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White Southerners

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

White Southerners
Southerners, Southrons
Painting of Robert E. Lee by John Adams Elder.jpg
Confederate general and Lost Cause folklore figure, Robert E. Lee, generally considered the epitome of the "Southern gentleman" and affluent Bourbon planter class as well as one of the most well-known Southern figures.[1]
Total population
(2010 U.S. Census, White alone living in the South)[2]
Regions with significant populations
Primarily Southern United States, pockets of Southern populations found in the Midwestern and Western United States, diasporas found in Latin American countries such as Brazil and Honduras
Southern American English (primarily), General American English (some)[3] historically Older Southern American English, French (Cajun and Louisiana), Spanish, German (Texas German) (occasional)
Protestantism (majority), Roman Catholicism and Judaism (minorities)
Related ethnic groups
Yankees (Swamp Yankees), White Americans, Confederados, Confederate Hondurans, English, Scots, Welsh, French, Irish, Ulster Scots, Scots-Irish, Native Americans, Five Civilized Tribes[4] African Americans[5]

White Southerners, or simply Southerners, and historically Southrons,[6] are an ethno-cultural group[7][8][9][10][11][12] native to the Southern United States (aka the South and Dixie)[13] descended from the predominantly Northwestern European settlers who arrived during the colonial era, as well as varying waves of white immigration from various parts of Europe and the Caribbean.[14][15] Immigration to the Southern states between 1830 and 1860 was relatively low. Most White Southerners are of British Protestant descent (i.e. English, Welsh, Scottish and Ulster Scots) although significant non-British groups of White Southerners existed such as Irish, Germans (like Virginia's Shenandoah Valley, Texas and the Moravians of North Carolina), French (particularly Cajun and Creole), Spanish (primarily Mexican, Tejano and Cuban), Italian (especially in New Orleans, Louisiana, Greek (particularly Birmingham, Alabama) and Jewish (primarily Ashkenazi or Sephardi).[16]

Confederate Major Arthur L. Rogers proposed a new altered Confederate national flag, the Blood Stained Banner, to the Confederate Senate in 1865, declaring its saltire design to represent the primary ethnic origins of the white inhabitants of the secessionist states, Scotland (Saint Andrews Cross), Ireland (Saint Patrick's Saltire), Spain (Cross of Burgundy), English Midlands (Saint Alban's Cross), and France (La Louisiane).[17]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    60 703
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  • ✪ Races and Cultures in the Deep South of the United States: Educational Film
  • ✪ Why the parties NEVER switched!
  • ✪ Whitewashing the South: White Memories of Segregation and Civil Rights
  • ✪ The KKK Killings | Great Crimes & Trials
  • ✪ Mixed Up with All the Rebel Horde, Why Black Southerners Fought for the South...


