of one precious natural resource. That is relationships. All of this is built so we might gain access to the experience of another. There is nothing that we have learned here that has not come from people like Mrs. M, who despite her suffering, allowed us to poke, push, prod, obtain samples, and deliver unpronounceable chemicals all with the basic scientific premise of, we really think this will help. All of the best practices, the guidelines, the major and minor criteria, they've all come from patients who have the courage to say this is terrible, this is better, or at the very least, this is non inferior. Every tutorial, every double speeded lecture, every current page of first aid has been assembled from the contributions of suffering human individuals. Without patients who gave their breath to help elucidate the flow volume loop, how are we supposed to understand what they mean when they say, I'm short of breath. It's not enough to listen. We have to face the systemic injustices in our society and in our health care system. As we continue to practice in the shadow of travesties, like the Tuskegee syphilis experiment, we cast further shade with the undertreatment of pain experienced by people of color. How can we evaluate airway, breathing, and circulation, if we can't hear young men of color screaming, I can't breathe. What's the benefit-- What's the benefit of understanding how hormone therapy may help people who identify as transgender if we stand idly by as they are forced into bathrooms where they're humiliated and assaulted? And what good are all of our medical miracles if millions in our own country and billions around the world are locked out of the health care system that we are inheriting today? So life doesn't happen in a lab, and medicine doesn't happen in a vacuum. Each of us here has a responsibility to defend our patients, but their health and well being in the public square. And part of why we're all here today is to say we're just about ready to start doing that. We're here today to recognize and reaffirm the reasons we came here four, five, nine years ago and to thank those who have supported us and led us through the chrysalis of doctordom. We are here because each of us has sat down with our own Mrs. M, people have graced us with names like Tweedledum PhD, Tweedledee MD, and lent us our identities as healers. In 2016, that's something to celebrate. Make some noise. Come on. Thank you John and John. At this time, we would like to recognize your fellow classmates who in the midst of rotations, far flung travel, and planning the next stage of their lives have contributed their time and energy to make all of our graduation events possible. Many hands go into planning and orchestrating the ceremony and the events leading up to it. From oath writing to party planning, to organizing slideshows and processional music, the logistics alone require Herculean efforts from our classmates, and that's exactly what we received. A huge thank you to all those classmates who helped. Another big thanks goes out to Debbie Metcalf, director of alumni relations, for all of her hard work in supporting our graduating class. And last, but certainly not least, this day would not have happened without the tremendous efforts of Dean Nancy Oriol, Carla Fujimoto, Denise Brown, and all the staff in the Office of Student Affairs. Since we arrived at Harvard Medical School, we have felt supported and encouraged throughout all of our endeavors, ranging from the fun of Society Olympics to the stress of the boards. We couldn't have done it without you. We appreciate you, and we can't thank you enough. On behalf of the class of 2016, thank you. Thank you, Prat. Each year the graduating students from the Harvard School of Dental Medicine nominate and select two faculty members and one staff member to receive outstanding faculty and outstanding staff awards. I am truly honored to present the three award recipients today. The first outstanding faculty award goes to Dr. Hiroe Ohyama. Please join us on stage now. Dr. Ohyama is the assistant professor at the department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences. And I have to say as nerve racking as it is to face failure during those early days a pre clinic or later during our licensure exams, Dr. Ohyama was the perfect instructor to put us at ease. Her friendliness, memorable laugh, and approachability have helped develop our confidence as dentists. Congratulations, Dr. Ohyama. Our second outstanding faculty award goes to Supattriya Chutinan. Please join us on stage now. One could imagine that transforming a clumsy group of students into competent clinicians is anything but easy squeezy. But Dr. Chutinan made it seem effortless. This year's recipient of the distinguished Junior Faculty Teaching Award, she embodies a dedication to her profession and an education of critical thinkers. She is an inspiration and unforgettable staple of the dental school. Congratulations, Dr. Chutinan. This year's outstanding staff award goes to Mohamed Alaeddin. Please join us on stage now. Starting from our first tooth wax up to teaching us tricks for repairing a broken master cast, Mohamed is the hero of all preclinical and lab work. He is known for his patience, his skill, and his warm approachability. The class of 2016 cannot thank Mohamed enough for his undeniable dedication to our development in the lab and our improvement as people. Congratulations, Mohamed. Congratulations to the HSDM award winners. Now we will present our HMS faculty awards. But first, we would like to recognize the residents, those young physicians in training who our class has chosen to honor for their exceptional teaching skills. Their names are listed near the end of the class day book. We have no idea how you all managed to juggle a full patient load, to maintain an enthusiasm for your own education, and to leave indelible mark so many medical students. But we better learn fast. Let's give a big round of applause to our residents. We would now like to present the Harvard Medical School class of 2016 faculty awards. As soon as we announce your name, please make your way to the stage to receive your award. Among a distinguished and committed faculty, these men and women have stood out as uniquely passionate and effective educators, embodying the best of what medical education has to offer. Dr. Melanie Hoenig. Dr. Hoenig is receiving the award for excellence in pre-clinical instruction at Harvard Medical School. She's a nephrologist and assistant professor of medicine at BIDMC, as well as a course director for the second year renal course at HMS. She's also one of the most genuine, caring clinicians our class has a good fortune to learn from. Congratulations, Dr. Hoenig. Dr. Alexander McAdam. Dr. McAdam's receiving the award for excellence in pre-clinical instruction at Harvard Medical School. He's an associate professor of pathology at Children's Hospital and teaches the infectious diseases course to first years at HMS. He stands out for his dedication to ensure that each student is able to learn as efficiently and completely as possible. Congratulations, Dr. McAdam. Dr. Jeremy Richards. Dr. Richard is receiving the award for excellence in pre-clinical instruction at Harvard Medical School. He's a pulmonologist and intensivist at the Medical University of South Carolina and was formerly instrumental in both the physiology and pathophysiology courses, in both the first and second years, as both a tutor and course director. He unfortunately couldn't join us here today, but let's give him round of applause. Dr. Steven Odom. Dr. Odom is receiving the award for excellence in clinical instruction at BIDMC. He's an assistant professor of surgery, surgeon, and intensivist at BIDMC. He distinguishes himself as the surgeon teacher par excellence. He not only makes every individual student feel welcome in the O.R., but ensures that they are able to learn to their greatest ability. Congratulations, Dr. Odom. Dr. Hasan Bizare. Dr. Bashar is receiving the award for excellence in clinical instruction at MGH. He is a nephrologist and associate professor of medicine. His deliberate manner and dedication to his students are evident in every word he speaks. He not only ensures that students learn the best they can learn, but in the best way that they can. Congratulations, Dr. Bizare. Dr. Amanda Growdon. Dr. Growdon is receiving the award for excellence in clinical instruction at Children's Hospital. She's a pediatrician and instructor in pediatrics at Children's Hospital and stands out for incredible ability to distill complex problems into simple steps and for having the foresight and passion to ensure her student success. Congratulations, Dr. Growdon. Dr. Joji Suzuki. Dr. Suzuki is receiving the award for excellence in clinical instruction of Brigham and Women's Hospital. He's a psychiatrist and assistant professor of psychiatry at Brigham Women's Hospital and specializes in addiction medicine. He conducts many motivational interviewing workshops for medical students and residents alike. Congratulations, Dr. Suzuki. Dr. Priyank Jain. Dr. Jain is receiving the award for excellence in clinical instruction at Cambridge Health Alliance. He is a hospitalist and instructor in medicine at Cambridge Health Alliance. He has been widely regarded by his students as showing a unique level of care in approach to patients. He is seen as a clear role model of true patient centered approach. Congratulations, Dr. Jain. Dr. Valerie Pronio-Stelluto. Dr. Stelluto is receiving the award for excellence in clinical instruction at Mount Auburn hospital. She is an internist and assistant professor of Medicine at Mount Auburn hospital, and she has been involved in the medical student education for over 15 years. Most of all, she is beloved by her patient doctor II students. Congratulations, Dr. Pronio-Stelluto. Dr. Beverly Woo. Dr. Woo is receiving the ward in excellence in mentoring and advising by senior faculty member. She is an internist and associate professor of medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital. She led the patient doctor course during our pre-clinical years and diligently served as Associate master of the Peabody society. Congratulations, Dr. Woo. Dr. Fidencio Saldana. Dr. Saldana is receiving the award for excellence in mentoring and advising by a junior faculty member. He is a cardiologist and assistant professor of medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, as well as the next Dean of Students. His office door is always open, and he not only excelled in identifying problems, but in taking personal steps to solve them. Congratulations, Dr. Saldana. Anne Hudson. Anne Hudson is receiving the Harvard Medical School Student Life Award. She is the program coordinator for the Walter Bradford Cannon Society at HMS. From organizing the yearly barbecue to putting together dean's letters, she has been an integral part of the Cannon students' lives, as well the students of all societies. Congratulations Anne. Dr. Nora Osman Dr. Osman is receiving the award for excellence in clinical instruction in primary care. She is a primary care physician and instructor of medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital. She has mentored many students and made the distinct impression in her teaching of how to work through diagnosis and treatment of patients. Congratulations, Dr. Osman. Dr. Arash Mostaghimi Dr. Mostaghimi is receiving the Leonard Tow Humanisim in Medicine Award. He is the Director of Dermatology Inpatient Service at Brigham and Women's Hospital and an instructor in dermatology at Harvard Medical school. He is known for his compassionate delivery of care to patients, and he has been a dedicated mentor and teacher to many of the class of 2016. Congratulations, Dr. Mostaghimi. Congratulations to all our faculty award recipients. It is now my honor and privilege to introduce the Harvard Medical School class of 2016 commencement speaker, Dean Jeffrey Flier. A native New Yorker, Dean Flier received a bachelor's from City College in New York and an M.D. From Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Following his residency training in internal medicine at Mount Sinai, he joined the National Institutes of Health as a clinical associate. In 1978, he joined the faculty of medicine at HMS and was named Chief of the diabetes unit at the Beth Israel Hospital and later became chief of the endocrine division. In 2002, Dr. Flier was named Chief Academic Officer of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. In 2007, he was appointed dean of the faculty of Medicine, where he served as a beloved faculty member and leader of the Harvard community. Since becoming dean, Dr. Flier started a tradition of monthly lunches with students and is one of the only deans to participate in the annual society Olympics. Dean Flier's authored more than 200 scholarly papers and reviews and has received numerous honors and awards for his work. His dedication to both the academic and social well-being of students at HMS is to be commended. Before he speaks, I would like to call Dean Flier up to present him with a very special gift. Dean Flier, given all that you have done for our institution and for our class, we're honored to make you an honorary member of the class of 2016. This designation comes with your very own embroidered class of 2016 fleece. And I've also been told by Debbie in the Alumni Association that this means that you can now be solicited for donations on behalf of our class. What an honor. Congratulations, Dean Flier. OK. Thank you, Prat. I'm so delighted to be your commencement speaker today. But I really don't want you to think I'm totally new to this kind of thing. 