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White South Africans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

White South Africans
Groot Marico, North West, South Africa (20522406932).jpg
South African man from Groot Marico, North West
Total population
2020 estimate: 4,679,770 (7.8% of South Africa's population)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Throughout South Africa, but mostly concentrated in urban areas. Population by provinces, as of the 2011 census:
Western Cape915,000
Eastern Cape310,000
North West255,000
Free State239,000
Northern Cape81,000
Afrikaans (58%), English (40%), other (2%)
Christianity (85.6%), Irreligious (8.9%), Judaism (0.9%), Other (4.6%)
Related ethnic groups
White Namibians, White Zimbabweans, Afrikaners, British diaspora in Africa, Coloureds, South African diaspora

White South Africans are South Africans of European descent. In linguistic, cultural and historical terms, they are generally divided into the Afrikaans-speaking descendants of the Dutch East India Company's original settlers, known as Afrikaners, and the Anglophone descendants of predominantly British colonists. In 2016, 57.9% were native Afrikaans speakers, 40.2% were native English speakers, and 1.9% spoke another language as their mother tongue,[2][3] such as Portuguese, Greek or German. White South Africans are by far the largest European-descended population group in Africa.

White South Africans differ significantly from other White African groups, because they can trace their ancestry back to the mid 17th century and have developed a separate cultural identity, as in the case of the Afrikaners, who established a distinct language, culture and faith.


The history of White settlement in South Africa started in 1652 with the settlement of the Cape of Good Hope by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) under Jan van Riebeeck.[4] Despite the preponderance of officials and colonists from the Netherlands, there were also a number of French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution at home and German soldiers or sailors returning from service in Asia.[5] The Cape Colony remained under Dutch rule for two more centuries, after which it was annexed by the United Kingdom around 1806.[6] At that time, South Africa was home to about 26,000 people of European descent, a relative majority of whom were still of Dutch origin.[6] However, beginning in 1818 thousands of British immigrants arrived in the growing Cape Colony, intending to join the local workforce or settle directly on the frontier.[6] About a fifth of the Cape's original Dutch-speaking white population migrated eastwards during the Great Trek in the 1830s and established their own autonomous Boer republics further inland.[7] Nevertheless, the population of European origin continued increasing in the Cape as a result of immigration, and by 1865 had reached 181,592 people.[8] Between 1880 and 1910, there was an influx of immigrants arriving from Eastern Europe, including many Lithuanian Jews.[9]

Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War
Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War

The first nationwide census in South Africa was held in 1911 and indicated a white population of 1,276,242. By 1936, there were an estimated 2,003,857 white South Africans, and by 1946 the number had reached 2,372,690.[9] The country began receiving tens of thousands of European immigrants, namely from Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Greece, and the territories of the Portuguese Empire during the mid to late twentieth century.[10] South Africa's white population increased to over 3,408,000 by 1965, reached 4,050,000 in 1973, and peaked at 5,044,000 in 1990.[11]

The number of white South Africans resident in their home country began gradually declining between 1990 and the mid-2000s as a result of increased emigration.[11]

Today, white South Africans are also considered to be the last major white population group of European ancestry on the African continent, due in part to the mass exodus of colonialists from most other African states during regional decolonisation. Whites continue to play a role in the South African economy and across the political spectrum. The current number of white South Africans is not exactly known, as no recent census has been measured, although the overall percentage of up to 9% of the population represents a decline, both numerically and proportionately, since the country's first non-racial elections in 1994. Just under a million white South Africans are also living as expatriate workers abroad, which forms the majority of South Africa's brain drain.

Apartheid era

Under the Population Registration Act of 1950, each inhabitant of South Africa was classified into one of several different race groups, of which White was one. The Office for Race Classification defined a white person as one who "in appearance is obviously a white person who is generally not accepted as a coloured person; or is generally accepted as a white person and is not in appearance obviously a white person." Many criteria, both physical (e.g. examination of head and body hair) and social (e.g. eating and drinking habits, familiarity with Afrikaans or a European language) were used when the board decided to classify someone as white or coloured.[12][13] This was virtually extended to all those considered the children of two White persons, regardless of appearance. The Act was repealed on 17 June 1991.