from minnesota headwaters to the gulf of mexico the ground runs with water the lawn britt winters broken window or are not the fear of colours floor spring comes to the northern wilderness resource of the river late yesterday randhir within minutes of a swing the story begins places than my norms of the business of the itself but it begins here where the river begins with a mailbox on the lonely norman imperial aren't going to win bathed in wins and return currently and something more the in people along the mississippi it we wanted to go down the big river himself but instead all through the long winter evening zyuganov the small boat larry and he didn't get a minute correctly there's a big deal we went to spread into the bold and within his big wintergreen do you think it will make it yes his brother will people be too busy to bother with it few people will see that dear or be remain noted ireland passage through there paul or perhaps a turtle dance troupe destined to come over to berlin and then miles down the river through red lights long way to go them flowing south of down the great river valley the american parklane thousand four hundred wandering miles to go before it reaches the rivers and and waiting hands at the gulf of mexico well it not i could how many years if you're out what the in it awfully it to the top but no christian in minnesota pic who who who might help is on its way exactly obviously rallied that'd be great i would him across the chalice batman but when unhappy there was a mason city even mountain daylight time we were playing cowboys and indians none of us to be a probably around here over your honest-to-goodness indians chip away like my grandmother now she speaks only to flee he she wishes i spoken toward mid-june chipas mean a quiet day which means he walks newt badminton asking him to do just like other kids i_d_ playing baseball right now except that take my father's once to him lottery gap driving factor in the timber can you do not need to go down came with u rapid anyway outside one of the stores on main street indiana weighing on the lovely uh... leaving new to you what our out of he entered the new year bola ample guided safely on his way and hold on the extent of on every way the mississippi leaves its chip away friends and that turkeys or weeks believes the north country wilderness no strange new sites corporation spending the river industries toning down upon our time you cried please cities crow wing defaults merced river china minneapolis dear robert de niro therefore you're different voted him out feeling in the river that's busy with old balkan partisan great majors stepping away each year after year keeping the channel offered for navigation this is the river ira for automotive repair and here's how i first saw your guitar board seventy six they found a property just about the crime michael foale frustrating show off down the river my daughter tina and her friend billy had come down to see me off all cathy i said goodbye to them but although i didn't know if it heidi deefaye goodbye to your fault fourteen and feel had a plan all right how does it all well robert best all your vessel got tied on mine anyway you're welcome to tag along with asked all of the saint louis down one of the richest river valleys in the world you are going down with a freight train of the river besides you or did you vote navigating a string of oil barges wider and longer than the queen mary our first off by the way will be live crosse wisconsin one of our crew members peach on it getting any better peak claims he's not nervous but i've got no idea he's doing a pretty good job of covering up just a lot with peter falk p council arkansas he's done long wait told me about that out everything you care and pointed out to him considering the rolling countryside in the way they acquire and that means that the people would want to leave plants and birds karen everyday but despite the wisconsin dairy barn meet pete long to see cochran rolling in art don't like this costumes for him that hadn't been many people at the wedding tools kesi figured people just want very friendly and that part of the country what they mean all of a sudden wrong are you feed pond the people who have a mister french so much pompous consent alternate somebody else around hit the lottery old-fashioned weapons the colin powell did people in wisconsin far too much different from phil simms arkansas but later that night somewhere down the river from the cross that what self-promoting uprooted tree underlined your boat mapped bogdan another global bombing of the dog and that property see-saw of your digital default cannot repeat that from mississippi in nineteen seventy lakh it was pretty big black hole i didn't have a big economic james french rather commands jeremy hence krueger amount of time you've gotten burned iowa most of the people in this part of the country came from germany a long time ago humans donations built his first we go to it's about a hundred years old and you are indeed a river front street and gotten back country canada says it looks just like a little germantown but you can't prove it by me because he knew the rivers one year after another but it's kind of defining land in iowa packed up and i do know about i'd just come home in time gettin funding quote hitler's dedicate and just about every getting our family got a deal mother was going to happen but i get mad we're going to tel three ten and heading out of the other hand handicapped yet anyway really found a way to the debut punching bag will have to get it out ethnic etc expedite had fighting any k petrified by s but health are advising against all the in order went down about what's going on that i have read carefully can't wait alcoholic not much of a bold at work trying to strengthen sa juneau team on the way down from the beginning of the news if you've ever almost a thousand miles let me i see it well i look at that taking thank you outside of my pocket by for eco koppel okay outgoing that acne conference aapan why not put it on the pulse emaina what might drop us on your balked terrebonne these companies does not detail if you put it on adults are to be here both clover panel help is going alright erection action about that at act alright what are the expect dot twelve headlight out there you know went over to distribute to p actually built he'd never heard and why you can't take your time for a week told him about it okay fellows go ahead i wonder where you're going home that has come from the minnesota headwaters disdain from saint paul to across wisconsin river city run across to debut on iowa shores largest river city of them all nerve center of the modern-day city of santa creole levees here the mississippi poses you know a little girl whose great-grandparents journeyed over land in the covered wagon thais are towards decadent old a dime store reminder of the river tom sawyer mu no from saint louis going down deliveries river of a small southern towns bob carden scorching summer sun of eureka hate sat down there the robert iga that was the first time my friend pat soluble we try to get it but the levee got off to be because i was taken away it was pretty had for that time of year your flood warnings out crespo street italics day we want to go disappeared they say goodbye to each other highland always been good friends ever since we will ya but lately we hadn't been seeing too much of each other can happen in the levee that day they deflected your vote away hierarchy and what happened comes out of the statistics but this year sacred and i live cataclysm we had a little bit slimy slightly all right garlic look at me like no he weighed believe in that there was your boat again robert ourselves a primary holocaust adware our lives paintball deal car what top my gag what is it can you plans how did you get the balked so i watched it about five points dole actually all well i'm sarah rapid but i'm planning came right now some other time the worst part coming out yeah dole out of the exact words when paul and i wrangling you see rabbit we thought you might here won't start arriving together again but there will be engaged when the blast more river will seem without bail vicksburg and at last with luck new orleans bleak trading in manufacturing center river board brent ward of the world frazier's loading for brazil the indians and it will be here regard tiny craft will need all the bill and it's a lot will hold rolling up one of the reunion carried down river where three once more huge drifts off course due to abuse to displaying resourceful solutions which hold cajun boys prescription use like the species movie silently through louisiana by users here you are both will need looks excellent paul ka i wonder how much failures bring tended to look will continue in a lonely title date but it was just be a up first of all because we cut but but but the well either way at all costs will see that he gets back but on its way to the south pass the channel to the cd it passes adult replete running the poorest all morning tropical robert and now it lives landmark at him and saying lost in the morning oedema for weeks one months ago but didn't lab inka dinka alcohol willing wall but that is not a lot uh... mobilize won't mean a lot for one moment barnwell go well prominent warning in minnesota two people along the mississippi friendlier where the rivers and through the peoples of the world nowhere is it though and who will bring additional