44 years ago, almost to the day in 1972, my parents and younger brother drove from the Pelham Parkway neighborhood in the Bronx to the new Mt. Sinai Medical School across from Central Park to watch me graduate in Mt. Sinai's first graduating class. They saw me deliver the student speech that day, and they knew that I had helped to select the commencement speaker. I admit. I made a few mistakes that day, took me a few years to figure it out. The people who gathered there really wanted to celebrate, but I led off with a fiery political speech. I blasted everything I saw wrong with health and politics and believe me, there was plenty wrong. Hey, it was the 70s-- just finished the 60s, began the 70s, and what a platform I had. But very few there actually wanted to hear my views on these various subjects that I addressed. Then came a commencement speaker, a prominent psychiatrist with a strong and what I thought were appropriately provocative views on various subjects. So what were those views? He felt that using medicine, then available to treat the mentally ill was generally a huge mistake. He believed the mentally ill, a term that he really didn't like at all, wrote a book saying that he didn't like it, had a right to be left alone. And he called for emptying psychiatric hospitals and wards as fast as possible and the ending of involuntary commitment of patients. And I had sympathy for those views at the time. As he spoke, the Department of Psychiatry professors looked to me like they were going into mass cardiac arrest. The longer he talked, the more they glared at me, knowing that I had played some role in selecting him. But don't worry class of 2016. I will not repeat the error I made in 1972 by delivering a politically charged speech today. Though I did certainly consider it until a few days ago. This is a moment for you to celebrate, for you and for me to celebrate. Not only are all of you graduating, but this class of 2016 is truly impressive. I could not-- I could single out each one of you for something exciting that you have done while you've been here. But let me just give you a few examples. We have a student, who in addition to being a Rhodes scholar, used his passion and skills in health care policy to create Be Jersey Strong, a program helping insured individual's in his home state to sign up for available insurance. And that student is Aakash Shah. If you would, please stand take a bow. We have another student who worked with others at HMS and elsewhere to develop a prototype for something called Surgibox, a way to deliver safe, affordable, transportable, and sterile surgical equipment. It won the grand prize in this year's Harvard's Innovation Lab President's Challenge. And that is Debbie Teodorescu. Please stand. We have a student who worked tirelessly with students, faculty, and staff to create a welcoming environment for LGBT students, patients, and staff throughout HMS. And that is Cari Crawl. We have a student who joined with others to found the first student faculty collaborative pediatric clinic in the nation at MGH Revere. And that is Amy O'Brien. Now there's obviously so much more I could say about each student in this remarkable class, so let's together applaud all 164 of our HMS graduates today. And let's together recognize the people here whose work, sacrifice, and love made these achievements possible. Let's have a standing ovation for your parents, family, friends, partners, and significant others. I'm also proud to share with you that I'm the father of a newly minted HMS graduate, Lydia Flier. So today is especially meaningful for me and for my wife, daughter, and brother who are all on the HMS faculty and are here today. So let's applaud all the faculty, staff, and other mentors who supported and encouraged all of your endeavors. Today we celebrate this day, our great school, and all of you. Yes, there are distinguished students at medical schools all over this country celebrating too, but we can be excused today for thinking that this school, this place is unique. In fact, there are times each day when I'm racing to a meeting, when I pass students and I wish I could stop and talk, I'd like to know you all for the wonderful complex people you are with hopes and dreams and occasional complaints. Though having a daughter here ensures that I do hear many of those. But there hasn't been time and I've been-- really had the time to or the opportunity to speak with you and get to know you or to tell you about myself. Today, I get a few minutes to share something of my hopes and dreams with you. Yes, people your parents' age do actually still have hopes and dreams. But while you're listening, it's OK to let your thoughts drift a bit. You might think about what's happened in your lives since the day you set foot in Boston or at HMS. You might be thinking about what's ahead, what will change in your career, and in this profession. This is not just a day to celebrate. It's also a day of transition. We are all facing them. Many of you will leave here hopeful and perhaps a bit worried. Have I chosen the right specialty? Have I chosen the right residency? Should we put off the wedding until next year? You aren't the only ones in transition. Your parents may go home feeling a little lost. Perhaps the first time in 26 or more years, their child is no longer a student. And yes, our profession is in a time of transition. Over the course of history, HMS has made mistakes, and the transitions that sought to correct them were profoundly important. Just reflect on the arguments being made well into the 20th century about how wrong it would be to allow women to study here or Jews or blacks. And then celebrate the diversity of our school today. But our profession has much more work to do on that subject than many others. So last month I read two articles with disturbing headlines, and you may have seen them as well. The first one, Medical Errors: A Leading Cause of Death. So trained doctors, even in our hospitals, still sometimes operate on the wrong leg or other body part. Though much progress has been made, we have failed to sufficiently reduce medical errors within our hospitals and in our practices. We know this needs to be fixed. Some of the brightest minds at HMS and elsewhere are dedicating their careers to addressing this problem, but we haven't yet fixed it. Here's a second headline, Study: One in Three Antibiotic Prescriptions Unneeded. So it's hard to overstate the value of antibiotics. Everyone knows about that. But that's why it's so frustrating to read that physicians gave out millions of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions last year. Some estimate one third of all such prescriptions. That's not just a waste of money. These prescriptions promote antibiotic resistance and increasingly critical therapeutic challenge. And by the way, the way physicians prescribe opiates, most often with the appropriate intent to reduce pain, which we all seek to do, happens to contribute today to the epidemic of opiate overdose deaths. Now we're always transitioning between the imperfections of today, as illustrated by these examples and many others that I could give, and the better care we seek in our future. And it gives me comfort to realize that many of you under this tent will play a key role in making that happen. But while you can see some transitions that are ahead, you cannot imagine them all. Now when my parents watched me walk across the stage in 1972, they thought they knew what lay ahead for me. I would be a doctor of course. And after further training, I'd open a practice in the Bronx to deliver care, or if I was really successful, maybe in Manhattan. But I didn't do what they or I imagined at that time. Many of you won't do what your parents or you today imagine either. For this is a time of change for everyone. My life was forever altered, when as a young trainee in endocrinology, I made a discovery that taught me that generating change through discovery was not a fantasy. It also taught me that I had more skill in that domain than I had previously known. Excited by my one discovery in 1975, I chose research as the core of my career, and it took me in directions that I never imagined on the day I graduated from medical school. Now one reason you too can go in so many different directions is the career that you have chosen. The simple act of taking your graduation oath today offers you many exciting paths to explore. Now I realize some of you already had a path in mind before you set foot on this campus, and you will follow that path doggedly, brilliantly. And the day you retire, you'll look back with pride on an amazing career. Some of you want to change the lives of millions, like our extraordinary colleague and teacher, Paul Farmer. But changing the world doesn't require becoming Paul Farmer as Paul himself will tell you if you ask him. To diagnose or treat one patient changes the world for that person. Those of you sitting here today will change the world as caregivers, as researchers, as policy wonks, and as leaders. Some of you I can promise you will change careers three, four, or five times in the decades ahead. And some of you will end up excelling and becoming the leaders in areas that simply don't exist today. Some of you may provide the answer to the age old question, what does the spleen do? That's the recurring theme for this day I think. So I'm 68 years old, and I also see myself in transition. I've been a researcher, a physician, a dean. Now in addition to research and education, I want to deepen my focus on public policy. I'd like to reconnect this to the passion of my 1972 graduation speech, but this time I think I know a lot more than I did then. I face this transition both exhilarated and anxious about the future, not much different than many of you. There's so much to be done to improve our profession and thereby human health. Through much of human history physicians, what they did was ineffective or harmful. For centuries, doctors believed leeches could balance the humors. Battlefield surgeons wiped knives on their boots before the next amputation. When I was a resident, we thought patients with heart attacks needed weeks of bed rest, but we were certainly wrong. Now we know they get better faster if they're out of bed walking on the next day. But the arc of medical progress will move forward and quite clearly at an accelerating pace. And the opportunities that you will have in your careers are truly thrilling. You're entering a world where technology and new knowledge will make it possible to know more about a patient or a population than ever before. And as we learn more about the precise causes of disease, your ability to diagnose, prevent, and treat them with precision will increase dramatically. New imaging modalities, remote sensing data on your patients, population level bioinformatics, this will tell you more than we could have imagined decades past. And I'm not just talking about the future. There are hundreds of stories of change from discovery and innovation at HMS during your years and sometimes by you. I'll just talk about two that have been especially impressive to me and that make me especially proud. One involves the very first faculty member we hired in our basic science departments after I became dean. The genetics department, a world famous department of genetics wanted to hire an assistant. I agreed but I said, here's the deal. It has to be someone who has an interest in human genetics, rather than genetics of model organisms like the fly or the worm which give us profound insights. But there was a thought that at that juncture, perhaps someone interested in human genetics would be a good idea. Not everyone agreed. We should pick the best possible scientists, people said, regardless if they work on what they work on. So we compromised. There was really a brilliant compromise. We hired the best possible scientists, and he also happened to be working on human genetic disorders. And that person is Steve McCarroll. Some of you may be familiar with his groundbreaking work. It's deeply innovative. It's already sparking change. Still, that's not what excites me most about Steve's contribution. For that, you'll have to wait a couple of minutes. Meanwhile, I'll tell another story about something we too rarely associate with innovation, and that's primary care. I don't need to tell the students here about the primary care crisis in this country. I may need to fill in some of the parents. Primary care Docs are like what my parents thought I would be. They're the first doctors to see someone with a new problem, and they provide comprehensive and longitudinal care. But I'll tell you the truth, when I became dean, having been a physician scientists, primary care was not on my radar. Soon after, a group of wonderful activists students with a passionate interest in primary care persuaded me that I was wrong. So I did my homework. I found this. First, good primary care improves health while lowering health care costs. That's a good combination. Second, in the US, we provide less funding for primary care physician time than we do for