Post-apartheid era

The Employment Equity Act of 1994, legislation propagates employment of black people (the term "black people" is used as a generic reference to Africans and described as such within the Act), Indian, Chinese, and Coloured population groups, as well as disabled people). Black Economic Empowerment legislation further empowers blacks as the government considers ownership, employment, training and social responsibility initiatives, which empower black South Africans, as important criteria when awarding tenders. However, private enterprises adhere to this legislation voluntarily.[14] Some reports indicate a growing number of whites suffering from poverty compared to the pre-apartheid years and attribute this to such laws – over 350,000 Afrikaners may be classified as poor, with some research claiming that up to 150,000 are struggling for survival.[15][16] This, combined with a wave of violent crime, has led to vast numbers of Afrikaners and English-speaking South Africans leaving the country.

Diaspora and emigration

Since 1994, there has been a significant emigration of whites from South Africa. There are thus currently large Afrikaner and English-speaking South African communities in the United Kingdom, Australia and other developed countries. Between 1995 and 2005, more than one million South Africans emigrated, citing violence and racially motivated black on white crime as the main reason, as well as the lack of employment opportunities for whites.[17]

Current trends

In recent decades, there has been a steady proportional decline in South Africa's white community, due to higher birthrates among other South African ethnic groups, as well as a high rate of emigration. In 1977, there were 4.3 million whites, constituting 16.4% of the population at the time. As of 2016, it is estimated that at least 800,000 white South Africans have emigrated since 1995.[18]

Like many other communities strongly affiliated with the West and Europe's colonial legacy in Africa, White South Africans were in the past often economically better off than their black African neighbours and have surrendered political dominance to majority rule. There were also some white Africans in South Africa who lived in poverty—especially during the 1930s and increasingly since the end of minority rule. Current estimates of white poverty in South Africa run as high as 12%, though fact-checking website Africa Check described these figures as "grossly inflated" and suggested that a more accurate estimate was that "only a tiny fraction of the white population – as little as 7,754 households – are affected".[19]

Lara Logan is a television and radio journalist and war correspondent.
Lara Logan is a television and radio journalist and war correspondent.

The new phenomenon of white poverty is mostly blamed on the government's affirmative action employment legislation, which reserves 80% of new jobs for black people[20] and favours companies owned by black people (see Black Economic Empowerment). In 2010, Reuters stated that 450,000 whites live below the poverty line according to Solidarity and civil organisations,[21] with some research saying that up to 150,000 are struggling for survival.[22] However, the proportion of white South Africans living in poverty is still much lower than for other groups in the country, since approximately 50% of the general population fall below the upper-bound poverty line.[23]

A further concern has been crime. Some white South Africans living in affluent white suburbs, such as Sandton, have been affected by the 2008 13.5% rise in house robberies and associated crime.[24] In a study, Dr. Johan Burger, senior researcher at the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), said that criminals were specifically targeting wealthier suburbs. Burger explained that several affluent suburbs are surrounded by poorer residential areas and that inhabitants in the latter often target inhabitants in the former. Burger alleged an entitlement complex among criminals: "They feel they are entitled, for their own sakes, to take from those who have a lot". The report also found that residents in wealthy suburbs in Gauteng were not only at more risk of being targeted but also faced an inflated chance of being murdered during the robbery.[25]

The global financial crisis slowed the high rates of white people emigrating overseas and has led to increasing numbers of white emigrants returning to live in South Africa. Charles Luyckx, CEO of Elliot International and a board member of the Professional Movers Association said that in the past six months leading to December (2008), emigration numbers had dropped by 10%. Meanwhile, he revealed that "people imports" had increased by 50%. These figures may be grossly unreliable due to legislation which does not allow South Africans to hold dual citizenships thus many who emigrate let their citizenship remain dormant or lapse while changing citizenship and no reporting method exists.[26]

As of May 2014, Homecoming Revolution has estimated that around 340,000 white South Africans have returned in the last decade.[27]

Furthermore, immigration from Europe has also supplemented the white population. The 2011 census found that 63,479 white people living in South Africa were born in Europe; of these, 28,653 had moved to South Africa since 2001.[28]

At the end of apartheid in 1994, 85 percent of South Africa's arable land was owned by whites.[29] The land reform program introduced after the end of apartheid intended that, within 20 years, 30 percent of white-owned commercial farm land should be transferred to black owners. Thus, in 2011, the farmers' association, Agri South Africa, coordinated efforts to resettle farmers throughout the African continent. The initiative offered millions of hectares from 22 African countries that hoped to spur development of efficient commercial farming.[30] The 30 percent target was not close to being met by the 2014 deadline.[31] According to a 2017 government audit, 72% of the nation's private farmland is owned by white people.[32] In February 2018, the Parliament of South Africa passed a motion to review the property ownership clause of the constitution, to allow for the expropriation of land, in the public interest, without compensation,[33] which was supported within South Africa's ruling ANC party on the grounds that the land was originally seized by whites without just compensation.[34] In August 2018, the South African government began the process of taking two white-owned farmlands.[35] Western Cape ANC secretary Faiez Jacobs referred to the property clause amendment as a "stick" to force dialogue about the transfer of land ownership, with the hope of accomplishing the transfer "in a way that is orderly and doesn’t create a 'them' and 'us' [situation]."[36]