Academic approach

Southerners are considered an ethnic group by some historians, sociologists and journalists, although this categorization has proven controversial, and other academics have argued that Southern identity does not meet the criteria for definition as an ethnicity. This confusion has led to varying forms of white Southern identity since the founding of the United States, some focusing on the region's English heritage, while others on its large number of people with Celtic ancestry, and even some on its supposed Cherokee roots.[18] It is generally agreed, however, that white Southerners inhabit an American subculture that is both separate from and woven into the popular culture and history of the United States.

Early use of the phrase "White Southerner," Boston Liberator, July 18, 1856
Early use of the phrase "White Southerner," Boston Liberator, July 18, 1856

After the Segregation Era brought the region to heightened national and international attention, many white Southerners began to distinguish their Southern identity from conflations of the South and the Confederate States of America. This has led to a Southern identity crisis, due in part to misleading or false equations between white Southerners, slave owners, Ku Klux Klan members, Jim Crow supporters, and Confederates as well as a disproportionately high number of portrayals in American academia and media depicting white Southerners as uniquely unintelligent, lazy, violent, and bigoted.[19] Groups like the League of the South and the Sons of Confederate Veterans still cling to the Lost Cause mythology, which arose in the years following the American Civil War and often downplays the role of slavery in Southern society and politics.[20] Other proponents of a Southern ethnic category often reference concepts like social equality, essentialism, critical pedagogy, generational poverty, cultural capital, implicit bias, internalized oppression, hegemony, social marginalization, acculturation, linguistic discrimination, and institutional prejudice as factors that distinguish Southerners from other regional groups, citing the South's turbulent history with the United States' most dominant region, the Northern states, and its views completely alien to that of Northern and Western states. In addition, there's a long-running disparity in socioeconomics, criminal justice, healthcare, education, civil infrastructure, and enduring stereotypes of white Southerners as morally, genetically, and intellectually inferior to other social groups, especially non-Southern whites.