more specialized disciplines. That's really a historical accident more than anything else. Third, because we didn't stress primary care, lots of students here believed we didn't respect the choice of primary care careers. So what could I do? Any money that I might put towards a new program in primary care meant, at that point, taking money away from other worthy efforts. And that was difficult. Well sometimes, things happen and you say, yes there is a god. As we were wrestling with this problem, I received a phone call from a person I had previously met. He'd heard about our dilemma, and here's the short version of the conversation. But it's pretty close to what the actual conversation was. I'd like to fund your center, he said. I said something about how this would be rather expensive, and he said send me a proposal. If it's really good, I'll fund it up to $30 million over the next five years. Now when I climbed back on to my chair, he said, there's another stipulation, I'd like my gift to be anonymous. So as much as I'd like to, I can't tell you today the name of the generous and compassionate and idealistic person who made that gift. But the measure of what he did is that since 2011, we've had a center that trains excited students how to give better care, one patient at a time, trains them how to create primary care partnerships with other health professionals and organizations, and influences other schools to create centers like this because Harvard Medical School has done it. Now there's still much work to be done before we fix the problems in primary care in this country, including finding better ways for HMS to involve the field of family medicine, which I know many students would like us to do. But now HMS is fully engaged in this area. But what's the broader significance of this story? Well first, to quote John Lennon, people in my generation knew who that was, Life is what happens when you're making other plans. I didn't have any idea when I started as dean that I would play any role in the creation of a primary care center. But I'm as proud of that as anything that's happened during my nine years as dean. But there's a second lesson. It's that Harvard hasn't educated you by itself. Your education does require partnerships. A partnership between you and your family sitting in the back, the faculty sitting in the front, the agencies which fund so much of our research, and yes, the benefactors who support our greatest goals, like the anonymous individual who didn't even want his name to be known. Now whatever path you take, you will succeed, at least in part through partnership. And speaking of partnerships, let me return to Steve McCarroll, who I'm going to ask to stand and take a bow over here. Steve. Thank you. So in one of his lines of work, Steve was trying to solve the mystery, the genetic basis for schizophrenia. A disease that affects about 24 million people around the world with devastating effect. We know too little about the biology of schizophrenia to map out fully effective treatments. Dr. McCarroll led a large worldwide team to identify the responsible genes. They found an area of the genome that seemed especially important. But what was the identity and the function of the schizophrenia associated genes residing in that small area of the genome? They could not figure it out, at least for a while. On New Year's Eve back in 2013, Steve was heading toward a new Year's Eve party. His cell phone rang. It was an email from an HMS student who was working in his lab. Steve opened it, and the student working alone on New Year's Eve had attached a graph so simple that you might not have thought it was important. But as soon as Steve looked at it, as he was quoted as saying in a recent New Yorker article about this discovery, it was immediately clear he had solved the genetic mystery. That M.D. PhD student became the first author on a truly groundbreaking paper, involving collaboration with additional faculty at the Harvard Medical system, describing a new theory for the origins of schizophrenia. And I think this will be a durable theory. I'm so proud to tell you that that student is graduating today. Aswin Sekar, please stand and take a bow. Aswin, by asking you to stand, we recognize of course your exceptional achievement but also what you symbolize-- the insight, the intellect, and the drive of the entire class of 2016. So to the class of 2016, let me say this. You approach the future with a truly rare privilege. As physicians, you will enrich the lives of others. Sometimes you will give them the gift of life. And you will do that in many different ways. You will demonstrate the gift of empathy and warmth that gives patients hope when they have none. You'll show your talent for caring for patients in one or more clinical disciplines. You'll make discoveries in basic, translational, and population science. And you'll leave the comfort of home to serve families halfway across the world where health also means access to water and mosquito netting. You will shine within organizations whose critical work we know by their initials-- the NIH, CDC, FDA. You will lead hospitals and medical schools. Maybe one of you will lead this medical school. And some of you, quite remarkably, will do all of those things over a career. And as I contemplate with you these very future roles, I'm reminded of the passion for justice that motivated my graduation speech in 1972. And so as you leave to pursue your chosen paths, I do implore you to remain true to the deepest values that drove your decision to enter this profession. So much remains to be done. We will need your brilliance and your passion to endure through careers during which your perseverance and your dedication will repeatedly be challenged. So 44 years ago when I delivered an excessively political graduation speech, I didn't really know what lay ahead. But I knew, if still incompletely, that I had earned one of the world's great gifts, a degree in medicine. Class of 2016, as you make your transitions and journeys armed with that degree, you will have been shaped by the path that four or more years ago led you to this wonderful campus. And as you march forward, I hope there will be moments when you remember to look back. Life, after all, should involve the memory of your triumphs, and this is one of those. Remember this day. Remember sitting under this tent when the future stretched out before you, when your teachers applauded because they knew of your great work and your truly unlimited potential, when your classmates hugged goodbye vowing you would be together again, when your families filled with pride and love celebrated what you had done and what you will do. Congratulations. Thank you so much Dean Flier for your wise words and all of the guidance you've us over your tenure as dean. Give him another round of applause everyone. It is now my distinct pleasure to introduce the dean of the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Dr. Bruce Donoff. Dr. Donoff embodies the bridge between our two schools. He received his D.M.D. from Harvard School of Dental Medicine and then went on to earn his M.D. from Harvard Medical School as part of his residency in oral maxillofacial surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital, where he continues his work and was named chairman and chief of service in 1983. He has served as the dean of Harvard School of Dental Medicine for 25 years, and in his career has authored numerous papers, and has been the recipient of some of the highest awards, including the Alpha Omega Achievement Award, an honor shared with Dr. Albert Einstein. So pretty good company I'd say. But probably his most significant contribution has been as a teacher and personal mentor to many students. I know that personally he even took time out of his busy schedule to evaluate one of my patients, demonstrating thoughtful care and concern. So today, it is my sincere honor and privilege to introduce our beloved dean of Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Dr. Bruce Donoff. Well good afternoon everyone. This is such a special day for all the graduates of the Harvard School of Dental Medicine and Harvard Medical School, the class of 2016. Congratulations to you all and to all your loved ones. We also have two Dr. Fliers graduating today, one a student, Lydia, and the other, the HMS dean. I could not make these remarks without saying how important Jeffrey Flier has been to Harvard and the faculty of medicine. Hats off to Dean Flier for a job well done. I hope those of you who have been around a while also noted that the paths in the quadrangle, which used to be stone Pebbles strewn paths have now been paved. So congratulations to whoever did that. You are at a major milestone of a long journey of an education and training designed to permit you to help people through the discovery application and communication of knowledge, ability, compassion, and caring. The development of wisdom and clinical judgment through lifelong learning and further experience represents the road ahead for all of you. Each year, I have associated the graduating class with some particular event or issue in order to create a lasting memory for myself. I have to correct you it's only 24 years. OK. So in 1992, my first year as dean, it was my 25th reunion of my HSDM graduation. In 1998, it was the first class graduating from the four year problem based learning program. And last year, it was an unbelievable record snowfall in Boston and the student's deep passion for improving the lives of others, especially those with the greatest need. Whether that was in community clinics, the Windsor Clinic at Cambridge Health Alliance, or helping to establish a new dental school in Rwanda. This year, I will remember the HSDM class of 2016 for your involvement in organized dentistry, whether that is by being the number one student group in presenting papers, in organized meetings, or published papers, no small feat for one of the smallest dental schools in the nation. Also your contributions to the new curriculum, now called the Pathways Program, when the previous one was called the New Pathways-- I don't understand that-- went beyond the normal call of duty. What kind of dental school has a primary care medical practice in the dental center with first and fourth dentals students and physicians and dentists seeing patients together? Our school's initiative to integrate oral health and medicine reached new heights with a day of oral health for all the first year medical and dental students beginning last year. The mouth is attached to the body. We have nurse practitioners and nurse practitioner students coming into the dental school from Northeastern University to learn with dental students about oral health and to take care of patients with chronic diseases. Nelson Mandela once said, it always seems impossible until it is done. And we are doing it now. This morning, President Faust conferred your degrees and welcomed you into a demanding branch of medicine. That is our mantra, and that is the principle that the school was founded on. On July 17, 1867, Harvard University was the first university in America to open a dental school, and it was associated with its medical school. It was the first to grant the DMD degree as well. Next year, we will celebrate 150 years of being true to that legacy. Edward D Churchill, who is the chief of surgery at Mass General, said in a New England Journal article in 1951, "the most significant trend of the 20th century is that towards cultivating the discipline of the mind needed to compliment and guide surgical technology." Not every diagnosis of dental decay and gum disease requires surgical methods. Immunization by vaccination now has its equivalent in oral health. Understanding susceptibility to caries, based upon genetics, nutrition, economic and social status, and the use of what we used to call-- what we now can call dental immunizations by mineralization techniques, tooth protection by fluoride treatments and sealants, can eliminate the use of the drill in many cases. Understanding the microbiome during infancy to children may lead to new treatments of the number one non communicable disease in the world, dental decay. Dental decay sounds insignificant, but it probably leads to more pain, more missed school days, and nutrition issues, and slow development than any other childhood disease. Dental immunization represents a wonderful example of medical management of surgical disease. Ever since Australian physicians, Barry Marlene and Robin Warren, won a Nobel Prize in medicine in 2005 for the discovery that gastric ulcers are caused by bacteria, I have become enamored of the term. Their discovery of Helicobacter pylori was groundbreaking and opened up the study of the human microbiome. The practices of medicine and dentistry for all of you will undoubtedly be shaped by discoveries in these areas whether the findings are related to the intestine or the oral cavity. It will just take one of you to discover how the human immune system turns these normal inhabitants into pathogens. I liken the concept of natural microbes being involved in disease, with the realization in the mid 1850s that cholera could be transmitted by water, when at the time airborne transmission of all disease was thought to be the norm. Increasingly, data shows that good oral health leads to better management of total health and reduce medical