Academic John Shelton Reed argues that "Southerners' differences from the American mainstream have been similar in kind, if not degree, to those of the immigrant ethnic groups".[21][22] Reed states that Southerners, as other ethnic groups, are marked by differences from the national norm, noting that they tend to be poorer, less well educated and more rural, as well as being "occupationally specialized." He argues that they differ in cultural and political terms, and that their accents serve as an ethnic marker.[23] According to the New York Times, a survey of ethnic images conducted by the University of Chicago's National Opinion Research Center in 1990 "found that Americans view Southerners almost like a separate ethnic group, and regard them as 'a little less intelligent, a little less hard-working' than whites in general".[24]

Sociologist William L. Smith argues that "regional identity and ethnic identity are often intertwined in a variety of interesting ways such that some scholars have viewed white southerners as an ethnic group".[25] In her book Southern Women, Caroline Matheny Dillman also documents a number of authors who posit that Southerners might constitute an ethnic group. She notes that the historian George Brown Tindall analyzed the persistence of the distinctiveness of Southern culture in The Ethnic Southerners (1976), "and referred to the South as a subculture, pointing out its ethnic and regional identity". The 1977 book The Ethnic Imperative, by Howard F. Stein and Robert F. Hill, "viewed Southerners as a special kind of white ethnicity". Dillman notes that these authors, and earlier work by John Shelton Reed, all refer to the earlier work of Lewis Killian, whose White Southerners, first published in 1970, introduced "the idea that Southerners can be viewed as an American ethnic group".[26] Killian does, however, note that: "Whatever claims to ethnicity or minority status ardent 'Southernists' may have advanced, white southerners are not counted as such in official enumerations".[27] Precursors to Killian include sociologist Erdman Beynon, who in 1938 made the observation that "there appears to be an emergent group consciousness among the southern white laborers", and economist Stuart Jamieson, who argued four years later that Oklahomans, Arkansans and Texans who were living in the valleys of California were starting to take on the "appearance of a distinct 'ethnic group'". Beynon saw this group consciousness as deriving partly from the tendency of northerners to consider them as a homogeneous group, and Jamieson saw it as a response to the label "Okie".[28] More recently, historian Clyde N. Wilson has argued that "In the North and West [white Southerners] were treated as and understood themselves to be a distinct ethnic group, referred to negatively as 'hillbillies' and 'Okies'".[29]

The Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, published in 1980, includes a chapter on Southerners authored by Reed, alongside chapters by other contributors on Appalachians and Yankees. Writing in the journal Ethnic and Racial Studies, social anthropologist M. G. Smith argued that the entries do not satisfactorily indicate how these groups meet the criteria of ethnicity, and so justify inclusion in the encyclopedia.[30] Historian David L. Carlton, who argues that Killian, Reed and Tindall's "ethnic approach does provide a way to understand the South as part of a vast, patchwork America, the components of which have been loath to allow their particularities to be eaten away by the corrosions of a liberal-capitalist order", nonetheless notes problems with the approach. He argues that the South is home to two ethnic communities (white and black) as well as smaller, growing ethnic groups, not just one. He argues that: "Most important, though, and most troubling, is the peculiar relationship of white southerners to the nation's history". The view of the average white Southerner, Carlton argues, is that they are quintessential Americans, and their nationalism equates "America" with the South.[31]


A distinct Southern identity formed in the years following the American Revolution. Various factors contributed to the cultural and ethnic divergance from the Northern United States, namely African slavery, geography, and immigration patterns. Similar to Britain, the antebellum South was extremely class based, less so than the increasingly industrial North. Several classes of whites existed, with the Poor White being on the bottom of the social scale, the Yeomen in the middle, and the Planter, or Bourbon, class at the top.[32] The original Southern settlers were Cavaliers who arrived in Virginia to establish a colony by the name of Jamestown which would go on to be the first successful English colony in the New World and their descendants would spread out to the rest of the South building up the Southern hiearchy for years to come.

The Cavalier-Roundhead English Civil War and the medieval Norman conquest of England mythology, prior to modern times, was the foundation of a Southern ethnic identity in the Antebellum South. Southern writers in the years leading up to the Civil War built a Southern identity off the belief that upper class white Southerners (the Bourbons) were descendants of the aristocratic Norman conquerors (known as Anglo-Normans) and the Yankees were descendants of the serf Anglo-Saxons. Southern extremists such as the Fire-Eaters even proposed enslaving the "Yankee race" as they believed they were inferior to Southerners, though this proposition was unpopular with most Southerners.[32][33]

Celtic hypothesis

Many sociologists, historians, and authors have emphasized the South's Celtic heritage, primarily from Northern Ireland and Scotland, to distinguish early Southerners from the early Europeans of New England and Mid-Atlantic states, whose predominately Germanic settlers hailed from East Anglia and the Netherlands. An overwhelming Anglo-Saxon Puritan population in New England led the persecution and eventual banning of Quakers, Baptists, and other Anglican theologians in the 17th and 18th centuries, driving their migrations to other British colonies farther west and south.[34]. The "Celtic hypothesis" accounts for the large Irish-American population in the Northern states as a later migration to Northern cities in the 19th and 20th centuries following a number of factors, most notably the Great Famine and the Southern diaspora. This hypothesis suggests the Celtic settlers who populated the South in the 17th and 18th centuries had a lasting impact on Southern culture, society, and even the behavior of white Southerners.[35][36][37]

Early 20th century American journalist H.L. Mencken believed Southerners were primarily descended from the Welsh, who he considered to be religious zealots following "dogmatic Welsh Methodism". He also believed this affected the intelligence and physical characteristics of white Southerners, citing their supposed dark skin, lean bodies, and lack of intellect.[38]

More recently, the "Celtic south" theory has been heavily criticized by historians such as Rowland Berthoff and Michael Newton, who note that its proponents stretch the definition of the word "Celtic" beyond any discernible meaning (for example considering groups like the Scots-Irish, and even those from the English North, Midlands, and West Country as "Celtic" when they would have labelled themselves as Protestant Anglo-Saxons).[39][40] In fact, the number of Celtic-speaking peoples in the South was essentially restricted to a community of Scottish Highlanders living around what is now Fayetteville in North Carolina and a smaller one centered on Darien, Georgia. Aside from the Scots-Irish, the vast majority of white southerners, such as Robert E. Lee, were of English origin.

White Southerners of non-British origin

White Southerners are primarily English-speaking, Protestant, and of English or Scots-Irish extraction, though there are several groups of White Southerners of Mexican, Italian, French, Spanish, Sephardi Jewish, and German ancestry, who have been assimilated into mainstream Southern culture while maintaining some parts of their native culture, religion, and language. Creoles and Cajuns in Louisiana were heavily assimilated by the American settlers who flooded into the newly acquired territory following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The same occurred in Texas with the Tejanos, in Virginia with the historical German population in the Shenandoah Valley and the Moravians in North Carolina.[41]

Immigrants and Northern migrants

Many white Southerners can trace their ancestry back to post-colonial immigrants who arrived in various waves after the creation of the United States of America. Germans, Irish Catholics, Poles, Italians, Lebanese, Romnichal, Croats, and Ashkenazi Jews all arrived in droves before, during, and especially after the American Civil War[42], where they were met with a unique mix of acceptance and discrimination.

Along with immigrants, many white Southerners, most especially in the 21st century, have roots in the Northern United States. This is due to an increased Northern migration to the Southern United States in recent years and has been met with criticism by certain groups[which?].[citation needed]

Southern Jews

Jews have been present in what is now the Southern United States since the colonial era. Many prominent Southerners, such as the Confederate Secretary of State Judah P. Benjamin, Florida Senator David Levy Yulee, sculptor Moses Jacob Ezekiel, as well as Georgia governor David Emanuel were Jewish. Thousands of Southern Jews fought in defense of the secessionist states in the American Civil War[43] and during the 19th century, Charleston, South Carolina was a hub of North American Jewry.

Royal and noble descent

White Southerners of planter descent have several documented ties to European royalty and nobility. Many First Families of Virginia were originally British noble families who established themselves in the Colony of Virginia.[44] Notable descendants include General Robert E. Lee's wife, Mary Anna Custis Lee, a descendant of George I of Great Britain, and General George S. Patton, a descendant of Welsh lords of Glamorgan and Edward I of England.


White Southerners speak a variety of American English dialects descended from various sources, though primarily British English in origin. Dialects vary from state to state and even community to community. Each retained features from its historic settler population, whether that be English, Scotch-Irish, French, German, or even African.[45]

Southern Diaspora

White Southerners, due to economic hardship and war, have migrated all over the continental United States for decades. In the early to late 1900s, white Southerners migrated in various waves to Northern and Western cities where they were met with discrimination from Northern whites and lived in harsh conditions, most notably in Chicago and Bakersfield, California[46].