costs. You heard Dr. Flier talk about the importance of primary care in reducing medical costs. Integration of oral health in primary care medicine is important, and your education with the medical students has prepared you better than most for leading the charge and change in the dental profession that will see changes in the model of care and changes in the value statements for the profession. When I greeted you four or five years ago, I told you that communities based on merit and passion are rare, and that people who have been part of them never forget them. I said that I believed HSDM to be such a community and hope that your time here would make you appreciate that experience no matter where your future careers took you. I told you that you were entering a school that does not strive to produce a uniform product, but an exceptional one. Today, knowing each of you, I believe that our joint efforts have borne fruit. You will be great dentists and exceptional oral physicians. You have learned to appreciate that patients are unique. And by your education here, you will be doctors who understand the complex and deep relationship between oral health and the health of the rest of the body. So congratulations to the 35 individuals receiving their DMD degree, some with an M.P.H. or PHD, the 13 receiving the Master of Medical Science degree, and the 12 receiving their Doctor of Medical Science degree. And congratulations to the residents and fellows who are receiving specially certificates and will go on to make important impacts in their chosen field. We are privileged to take care of people. Treat them well, treat them kindly, and treat them with respect. Above all, treat them all equally with one high standard of care. Your achievement should make you very proud. Those who helped you reach this day and those who have nurtured and sustained you, share your pride-- that pride. The entire HSDM community and I feel no small measure of joy and pride in your accomplishments. I hope your memories of HSDM and HMS will always remain a treasured part of who you are and who you become. Thank you and congratulations. So I'd like to ask the faculty and the senior tutors to get ready. And we'll award degrees-- or diplomas, I should say. Good afternoon. I'm Dr. Seng Park, associate dean for dental education at The School of Dental Medicine. It is my honor to present to you the members of the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, class of 2016. Will the members of the class please rise and approach the podium to their right? These women and men have completed four or more years of study towards a degree of Doctor of Dental Medicine. Assisting in the hooding today are members of the dental faculty. And they are-- Dr. Sam Coffin for Cannon Society, Dr. Armando Pardo for Castle Society, Dr. Lisa Simon for Holmes Society, and Dr. Aram Kim for Peabody society. Class, are you ready? OK. Good. Dr. Maria Baquerizo. Thanks so much. Dr. Martin Thomas Berger. Dr. Nicole Ballinger. Dr. Daniel Joshua Bryan. Dr. Raina [INAUDIBLE] Chandiramani. Dr. Yasmin [INAUDIBLE]. Dr. [INAUDIBLE]. Dr. Renee Yuehong Fan. Thank you. Dr. Michael Zev Forman. Thank you. Dr. Gina Anne Gill. Dr. Hanna Heck. Dr. Sina Hedayatnia. Dr. Kristin Elizabeth Huber. Dr. Lauren Naling Hum. Dr. Laura Anne Jacox-- also received a PhD from the Graduate School of Arts and Science. Thank you. Thank you. Dr. Nicholas Zachary Kalis. Thank you. Dr. Gazelle [INAUDIBLE]. Thank you so much for everything. Dr. George Carl [INAUDIBLE]. Dr. Kenneth Michael Kufta. That's very nice. Thank you. Dr. Hilary Eaton Lathrop. Thank you. Thank you so much. Dr. Cameron Lee. Thank you. Dr. Cliff Lee. Dr. Lisa [INAUDIBLE]. Thank you so much. Dr. Lily Liu. Dr. Elizabeth Min Jung [INAUDIBLE]. Thank you. Do I just go to that side? Dr. Carly Frances Park. Thank you so much. Thank you. Dr. Justin Conrad Partridge. Thank you. Dr. Tina Ren. Thank you. Dr. Miguel Alejandro [INAUDIBLE]. I made it. Dr. Jessica Sarah Saliba. Thank you. Thank you so much. Dr. Matthew Robert Schiavone. Thank you. Dr. Justin Michael Sheinbaum. Thank you. Dr. [INAUDIBLE] Caroline [INAUDIBLE]. Dr. Pouya Mostafa Vakilian. Thank you so much. Dr. Marianne Vlahos. Thank you so much. Thank you. And Dr. Helen Zhao Yang. Thank you. Ladies and gentlemen, please join me in congratulating The Harvard School of Dental Medicine class of 2016. Let's give them one more round of applause. I would now like to re-welcome our newest member of the class of 2016, Dean Jeffrey Flier, to initiate conferral of the medical degrees. OK. So before we move on, I would like to recognize two people seated with us on the stage. First, Dr. A.W. Karchmer is the representative of Alumni Council. The Alumni Council provides mentorship for students, guidance to the school, and we look forward to you potentially playing a role in that organization over the decades to come. A.W. And then Peter Lynch, seated to his right-- left, as you're looking. Peter is the representative of our Board of Fellows-- a remarkable group of people who provide advice to the school, and to me, and support for the school. And I want to thank both of you for your steadfast support of students and our school. And Peter happens to have a daughter amongst you, who you will be seeing in a few minutes. So normally, this is the point where the dean says a few things, but since I already said a few things, I am going to ask Ed Hundert, the dean for medical education, to come to the podium to share a few reflections. And then he will get on with the program of conferring the degrees to the HMS class. Thank you. Class, you did it. Give yourselves a hand. You know, I was so touched when Platt told me that your class had asked me to share a few reflections in this spot in the program, where Dean Flier would normally speak, if he weren't the featured speaker today. And my thoughts, funnily enough, went immediately back to the speech I gave when I was the medical student speaker at my medical school graduation-- standing at this podium, under this tent, 32 years ago. In that talk, I wasn't so much provocative as probably a little naive. I did a little riff on the Golden Rule, as it might apply to ethical problem solving in medicine. And ever since then, I've been trying find some simple golden rule, some simple formula that you could pull out when you're faced with some ethical dilemma in your medical or dental practice and you're not sure what to do. And 32 years later, I think I almost have it. So I thought I'd give you an updated version today, since, after all, Mark Twain once said, "to be good is noble. To teach others to be good is nobler and less trouble." Actually, the tale of my search for this handy dandy moral rule of thumb or formula started before I even got to HMS. I had had the wonderful opportunity to study moral philosophy for a couple of years at Oxford, between college and medical school. So when I first got to HMS, I knew a lot about what all the great thinkers thought about the problems of good and evil and right and wrong. And I was conversant in a host of sort of complex theoretical frameworks and models for moral decision making. But I think it would be fair to say I didn't know the first thing about the practical side-- how to put all of this theory into practice. So in my first year, I went around to some of the famous clinical professors-- some of them are still sitting here today-- and I asked them, what ethical theory or framework do you use when you're making moral decisions? And most of them replied by saying something like, what the heck are you talking about? And then I said, you know, come on, surely when you're faced with a patient on a ventilator who can't communicate, and they're unable to do much but suffer, and you have to work with the patient's family, and make these difficult decisions about whether there's really anything else of value that our high tech treatments can offer, you must have some sort of framework or guideline that informs your thinking about the moral aspects of these weighty decisions. And to be honest, as I said in my speech when I was a student, what I thought they were going to say is that they apply the most fundamental, time honored formula in ethics-- the Golden Rule. And this just goes to show how naive I was because not one of these wise, gray haired physicians said that they asked themselves what they would want if they were on the ventilator. And indeed, why should they? That classic formulation of the Golden Rule really isn't appropriate. Not only is it not realistic to have to imagine yourself in your own final, painful days every time you have to make one of these decisions-- the fact is, what I want from myself when I'm the patient on the ventilator is completely irrelevant to what's right for this patient who might have a different religious belief, different cultural or family background, and so forth. So asking, if this were me, what would I want? Turns out not to get you any closer to a morally informed answer. Now what a lot of these professors did say was very interesting to me. Many of them said something like, well, I think to myself, if this patient were my mother, what would I want for her? Now it seemed to me you don't have to be a psychiatrist to see the methodological flaw in the Golden Rule corollary that says, do unto others as you might have them do unto your mother. And so with apologies to all the mothers of our graduates who are here today, I still wasn't getting much closer to the simple formula that I was looking for. But over time, I started to notice how people started to shift to different versions of these Golden Rule-like formulas. Awhile back, there was a movement to start saying, well, if this patient were my child, what would I want for them? That formulation, that thought experiment, tries to get at this incredible degree of caring, but, obviously, it runs the risk of getting too much of your emotional, maternal, or paternal instincts, as you might try to do even more than you might think is reasonable for anyone else. And so after awhile, some people said, well, how about if this patient were my favorite niece or nephew, what would I want? And so forth. Well, about 15 years ago, I finally realized that what we're really trying to get at here is caring for the patient, right? We think of Francis Weld Peabody's as immortal words-- "the secret of the care of the patient is in caring for the patient." And it occurred to me that we could modify the rule to be what I might call the Rule of Caring. So we could ask ourselves not if this patient were me or if this patient were my mother, but if this patient were this patient-- now an obvious advantage right there-- it is the patient, right? So you say, if this patient were this patient, but I cared about this patient as much as I care about myself, what would I do? That's the Rule of Caring. If this patient were this patient, but if I cared about this patient as much as I care about myself, what would I do? So the Rule of Caring might, for example, make you spend the extra time, and effort, and energy to find out what wishes that patient on the ventilator had expressed, just like you hope that somebody would take that time to find out what wishes you would express. So just as I thought I'd come up with something really pretty good, I was asked to give this Ethics Grand Rounds at a Department of Psychiatry in New York City. So with my Rule of Caring tucked in my lecture notes, I fly down, I give my talk in front of a packed amphitheater. And as soon as I finished, one of the nation's most famous psychoanalysts, sitting right in the front row, immediately puts his hand up for a question. So with some trepidation, I call on this dour looking fellow. And he says, Dr. Hundert, I am most concerned about your Rule of Caring. In my experience, doctors are very self-hating people. Now unfortunately, this guy had a point. You know, my first response was actually-- I have to tell you, my first response was actually to try to amend the rule by saying something like, what would we say if it's-- if this patient were this patient, but I cared about this patient as much as I would care about myself, if I was the kind of person who went to business school instead of medical school. So that's off script. And apologies to our M.D./M.B.A. Graduates as well. But you can't really fix this problem with such a quick fix because, let's face it, we're all in way over our heads most of the time when we care for sick and dying people. As Mother Teresa once said, "I know God wouldn't give me anything I can't handle. I just wish that he didn't trust me so much." So many of us in medicine are so hard on ourselves, even as we try to be gentle and caring with our patients. But it just doesn't work. As a devout student of human mental processes, I guarantee you that our ability to project any feeling onto others is limited by our own internal capacities. So the degree to which we're gentle on ourselves sets an absolute cognitive and emotional limit on how gentle and caring we can ever be with our patients, our loved ones, or anyone else. How can we care for our patients, if we don't care for ourselves? Indeed, how can we be helpful to our patients, if we don't accept help for ourselves? It's hard for people, like most of us here, to hear this. People have been so successful by being so demanding on ourselves all the time, but as the great British theologian, G.K. Chesterton once said, "the reason angels can fly is that they take themselves lightly." Well, it finally occurred to me, after all these years of searching, that in order to understand, at a deeper level, what's going on with this rule, we have to think about the way in which our own dignity, our own self respect is what we have to be able to project onto that patient in order to really get at the essence of the Golden Rule. And indeed, I'll tell you here today, the most important and unappreciated cause of the public opinion crisis about American medicine is the way in which attitudes of respect for ourselves, for better or for worse, get projected outward to the entire community. As the basic structures of medicine are being reshaped and people are questioning the very integrity of American medicine, I urge all of us to look inward. They say that American medicine has fallen on hard times. They say that the honorable physician is part of a dying order. Well, for the past couple of years, I've welcomed the HMS students with a story about respect. And since I didn't get to welcome you when you started here, I thought I'd conclude this reflection by sharing this story. It's a universal story. It's been told in some variation in almost all the world's sacred traditions. This particular version comes from the Hasidic tradition, but a similar story is attributed to Ramana Maharshi in the Hindu tradition, to Saint Paul in the Christian tradition, to the Sufi masters in the Muslim tradition, and others. This particular version comes from an 18th century Jewish scholar. And it's called The Rabbi's Gift. The Rabbi's Gift. The story concerns a monastery that had fallen upon hard times. Once a great order, cultural changes over the past few hundred years had sapped its strength. All of its branch houses were closed and there were only five monks left in the decaying mother house-- the abbot and four others, all over 70 years of age. Clearly, it was a dying order. In the deep woods surrounding the monastery, there was a little hut that a rabbi from a nearby town occasionally used for a hermitage. The monks could always sense when the rabbi was in the woods. And during one such visit, it occurred to the abbot to pay the rabbi a visit to ask if he might have some advice that could save the monastery. The rabbi welcomed the abbot at his hut, but when the abbot explained the purpose of his visit, the rabbi could only commiserate with him. I know how it is, he said. The spirit has gone out of the people. It's the same in my town. Almost no one comes to the synagogue anymore. So the old men wept together, they read parts of sacred scriptures, they spoke quietly of deep things. When the abbot finally rose to leave, they embraced. And he asked again, is there nothing you can tell me to help to save my dying order? No, I'm sorry, the rabbi responded. I have no advice to give. The only thing I can say is that one of you is the Messiah. When the abbot returned to the monastery, his fellow monks gathered around him to ask, well, what did the rabbi say? He couldn't help, the abbot answered. We just wept and read holy scriptures together. Although, just as I was leaving, he did say something rather strange. He said that the Messiah is one of us. I don't know what he meant. In the days, and weeks, and months that followed, the old monks pondered this and wondered whether there was any possible significance to the rabbi's words. The Messiah is one of us? Could he possibly have meant one of us monks here at the monastery? If that's the case, which one? Do you suppose he meant the abbot? Yes, if he meant anyone, he probably meant Father Abbot. On the other hand, he might have meant Brother Thomas. Certainly, Brother Thomas is a holy man. He surely could not have meant Brother Eldred. Eldred is always so crotchety. Though, come to think of it, Eldred is virtually always right, often very right. Maybe the rabbi did mean Brother Eldred. But certainly not Brother Philip. Philip is so passive, a real nobody. But then, almost mysteriously, he has a gift for somehow always being there when you need him. Maybe Philip is the Messiah. Of course the rabbi didn't mean me, each of them thought, inturn, about themselves. He couldn't possibly have meant me, I'm just an ordinary person. Yet suppose he did? What-- what if I am the Messiah? Oh, God, not need me, each of them thought. I couldn't be that much for the others, could I? As they each contemplated in this manner, the old monks began to treat each other with extraordinary respect on the off chance that one among them might be the Messiah. And on the off-off chance that each monk himself might be the Messiah, they began to treat themselves with extraordinary respect. It so happened that people still occasionally came to the monastery to picnic on its green lawn, to wander along its many paths, even to sit in the old chapel to meditate. As they did so, without even being conscious of it, they sensed this aura of extraordinary respect that now began to surround the five, old monks, and seemed to radiate out from them, and permeate the atmosphere of the place. Hardly knowing why, they began to come back to the monastery more frequently to picnic, to play, to pray. They began to bring their friends to show them the special place. And their friends brought their friends. Then it happened that some of the younger visitors started to talk more and more with the old monks. And after a while, one asked if he could join them. Then another. And another. Within a few years, the monastery had once again become a thriving order. And thanks to the rabbi's gift, a vibrant community of spirituality and light. Well, my message to you today should be obvious. Not just one of you, but every one of you-- you are the ones who will redeem American medicine. You are the ones. And when you face some complex, moral dilemma and you aren't sure how to proceed, you just remember the rabbi's gift and you'll know what to do. And so in the context of that respect that starts within, but that permeates outward to your patients, your families, your loved ones, your colleagues, and, indeed, to our global community, I leave you with the words of Margaret Mead, who once said, "never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed people can change the world; indeed, it's the only thing that ever has." So now the moment you've all been waiting for. The way we give out the M.D. degree, certificates-- the diplomas-- at Harvard Medical School is a lot of fun. As for those families who are here and don't know, the students are organized into academic societies, which is their sort of academic home for advising and mentoring while they're here. Many of our students have been very productive. You've heard about publications, starting public service projects, and so forth. Some of them have been so productive, they've also had children while they're here. And so we have a tradition that anyone who has children brings them up on stage. Historically, your diploma's been called a sheepskin. And so we give you your sheepskin. However, if you have children, we give them a lambie-- little Harvard Med School lambies. And the way that we announce the students is we ask the advisory deans, the head of each society, to come up, and to read the names of the people from their academic society, and to have the society advisors place the hoods on their students. And so we're going to get started. We're going to begin with the Castle Society. And so I invite-- we're starting with the Cannon Society. Make that the Cannon Society. And so we are going to invite up Sara Fazio, the advisory dean of the Cannon Society. Thank you, Dean Hundert, and Deans Flier, Donoff, and Oriol, as well as Dr. Karchmer, Mr. Lynch, and distinguished guests. Ladies and gentleman, I am so proud to present the graduating class of 2016 from the Walter Bradford Cannon Society. Congratulations. I would like to ask the graduates to stand and come to the stage. Today, we will have several people hooding our graduates this afternoon-- Dr. Kate Treadway, associate director and advisor of the society, Dr. Julian Seifter, also associate director and advisor, Dr. Buck Strewler, prior Cannon Society director, and Ms. Anne Hudson, Cannon Society coordinator extraordinaire. Dr. Ashley Aluko. Dr. Shauna Lexi Burwick. Dr. [INAUDIBLE] Jay [INAUDIBLE]. Dr. Jessica Marie Duran. Thank you, Dr. Fazio. Thank you so much for everything. Thanks. Dr. Scott Elman. Thank you, Dr. Fazio. Dr. David Fisher. Dr. Christopher Henderson. Dr. Jean Amanda Jr. Dr. Arjun Ramesh Khanna. Dr. Teodora Kolarova. Dr. Richard Lee. Dr. Charles Liu. Thank you. Dr. Eric Liu. Thank you so much. Thank you. Dr. Paul Morano. Thank you so much. Dr. David Miranda. Thank you so much. Dr. Rami [INAUDIBLE]. Dr. Colin Nevins. Thanks so much, Dr. Fazio. It's going to be fun. Dr. Charlotte Paige. Thanks so much. Dr. Ana Alaska Pendleton. Thank you. Thank you so much. Dr. Sara [INAUDIBLE]. Thank you so much. Thank you. Dr. Vadim [INAUDIBLE]. Dr. Rachel Simon. Dr. Anna Jo Bodurtha Smith. Dr. Pratyaksh Srivastava. Dr. Derek Stenquist. You're the best. Thank you. Dr. Sandy [INAUDIBLE]. Dr. Rachel Wallwork. Thank you so much. Thank you. Dr. [INAUDIBLE] Christina Wing. Thank you. Is Mary here? No. Oh. All right. Dr. Hesham Youssef. I almost called you Mary. Thank you. Congratulations. Thank you so much. You're welcome. I'm so happy for you. Congratulations. Dr. Mary Lynch Witkowski. With her is Erica, HMS class of 2028, Luke, class of 2031, Catherine, class of 2034, and Jack, class of 2037. And Dr. Yun [INAUDIBLE]. I want to thank everybody and give one last round of applause for the wonderful Cannon class of 2016. And next, we have Orah Platt, advisory dean of the William B. Castle Society. Ladies and gentleman, it is my pleasure to present to you the fabulous physicians of the Castle Society. Please, stand up and come to the front. Today, you will be hooded by your equally fabulous Society advisers, Doctors William Taylor and Dana Stearns, and lead onto your next steps by the fabulous Castle program officer, Claudia Galeas. Also receiving the Masters of Business Administration, Dr. Aaron Berhanu. Dr. Jacqueline Boehm. Thank you. Dr. Benjamin Brush. Dr. Jeffrey Campbell. Also receiving the Master of Public Policy, Dr. Portia Chipendo. Thank you. Dr. Samuel Dickman. Thank you. Yeah. I'm glad you got to [INAUDIBLE]. Thanks. Dr. Julian Flores. Dr. Vikas Gampa. I was looking for Julia. Oh, she was. Sorry. That's OK. Dr. Julie Friedman. Dr. Samir Gupta. Congratulations. Dr. Alex Harsha Bangura. Also receiving the Doctor of Philosophy, Dr. Win Fan [INAUDIBLE]. Thank you so much. Also receiving the Master of Public Policy, Dr. Dana [INAUDIBLE]. Also receiving the Doctor of Philosophy, Dr. David Kim. Dr, Jennie Krasker. Also receiving the Master of Business Administration, Dr. [INAUDIBLE]. Thank you so much. Congratulations. Thank you. Dr. Morgan Lieberman Lichtenstein. Thank you so much. Dr. Christopher Lim. Dr. Raaj Mehta. Congratulations. Thank you so much. Dr. [INAUDIBLE]. Thank you. Dr. Nathanial Morris. Happy to see you. Thank you. I loved your piece in The Post. Thank you. Dr. Jacob [INAUDIBLE] Thank you so much. Congratulations to you. Dr. Alexandra Olshewsky. Congratulations. Dr. Deborah Oros with future graduates Finn and Harper Robertson. Dr. Sarah Qureshi. Thank you. Dr. Magdalena Robak. Thank you so much. Congratulations. Dr. Benjamin Spleen Rome. Dr. Nathaniel Royston. Congratulations. Thank you. Dr. Meghan Rudder. Also receiving the Master of Business Administration, Dr. Benjamin [INAUDIBLE]. Dr. Christina Shin Thank you so much. Dr. Margaret Soroka. Dr. Devon Taylor with future graduates Nia, Remy, and Desmond. What great fun. Also receiving the Master of Science, Dr. Debbie Teodorescu. Dr. Lulu Sao. Congratulations. Dr. Bo Wang. Thank you so much. And Dr. Michael Young. Thank you so much. And one last round of applause for the Castle Society. Next up, we have the Oliver Wendell Holmes Society led by Dr. Anthony D'Amico. Could I please ask all of the students of the Oliver Wendell Holmes family to approach the podium? And let's give them a round of applause, please. It's really a privilege for me, granted by the deans, to be able to call all of these wonderful students doctor for the first time. They'll be hooded by our associate directors, Dr. Helen Shields and Dr. Emily Oken. And they'll be greeted and congratulated by our program officer, Ms. [INAUDIBLE]. So also receiving his Doctor of Philosophy, Dr. Tahir Ahmad. Dr. Gordon Bay. Dr. Grant Barber. Dr. Chen Chen. Dr. Fallon Chipidza. Congratulations. Dr. Nicole Chantelle de Paz. Thank you. Also receiving his Masters of Business Administration, Dr. Kyle Dempsey. Dr. Catherine [INAUDIBLE]. Dr. Andrey Dolinko. Take care of your family. Thank you. Also receiving his Masters of Business Administration, Dr. Aiden Feng. Dr. Lydia Flier. Accompanied by his two sons, Christian and Chasen, Dr. Jonathan Kim. And accompanied by his two daughters, [INAUDIBLE] and Mia, Dr. David Cupperman. Hold a second. Also receiving her Masters of Business Administration, Dr. Simi Li. Dr. James Miller Dr. Emily Mitton. Dr. Eli [INAUDIBLE]. Dr. Amy O'Brien. Dr. Anna [INAUDIBLE]. Dr. [INAUDIBLE] Parikh. Congratulations. Dr. Catherine [INAUDIBLE] Perez. Dr. Leonel Perez. Congratulations. Dr. [INAUDIBLE]. Congratulations. Dr. Daniel Rosen. Congratulations. Also receiving his Doctor