Over the course of history there were numerous Southern ethnic enclaves, primarily in the Western United States and Latin America, the Confederados being one of the more well known groups. After the American Civil War, thousands of white Southerners, unwilling to live under Northern occupation, left the Southern United States for Mexico and Brazil, where they founded multiple colonies, though few prospered[47].

Prominent Southerners

White Southerners have contributed significantly to the culture of the United States of America, producing musicians such as Elvis Presley and Johnny Cash, authors Harper Lee and Charlaine Harris, actors Reese Witherspoon and Matthew McConaughey. White Southerners have also held prominent positions in the American government throughout history, most notably George Washington (the first President of the United States), Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, James K. Polk, John Tyler, William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Woodrow Wilson, Lyndon B. Johnson, Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton.


Traditionally, White Southerners have held conservative racial views, ranging from pro-segregationist views to outright support of violence against African-Americans.

Between the years 1882-1968, 4,743 lynchings took place in the United States, most of which occurred in the South and most of the victims were African-Americans, though a significant minority were white[48] Lynching was a way to oppress the African-American minority in the Southern states and was thought necessary to protect white Southern women. Rape and murder were the most common reasons behind a lynching. Some lynchings were notably brutal and grotesque, such as the lynching of Sam Hose, a black man, whose slaughter was witnessed by 2,000 white Georgians who proceeded to slice off his ears, skin, fingers, and genitals. It has been recorded that post cards were sold of the mutilated bodies of black men who were lynched in the towns in which they were lynched and body parts were even sold as souvenirs.[49]

The high rate of lynching as well as the oppressive conditions created by the Southern-mandated Jim Crow laws were major factors of the Great Migration of 1910-1970, in which 6.5 million blacks fled the rural South to the industrial and urban Northern and Western states in search of economic, social, and political opportunities. Although the North and the West were hardly free from racism, southern blacks managed to find better-paying jobs, had a right to vote, and secure better educations for themselves and their families that were denied to them in the South.

The Ku Klux Klan and other white paramilitary groups

After the American Civil War, several white paramilitary groups arose to combat Black Southerners and Northern occupation. The fervently Democrat planter class was left impoverished and powerless after the destruction of the Confederate States of America and the institution of slavery. This led to the creation of the White League, Ku Klux Klan, and Knights of the White Camellia, groups formed by former Confederate soldiers and slaveholders with the shared goal of restoring white supremacy in the Southern United States. They succeeded in 1877, with the end of Reconstruction, withdrawal of Federal troops, and reelection of white supremacist Democrat politicians. This ultimately led to mass discrimination against Black Southerners and the ensuing Great Migration to the Northern United States.[citation needed]


The Scotch-Irish vote

It is thought that the descendants of Ulster Scots settlers formed the core of the politics of the Southern United States. Highly populist, rural, conservative, pro-gun, and Christian, the Scotch-Irish are viewed as an extremely individualistic, hardscrabble people that are main voting bloc for the Republican Party in the Southern United States.[50]


During the Antebellum era, the core of the Southern abolition movement resided in the Upland South, which also contained the highest concentration of non-slaveholding poor whites. In 1827, there were around 106 organizations spread across the Southern United States opposing the institution of African slavery in the region, compared to a mere 36 of such societies in the Northern United States. This number gradually increased in the years leading up to the American Civil War[51].

Many Southerners, such as the family of Abraham Lincoln[52], left the slave states for the North over the issue of Negro bondage and various Christian denominations in the Southern states specifically targeted slavery as a moral and Biblical evil.

Nearly 100,000 white Southern men served in the Union army during the American Civil War, with nearly every Southern slaveholding state raising at least one Yankee regiment. This number does not include the white Southerners who took up arms for the United States in the states that did not secede from the Union. Many peace and loyalist societies arose in the Southern states and were subsequently targeted by Confederates, with many Southern Unionists being forced into military service.[citation needed]


White Southern Republicans, prior to modern times, were known as scalawags. These Southerners formed the majority of the delegates in radical Reconstruction state governments. Many of these Southern Republicans were small farmers and political figures who resisted the Confederate insurrection. A number of them served in the Union army or were oppressed and imprisoned for their pro-Union sympathies under the new Confederate government. Though being pro-Union, many were also noted for being vehemently anti-black, as were the majority of white Southerners at the time.[53] They were notable exceptions, such as anarchist Albert Parsons, who referred to the war as "the slave-holders' rebellion" later in life and married an African-American woman.

Heritage and political advocacy groups

Modern identity

Many White Southerners, following the end of the Civil War, began constructing a less racial and ethnic-based Southern identity, primarily focusing on the region's unifying culture, music, food, geography, mannerisms, and traditions as part of what became known as the New South movement.[54]

Due to a rise in right wing nationalistic movements, white Southern identity has come under intense scrutiny from certain groups recently, most notably various left leaning and left wing individuals and organizations. With the removal and re-branding of several Confederate monuments and criticism of the Confederate flag, many white Southerners feel their culture is under attack. Although, this has been met with equal support from white Southerners who wish to put the legacy of the Confederacy in the past and move towards a more unifying Southern identity, without regards to race, religion, or ethnic origin[55].

Certain Alt-right individuals and groups champion Neo-Confederate positions, though this support is controversial to certain Southern heritage groups, such as the Sons of Confederate Veterans. Richard Spencer, a Southern white nationalist, is perhaps one of the most controversial figures supporting the history and heritage of the Confederate States of America.[56]


Southerners, regardless of race, are overrepresented in the United States Military, amounting to an astonishing 44% of the total population of soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines. Union general William Tecumseh Sherman once said, "they are the most dangerous set of men that this war has turned loose upon the world". White Southerners were seen as proficient soldiers with a long military history that spanned over two millennia, reaching back to their ancestral homeland in the British Isles.[57]

Historical Revisionism

Multiple Southern heritage advocacy groups have been noted for their historical revisionism and historical negationism. This comes in various forms, notably denying the prominent role of slavery in the events leading up to the American Civil War and the white supremacist leanings of several notable Confederate figures. This is an after effect of the role Lost Cause mythology in the formation of a distinct post-war White Southern identity.[58] These organizations pay little homage to the thousands of anti-Confederate White Southerners who actively resisted the Confederate government and went so far as to join the Union army.[59]

See also


  1. ^ Bordewich, Fergus M. "Ghost of the Confederacy". NY Times. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  2. ^ United States Census Bureau. "2010 United States Census" (PDF). Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  3. ^ Graff, Michael. "The Death of the Southern Accent? (At Least in These Parts)". Charlotte Magazine. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  4. ^ "American History Scots in the American West 1790 - 1917 Scotland and the American Indians". Electric Scotland. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  5. ^ Gates Jr., Henry. "Exactly how 'Black' is Black America?". The Root. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  6. ^ "The definition of southron". Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  7. ^ Cauthen, Melvin Bruce Jr (2000). Confederate and Afrikaner nationalism : myth, identity, and gender in comparative perspective (Ph.D. thesis). London School of Economics and Political Science (University of London).
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Further reading

  • Griffin, Larry J.; Evenson, Ranae Jo; Thompson, Ashley B. (2005). "Southerners, All?". Southern Cultures. 11 (1): 6–25. doi:10.1353/scu.2005.0005.
  • Lind, Michael (5 February 2013). "The white South's last defeat". Salon. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  • Moltke-Hansen, David (2003). "The Rise of Southern Ethnicity". Historically Speaking. 4 (5): 36–38. doi:10.1353/hsp.2003.0034.
  • Reed, John Shelton (1980). "Southerners". In Thernstrom, Stephan; Orlov, Ann; Handlin, Oscar (eds.). Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University.
  • Tindall, George B. (1974). "Beyond the Mainstream: The Ethnic Southerners". The Journal of Southern History. 40 (1): 3–18. doi:10.2307/2206054. JSTOR 2206054.
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