of Philosophy, Dr. [INAUDIBLE]. Congratulations. All right. Good luck. Dr. [INAUDIBLE] Shaw. Dr. Molly Siegel. Dr. Jonathan Watson. Also receiving his Masters of Business Administration, Dr. Arsani William. Congratulations. Dr. Min Wu. Let's give them a round of applause and thank you. Next up we have the Irving London HST Society. The advisory dean, Dr. David Cohen. Thank you, Dean Hundert, Dean Flier. The London Society HST students, please stand and approach the front of the tent. I'd like to introduce the members of the faculty who will be hooding the London HST students today. They are my good friends and colleagues Rick Mitchell, associate advising dean of the London Society and Associate Director of HST, and Mathew Frosch, associate director of HST. And joining them in this celebratory activity are our beloved administrative staff, Patty Cunningham and Carol [INAUDIBLE]. It is now my pleasure to introduce to you the graduates of the Irving M. London Society of the Harvard MIT division of Health Sciences and Technology. Dr. Vishesh Agrawal. Dr. [INAUDIBLE] and daughter, Zosia, also receiving the PhD from Harvard University. Dr. Alexander Bagley, also received the PhD from Harvard University. Thank you so much. Dr. Nathan Belkin. Dr. Alexander Bick, also received a PhD from Harvard University. Congratulations. Dr. Jamesha Conner, also received a PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Thank you. Thank you. Thank you. Congratulations. Dr. Husain Danish. Thank you. Dr. Bradford [INAUDIBLE], also received the Masters of Business Administration from Harvard University. Thank you so much. Congratulations. Congratulations. Dr. [INAUDIBLE]. Congratulations. Dr. Kay Everett, also received a PhD from Harvard University. Dr. Benjamin Greenberger. Dr. Jonathan Herman, also received a PhD from Harvard University. Thank you so much. New York, right? Yeah. I'll be seeing you at Cornell. I'll call you up. Excellent. Congratulations. Congratulations. Good luck. Dr. Sarah Hill, also received a PhD from Harvard University. Thank you. Congratulations. Dr. Andrew Lee. Congratulations. Dr. Richard Lin. Dr. Wendy Liu, also received a PhD from Harvard University. Thank you. Thank you. Congratulations. Dr. [INAUDIBLE], also received a PhD from Harvard University. Thank you. Good choice. [INAUDIBLE]. Congratulations. OK. Thank you. We got it. Dr. Milan Manchadia. Thank you so much. Congratulations. Dr. Vinayak Muralidhar. Congratulations. Congratulations. Dr. Daniel Oh. Congratulations. Dr. [INAUDIBLE]. Thank you. Congratulations. Dr. Rishi Puram, also received a PhD from Harvard University. Congratulations again. I really appreciate everything. Thanks again. Congratulations. Dr. Heather Roberts. Thank you. Congratulations. Dr. Jin Chan, also received a PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Congratulations. Dr. Alexander Subtelny, also received a PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Thank you. Congratulations. Dr. Jasmine [INAUDIBLE] Congratulations. Dr. Dimitri Timmerman. Congratulations. Dr. Veena Venkatachalam, also received a PhD from Harvard University. Congratulations. All right. Dr. Mary Shu. Dr. Caleb Young. Dr. [INAUDIBLE] John, also received the Master of Public Health degree from Harvard University. Thanks so much. And please, help me congratulate the London HST class of 2016. And last, but certainly not least, the Francis Weld Peabody Society. And the advisory dean of advisory deans, Dr. Ronald Arky. Thank you. Thanks. I know it's hot. I know you're tired, and we all need a good drink, and not the water that's here. But let me-- will the member of the Peabody Society class of 2016 rise and come. I'm assisted, in terms of the hooding, by Dr. Beverly Woo, Dr. Susan Parker, and Dr. Carrie [INAUDIBLE]. Lisa, are you there? Yeah. The person who keeps us all together, Lisa [INAUDIBLE] Folks, come on up. First, also receiving her PhD from the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Isha Agarwal. Isha? OK. Wonderful. Dr. Donna Avino. Dr. Ashmita Banerjee. Dr. Alexander Blair. I didn't forget you. Thank you. I'm sorry. Dr. [INAUDIBLE]. I'm sorry, dear. Dr. Evan Caplan. Thank you. You're welcome. Good to see you. I really appreciate it. Evan also received an MB from the Harvard Business School. Dr. Jenny Chang. Thank you very much. Thanks, dear. Thank you. Dr. [INAUDIBLE]. Thank you. One of those people already, according Dean Flier, that's graded, Dr. Carey [INAUDIBLE] I love you back. Dr. Derek [INAUDIBLE]. And Derek is also receiving an MBA. Get over here. Thank you. Do I go behind you? Right. Doesn't matter. Congratulations. Dr. Samantha Epstein. Thank you. Congratulations. Dr. Neir Eshel. Neir is also receiving his PhD. Dr. Jordan Garcia. Thank you, Dr. Arky, for everything. [INAUDIBLE] I will. Yeah. Let me know. I'll take you out. Thank you so much. Dr. Allison Wong. Alison is also getting her PhD in the School of Arts and Sciences. Thanks so much. From my hometown. Dr. Jason Lee. Jason, good to see you. How are you. Thank you. Great. Dr. Erin [INAUDIBLE]. Erin also is receiving her PhD. Thank you. You're welcome, dear. Dr. Diane Lopez. Thank you. Dr. Emanuel [INAUDIBLE] Thank you, Dr. Arky. Thank you so much. You're welcome. Dr. Katrina Mcgovern. Thank you so much. You keep in touch. Oh, thank you. Thank you, Jeff. Congratulations. It's the second page, so I'm halfway through. Dr. Richard McNutt. Captain McNutt. I'll see you later. All right, Doctor. Sounds good. Yeah. Thank you. Dr. [INAUDIBLE] [INAUDIBLE], also receiving an MBA from the Harvard Business School. Thank you so much for everything. Thank you so much. Thank you. Dr. Tina [INAUDIBLE] Thank you, Dr. Arky. Oh, no worries. Just you keep in touch. Thank you. Congratulations. Dr. Sumi [INAUDIBLE], also receiving an MBA. I know-- Emanuel. I forgot. No worries. Thank you so much. You're welcome. It's good to hear. Dr. Emanuel [INAUDIBLE]. I'm sorry. I'm sorry. That's OK. Dr. Benjamin Robbins. I'll see you later. OK. I'll see you, too. Dr. Lisa Rosenfeld. Congratulations, sweetheart. Thank you. Thank you for keeping us. Oh, you're welcome. OK. Congratulations. Dr. Alexander Ryu. Alexander, [INAUDIBLE]. Thank you. Dr. Jason Schultz. Good to see you. Congratulations. Dr. [INAUDIBLE] Shaw. Also another grader in Dr. Flier's list. And happens to have also done his work in the same hospital I was born. That's true. So thank you. Thank you very much, Dr. Arky. Thank you. Dr. Carolyn Treasure. Congratulations. Thanks, Dr. Arky. We'll keep in touch. Dr. John Weems. Great job. That's a great job. Thanks, Dr. Arky. I appreciate it. We'll see you again. Dr. Diana Wohler. Oh, my friendly doctor. My friendly doctor. Oh, my Dr. Arky. Thank you so much. Dr. Helen Shu. I didn't get to say your [INAUDIBLE], but you need to get [INAUDIBLE]. Yes, yes. Great. OK. And lastly, Dr. Chen Young. Congratulations. Thank you. It's great to [INAUDIBLE]. One last applause then for the Peabody group of 2016. Dr. Hundert, it's yours. Well, we've done it. Congratulations, doctors. Woo. Give yourselves one more hand here. I think you should stand up, turn around, give your parents, and loved ones, and teachers one more hand here. So we've recognized many graduates. We actually started with the recognition of some graduates from our society roles. And I was glad we recognized them with some flowers up here. And our beloved dean for students-- and I'm going to turn this-- to close us out-- back over to our last graduate. But I just have to say, before I do that, Dean Flier has led the school, magnificently, for the past nine years. And when you're the dean of Harvard Med School, you are responsible for this huge, complicated enterprise, a huge, magnificent research enterprise, this huge, vast affiliation of clinical hospitals, and some of the most remarkable people in the world all congregating together. But there has rarely been, in over two centuries of Harvard Medical School, a dean of Harvard Medical School that has given the attention and care to the MD degree program that Dean Flier has. And we all deeply appreciate that. And so we should give him a special round of applause for his leadership. Thank you, Ed. Thank you. Thank you. Thank you. No, no, no. Thank you very much. Much appreciated. So I'd like, at this point, to turn the podium over to Professor A.W. Karchmer, an illustrious infectious disease physician and graduate of this great school. And he's going to welcome you into the Alumni Association just before we do the oath. Thank you, Jeff. It's a pleasure to be here to represent the Alumni Association. And I realize that we've far exceeded your attention span and probably are approaching the human bladder capacity limits as well. Be that as it may, I have three short messages. One is to, again, as everyone has done before me, congratulate you. You're an inspiring group. I can tell you, from the perspective of the Alumni Association, we really are staggered by your accomplishments sort of getting here, making it through, and by what we anticipate to come. Secondly, I want to welcome you to the Alumni Association. Now that you have a diploma in your hand, all of you are members of the association. And lastly, I would like to encourage you to look at Harvard Medical School and Harvard Dental School as not the place where you got your medical or dental education, but the place where you will continue to receive your education. We have made the library available to you and we hope to continue to make other resources available to you, going forward. So please, join the association, look at the school as a place of lifelong learning, and Godspeed to each and every one of you as you go forward. Thank you, A.W. So we're going to conclude today's program with the oath of the class of 2016. If I could ask you all to stand. As is tradition, this has been prepared by the oath committee of the class of 2016. I will read a first section and then we can read responsively. Since the time of Hippocrates, over 2000 years ago, medical practitioners have taken an oath to uphold the principles of the vocation to which they dedicate themselves. In setting forth these principles, the oath serves both as a contract with the community and as an affirmation of a deep commitment to the profession. Today, class of 2016, you stand before family, friends, teachers, and colleagues, poised to join a rich tradition of discovery and healing. Being mindful of the debt you owe to the mentorship of those who came before you while recognizing that your work will inform the practices of those who follow, you have created an oath, drawing on elements both ancient and recent. I now invite you, as a class, to articulate the ideals and principles that will guide you in your journey as physicians and dentists. (IN UNISON) On this day, upon being admitted to the profession of medicine and dentistry, I solemnly pledge to use my skills in the service of humanity. I pledge, by all that I hold sacred, to uphold this oath to the best of my ability. To our parents-- I will do no harm and maintain the utmost respect for human life. I will honor the autonomy of my patients and respect the humanity in both living and dying. I will approach the time I spend with patients with an open mind and determination to learn together. I will show compassion towards my patients and remember that they are fellow humans with strengths and vulnerabilities. To our colleagues-- I will respect my colleagues in other specialties and remember that they are valuable sources of education and counsel. I will have the humility to ask my colleagues for help when a patient's well being is at stake while being considerate of their other responsibilities. I will recognize that it takes a village to heal a patient and express my gratitude for the contributions of both clinical and non-clinical staff. I will give equal consideration to the perspective of all team members, no matter what their title or level of training. To our local, national, and global communities-- I will remember that my training is the product of community investment and will share its dividends accordingly. I will use my influence, both as a citizen and a doctor, to advocate for high quality health care for all, especially society's most vulnerable. I will work to combat not only biological, but also social, political, geographic, and economic threats to health. I will work for the worldwide promotion of health, knowing that we're all part of one global community. To our family and friends-- I will express my gratitude to the family, friends, and mentors who have supported me throughout my training and career development. I will continue to support my loved ones, who have made my life immeasurably richer and without whom I would not be where I am today. To myself-- I will value and nurture my own well being as well as recognize and forgive my human limitations. I will commit to lifelong learning, both for my patients and the betterment of my profession. I will draw on the values that led me to this profession and remember that caring for patients is a privilege. From this day forward, I promise to remain true to the ideals of my chosen profession. With the support of family, friends, colleagues, and mentors I commit to this oath joyfully, freely, and upon my honor. All right. OK. So class of 2016, the session today is over. And I welcome you to the next stages of your lives and your careers. Thank you very much.


Early life and education

William Charles Osman Hill was born on 13 July 1901[1] the son of James Osman Hill and his wife Fanny Martin.[2]

He was educated first at King Edward VI Camp Hill School for Boys in Birmingham,[1][3] and later obtained his degrees from the University of Birmingham.[1] During medical school, also at the University of Birmingham, he won three junior student prizes and the Ingleby Scholarship in Midwifery.[1][4] He obtained his primary medical degrees in 1924,[1][3][4] and the same year took on the role of lecturer in zoology.[1] Osman Hill earned his MD with honours in 1925.[1][3][4] He also earned his Ch. B while in medical school.[5]


Upon graduation, Osman Hill continued his role as a lecturer at the University of Birmingham under an apprenticeship until 1930, but teaching anatomy instead of zoology. In 1930, his career took shape when he moved to Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon, to become both Chair of Anatomy and Professor of Anatomy at the Ceylon Medical College (more recently named Faculty of Medicine of the University of Colombo or Colombo Medical School).[1][3][4] His position allowed him to pursue anthropological studies of the indigenous Veddah people and comparative anatomy of primates. During this time, he began developing a private menagerie of exotic and native species. Consisting mostly of a variety of primates and parrots,[1][6] the collection reported included several types of cockatoo (family Cacatuidae), red-fan parrots (Deroptyus accipitrinus), eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus), star tortoises (genus Geochelone), leopard tortoises (Stigmochelys pardalis), Galápagos tortoises (Chelonoidis nigra), and ruddy mongooses (Herpestes smithii).[6] Osman Hill held this position in Ceylon for 14 years, returning to the UK after being appointed as Reader in Anthropology at the University of Edinburgh in 1945.[1][3][4] Upon his departure from Ceylon, his menagerie was divided between the London Zoo and the National Zoological Gardens of Sri Lanka.[6]

Five years later in 1950, he became prosector for the Zoological Society of London and remained there for twelve years.[1][3][4] When he left the London Zoo in 1962, the old prosectorium that has been his office was closed, many preserved biological specimens were discarded, and the era of anatomists working at the London Zoo—starting from the time of Richard Owen—came to a close.[4] Between 1957 and 1958, Osman Hill also acted as a visiting scholar at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia.[1] Later in 1958, primatologist Jane Goodall studied primate behaviour under him in preparation for her studies of wild chimpanzees.[7] In 1962, he was hired as the assistant director of the Yerkes National Primate Research Center (YNPRC) in Atlanta[1][3] after being turned down for the position of director.[8]

The Royal Society of Edinburgh honoured him as a fellow in 1955 and for his contributions to science awarded him both its Gold Medal and the Macdougal-Brisbane Prize. Upon his retiring from YNPRC in 1969,[4] the Royal College of Surgeons of England made him a Hunterian Trustee. Following retirement, Osman Hill divided his time between his home at Folkestone and his continued work at the University of Turin. His relentless work in anatomy ended only during the final stages of his terminal illness, after he had suffered three years of increased illness as well as diabetes.[1]


During his career, Osman Hill wrote 248 publications, all academic journal articles or chapters in books based primarily upon his own observations.[1][3] His first paper, which discussed the comparative anatomy of the pancreas, was published in 1926. In all, his works, which continued being published until the year of his death, focused on the anatomy and behaviour of humans, primates, and other mammals.[1]

Osman Hill is best known for writing Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy,[1][4] an eight-volume series that aimed to include all living and extinct primates. Published by Edinburgh University between 1953 and 1974, the series was the culmination of 50 years of his scientific research and thought. Each volume, starting with the strepsirrhines, covered its subjects exhaustively, including native and scientific nomenclature, anatomical structure, genetics, behaviour and palaeontology.[1] The books were illustrated with both photographs and drawings, most of which were made by his wife, Yvonne. The series was known for its breadth and depth, however it was never completed. Projected as a nine-volume set, Osman Hill died in 1975, leaving his magnum opus unfinished.[1][3] With five sections of the final volume written, including material on the taxonomy and most of the anatomy of langurs, it was hoped that his widow would be able to follow through with plans to prepare and publish them.[1][9] However, she died one year later.[4]

This monographic series often received praise for its encyclopaedic content, but was also criticised for occasional omissions, errors, and lack of specificity.[10]

Selected publications

The eight volumes for which Osman Hill is best remembered were[4][11]

  • Primates Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy (1953–1974)
    • Osman Hill, W. C. (1953). Primates Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy I—Strepsirhini. Edinburgh Univ Pubs Science & Maths, No 3. Edinburgh University Press. OCLC 500576914. 
    • Osman Hill, W. C. (1955). Primates Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy II—Haplorhini: Tarsioidea. Edinburgh Univ Pubs Science & Maths, No 3b. Edinburgh University Press. OCLC 500576923. 
    • Osman Hill, W. C. (1957). Primates Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy III—Pithecoidea Platyrrhini. Edinburgh Univ Pubs Science & Maths, No 3c. OCLC 500576928. 
    • Osman Hill, W. C. (1960). Primates Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy IV—Cebidae, Part A. Edinburgh Univ Pubs Science & Maths, No 3d. OCLC 500576933. 
    • Osman Hill, W. C. (1962). Primates Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy IV—Cebidae, Part B. Edinburgh Univ Pubs Science & Maths, No 3e. OCLC 500576939. 
    • Osman Hill, W. C. (1966). Primates Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy VI—Catarrhini Cercopithecoidea: Cercopithecinae. Edinburgh Univ Pubs Science & Maths, No 3f. OCLC 500576943. 
    • Osman Hill, W. C. (1974). Primates Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy VII—Cynopithecinae (Cercocebus, Macaca, Cynopithecus). Edinburgh Univ Pubs Science & Maths, No 3g. OCLC 613648477. 
    • Osman Hill, W. C. (1970). Primates Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy VIII—Cynopithecinae (Papio, Mandrillus, Theropithecus). Edinburgh Univ Pubs Science & Maths, No 3h. OCLC 500576950. 

The following is a list of other selected publications written by Osman Hill between 1926 and 1974.[11]

  • Osman Hill, W. C.; Phillips, W. W. A. (1932). "A new race of slender loris from the highlands of Ceylon". Ceylon Journal of Science (B). 17: 109–122. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C. (1933). "A monograph of the genus Loris, with an account of the external, cranial and dental characters of the genus: A revision of the known forms; And the description of a new form from Northern Ceylon". Ceylon Journal of Science (B). 18: 89–132. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C. (1934). "A monograph on the purple-faced leaf-monkeys (Pithecus vetulus)". Ceylon Journal of Science (B). 19: 23–88. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C. (1942). "The slender loris of the Horton Plains, Ceylon. Loris tardigradus nycticeboides subsp, nov". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 43: 73–78. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C. (1942). "The highland macaque of Ceylon". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 43: 402–406. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C. (1945). "Notes on the Dissection of Two Dugongs". Journal of Mammalogy. 26 (2): 153–175. doi:10.2307/1375092. JSTOR 1375092. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C.; Rewell, R. E. (1948). "The caecum of primates.—Its appendages, mesenteries and blood supply". The Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. 26: 199–256. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1948.tb00223.x. 
  • Hill, W. C. O. (1952). "The external and visceral anatomy of the Olive Colobus Monkey (Procolobus verus)". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 122: 127–186. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1952.tb06315.x. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C. (1953). "Note on the taxonomy of the genus Tarsius". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 123: 13–16. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1953.tb00149.x. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C. (1953). "Caudal cutaneous specializations in Tarsius". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 123: 17–26. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1953.tb00150.x. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C.; Davies, D. V. (1954). "The reproductive organs in Hapalemur and Lepilemur". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (B). 65: 251–270. doi:10.1017/s0080455x00014600. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C.; Davies, D. V. (1956). "The heart and great vessels in the Strepsirhini". Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 63 (1): 115–127. doi:10.1017/s0080456800003033. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C.; Booth, A. H. (1957). "Voice and larynx in African and Asiatic Colobidae". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 54: 309–321. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C. (1958). "Pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small and large intestine. Form and position". In Hofer, H.; Schultz, A. H.; Starck, D. Primatologia. 3. Basel: Karger. pp. 139–207. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C. (1958). "External genitalia". In Hofer, H.; Schultz, A. H.; Starck, D. Primatologia. 3. Basel: Karger. pp. 630–704. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C. (1959). "The Anatomy of Callimico goeldii (Thomas): A Primitive American Primate". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. New Series. 49 (5): 1–116. doi:10.2307/1005807. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C. (1972). Evolutionary Biology of Primates. Academic Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-12-528750-0. 
  • Osman Hill, W. C. (1972). "Taxonomic status of the Macaques Macaca mulatta Zimm. and Macaca irus Cuvier (= M. fascicularis Raffles)". Journal of Human Evolution. 1 (1): 49–72. doi:10.1016/0047-2484(72)90041-3. 

Cryptozoology studies

In 1945, Osman Hill published an article entitled "Nittaewo—An unsolved problem of Ceylon", in which he speculated that a traditional Vedda story on Sri Lanka about savage dwarf-like humanoids, called Nittaewo, might have referred to an isolated species of Homo erectus, then referred to as Java Man or Pithecanthropus.[12][13] He went further to suggest that Homo erectus may also fit the description of the elusive and more well-known cryptid called Orang Pendek from Sumatra.[13][14][15] He supported his now-defunct hypothesis by pointing out several shared similarities between the two islands, including comparable wildlife.[14]

In the 1950s, he studied photographs of a relic from the Pangboche monastery in Nepal called the Pangboche Hand, which was claimed to be the hand of a Yeti, and decided that it belonged to an unknown anthropoid. However, after the a few bones from the relic were smuggled out of Nepal and brought to him for examination, he concluded that the bones had belonged to a human.[16] He reportedly changed his mind later and declared the bones belonged to a Neanderthal.[13] In 1961, Osman Hill published an article entitled "Abominable snowmen: The present position".[17] After examining the evidence available at the time, he and other researchers decided that although the Yeti might still exist, the evidence was not conclusive.[16] In time, he lost interest in the matter due to a lack of new evidence.[18]

Based on his studies of the results of a March 1960 expedition, Osman Hill concluded that "ufiti", or Bili ape, was a remarkable chimpanzee. Citing older reports of chimpanzees from the dense forests of Malawi, he suggested that the Bili ape represented an undiscovered subspecies of chimpanzee, more similar to the western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), despite being located nearer the eastern chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).[13]


Today we think that structure cannot be divorced from function; anatomists have become physiologists, physiologists biochemists, and biochemists physicists; anatomy probes the sub-molecular. However, our modern world was soundly built on the foundations laid by men such as Osman Hill, and men such as he still fill an important role.

R. N. Fiennes, Journal of Medical Primatology[4]

Osman Hill is remembered as a "distinguished anatomist", "eminent primatologist", and the foremost authority on primate anatomy of his time.[1][3] However, he did not consider himself a primatologist, but instead related best to old-school anatomists and naturalists, who studied the entire biological world and considered their own observations and recordings as sufficient. To these ends, he used his curiosity and broad knowledge of natural history.[4]

Osman Hill was remembered for his skill at dissection, and was noted for his ability to make quick, but accurate sketches of the anatomical features his scalpel revealed.[4] He is also remembered for his work as a "painstaking investigator",[1] physician, and anthropologist.[19] In his honour, two species have been named after him: Osman Hill's mangabey (Lophocebus osmani ) and the Colombo wolf snake (Lycodon osmanhilli ).[20] The Primate Society of Great Britain named their Osman Hill Medal award after him.[19][21] The award is given every two years for distinguished contributions to primatology.[22]

He is responsible for describing one subspecies of black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), the southern black-and-white ruffed lemur (V. v. editorum)[23] in 1952; one subspecies of toque macaque (Macaca sinica), the highland toque macaque (M. s. opisthomelas) in 1942;[24][25] one subspecies of red slender loris (Loris tardigradus), the Horton Plains slender loris (L. t. nycticeboides) in 1942;[26][27] and two subspecies of grey slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus), the highland slender loris (L. l. grandis) in 1932[28][29] and the dry zone slender loris (L. l. nordicus) in 1933.[30][31]

His extensive collection of biological primate specimens, which included tissues and skeletons, is preserved at the Royal College of Surgeons of England.[1][19][21]

Personal life

The loss of a friend is always saddening, but when this friend was also a teacher of science and life our appreciation, for the knowledge with which we were enriched by him, enhances our sorrow beyond words.

B. Chiarelli, Obituary in Journal of Human Evolution[9]

Osman Hill married his wife, Yvonne Stranger, a barrister, in 1947.[4] Yvonne, the only daughter of Harold Stranger KC, MP, was not only his devoted wife, but also a collaborator and illustrator of his works.[1][4] The couple preferred a small, close-knit circle of friends, and the dinners they hosted for their friends included the best wines and exotic dishes, such as python stew. Yvonne died close to a year after her husband.[4]

Osman Hill was described in a memorial published in the International Journal of Primatology (1981) as being "short and rotund, with twinkling blue eyes, a quiet manner, and a strong sense of humor." He was particularly remembered for his eagerness to help young researchers.[3] In the Journal of Medical Primatology he was described as an "entertaining companion with a quick and ready wit."[4] In another memorial, published in the Journal of Anatomy in 1975, he was described as friendly and tolerant, as well as "a merry man, vigorous, of humane culture, having the humour and good sense natural to those bred in the Provinces: a good Englishman." He was known to value simple citizenship and academics, and held small regard for people who "aspired to monarchy."[1] At Yerkes in Atlanta, some staff members viewed him as "the archetypical English scholar-gentleman who viewed those from the 'colonies' as a step below the British."[8]

In the British Who's Who, Osman Hill named field ornithology, botany, photography, and travel as his recreations.[4] Other casual interests included drugstore ice cream, good eating, old buildings, and gardening with his wife.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z MacC., M.A.; Young, A. (1975). "In memoriam Osman Hill, M.D., F.L.S., F.R.S.E". Journal of Anatomy. 120 (2): 387–90. PMC 1231978Freely accessible. PMID 1104549. 
  2. ^ BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF FORMER FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH 1783 – 2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Day, M. H. (1981). "Fossils and concepts in hominid paleontology: the W. C. O. Hill memorial lecture". International Journal of Primatology. 2 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1007/BF02693443. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Fiennes, R. N. (1977). "William Charles Osman Hill—an appreciation". Journal of Medical Primatology. 6 (6): 325–326. PMID 351187. 
  5. ^ "Record of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London for the Session of 1974-75". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 7 (4): 293–339. 1975. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1975.tb00230.x. 
  6. ^ a b c Walker, Sally (2000). "Zoological Gardens of Asia". In Kisling, Vernon N. Zoo and Aquarium History: Ancient Animal Collections To Zoological Gardens. CRC Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-8493-2100-9. 
  7. ^ Morell, Virginia (1995). Ancestral Passions: The Leakey Family and the Quest for Humankind's Beginnings. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 242. ISBN 0-684-80192-2. 
  8. ^ a b Dewsbury, Donald A. (2005). Monkey Farm: A History of the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology, Orange Park, Florida, 1930–1965. Bucknell University Press. pp. 261–269. ISBN 978-0-8387-5593-8. 
  9. ^ a b Chiarelli, B. (1975). "Obituary: Professor W. C. Osman Hill". Journal of Human Evolution. 4 (4): i. doi:10.1016/0047-2484(75)90065-2. 
  10. ^ Ashton, E. H. (1971). "Book Reviews: Primates—Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy. Volume 8. Cynopithecinae" (PDF). Journal of Anatomy. 110 (1): 127. PMC 1271036Freely accessible. 
  11. ^ a b Day, M. H.; Cartmill, M.; Staddon, N.; Bosler, W. (1981). "W. C. Osman Hill: Selected publications (1926–1974)". International Journal of Primatology. 2 (2): 121–129. doi:10.1007/BF02693444. 
  12. ^ Osman Hill, William Charles (1945). "Nittaewo—An unsolved problem of Ceylon". Loris (Columbo). 4: 251–262.  External link in |journal= (help)
  13. ^ a b c d Coleman, Loren (1999). Cryptozoology A To Z: The Encyclopedia of Loch Monsters, Sasquatch, Chupacabras, and Other Authentic Mysteries of Nature. Fireside. ISBN 978-0-684-85602-5. 
  14. ^ a b Boyle, Richard (2010). "Dagger-clawed little people". Himāl Southasian. Archived from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  15. ^ Forth, Gregory (2008). Images of the Wildman in Southeast Asia: An Anthropological Perspective. Routledge. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-7103-1354-6. 
  16. ^ a b Buhs, Joshua Blu (2009). Bigfoot: The Life and Times of a Legend. University of Chicago Press. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-0-226-07979-0. 
  17. ^ Osman Hill, William Charles (1961). "Abominable snowmen: the present position". Oryx. 6: 86–98. doi:10.1017/S0030605300001253. 
  18. ^ Regal, Brian (2008). "Amateur versus professional: the search for Bigfoot" (PDF). Endeavour. 32 (2): 53–84. doi:10.1016/j.endeavour.2008.04.005. ISSN 0160-9327. PMID 18514914. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  19. ^ a b c Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2009). The Eponym Dictionary of Mammals. The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 301–302. ISBN 978-0-8018-9304-9. 
  20. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. ("Osman Hill", p. 197).
  21. ^ a b Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2009). The Eponym Dictionary of Mammals. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-9304-9. 
  22. ^ "PSGB Awards". Primate Society of Great Britain. Archived from the original on 7 February 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2011. 
  23. ^ Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). "Varecia variegata ssp. editorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  24. ^ Osman Hill, William Charles (1942). "The highland macaque of Ceylon". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 43: 402–406. 
  25. ^ Dittus, W., Watson, A. & Molur, S. (2008). "Macaca sinica ssp. opisthomelas". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  26. ^ Osman Hill, William Charles (1942). "The slender loris of the Horton Plains, Ceylon, Loris tardigradus nycticeboides subsp. nov.". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 43: 73–78. 
  27. ^ Nekaris, A. (2008). "Loris tardigradus ssp. nycticeboides". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  28. ^ Osman Hill, William Charles; Phillips, W. W. A. (1932). "A new race of slender loris from the highlands of Ceylon". Ceylon Journal of Science (Spolia Zeylanica). XVII (2): 109–122. 
  29. ^ Nekaris, A., Singh, M. & Kumar Chhangani, A. (2008). "Loris lydekkerianus ssp. grandis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
  30. ^ Osman Hill, William Charles (1933). "A monograph on the genus Loris with an account of the external, cranial and dental characters of the genus; a revision of the known forms; and the description of a new form from Northern Ceylon". Ceylon Journal of Science (Spolia Zeylanica). 18 (1): 89–132. 
  31. ^ Nekaris, A., Singh, M. & Kumar Chhangani, A. (2008). "Loris lydekkerianus ssp. nordicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
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