White South Africans as a proportion of the total population .mw-parser-output div.columns-2 div.column{float:left;width:50%;min-width:300px}.mw-parser-output div.columns-3 div.column{float:left;width:33.3%;min-width:200px}.mw-parser-output div.columns-4 div.column{float:left;width:25%;min-width:150px}.mw-parser-output div.columns-5 div.column{float:left;width:20%;min-width:120px}   .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  0–20%   20–40%   40–60%     60–80%   80–100%
White South Africans as a proportion of the total population
White South Africans by their native tongue[37]
Language Percent

The Statistics South Africa Census 2011 showed that there were about 4,586,838 white people in South Africa, amounting to 8.9% of the country's population.[38] This is a 6.8% increase since the 2001 census. According to the Census 2011, South African English is the first language of 36% of the white population group and Afrikaans is the first language of 61% of the white population group.[3] The majority of white South Africans identify themselves as primarily South African, regardless of their first language or ancestry.[39][40]


Religion among White South Africans
Religion Percent

Approximately 87% of white South Africans are Christian, 9% are irreligious, and 1% are Jewish. The largest Christian denomination is the Dutch Reformed Church (NGK), with 23% of the white population being members. Other significant denominations are the Methodist Church (8%), the Roman Catholic Church (7%), and the Anglican Church (6%).[41]


Many white Africans of European ancestry have migrated to South Africa from other parts of the continent due to political or economic turmoil in their respective homelands. Thousands of Portuguese settlers from Mozambique and Angola and white Zimbabweans emigrated to South Africa during the 1970s and 1980s. However, the overwhelming majority of European migration correlated with the historic colonization of the region (some migrating for the purpose of capitalizing on the exploitation of resources, minerals and other lucrative elements found in South Africa, others for a better life and farming opportunities without many restrictions in newly colonised lands).

Meanwhile, many white South Africans have also emigrated to Western countries over the past two decades, mainly to English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United States, and with others settling in the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, France, Argentina, Israel and Brazil. However, the financial crisis has slowed the rate of emigration and as of May 2014, the Homecoming Revolution has estimated that around 340,000 white South Africans have returned in the last decade.[27]


Density of the White South African population.      <1 /km²   1–3 /km²   3–10 /km²   10–30 /km²   30–100 /km²     100–300 /km²   300–1000 /km²   1000–3000 /km²   >3000 /km²
Density of the White South African population.
South Africa 2001 linguistic distribution of white people map
South Africa 2001 linguistic distribution of white people map

According to Statistics South Africa, white South Africans make up 8.9% (Census 2011) of the total population in South Africa. Their actual proportional share in municipalities is likely to be higher, given the undercount in the 2001 census.[42]

The following table shows the distribution of white people by province, according to the 2011 census:[3]

Province White pop. (2001) White pop. (2011) % province (2001) % province (2011) change 2001–2011 % total whites (2011)
Eastern Cape 305,837 310,450 4.9 4.7 +0.2 Increase 6.8
Free State 238,789 239,026 8.8 8.7 +0.1 Increase 5.2
Gauteng 1,768,041 1,913,884 18.8 15.6 +3.2 Increase 41.7
KwaZulu-Natal 482,115 428,842 5.0 4.2 -0.8 Decrease 9.3
Limpopo 132,420 139,359 2.7 2.6 +0.1 Increase 3.0
Mpumalanga 197,079 303,595 5.9 7.5 +1.6 Increase 6.6
North West 233,935 255,385 7.8 7.3 +0.5 Increase 5.6
Northern Cape 102,519 81,246 10.3 7.1 -3.2 Decrease 1.8
Western Cape 832,902 915,053 18.4 15.7 +2.7 Increase 19.9
Total 4,293,640 4,586,838 9.6 8.9 +6.7 Increase 100.0


Romanticised painting of an account of the arrival of Jan van Riebeeck, founder of Cape Town.
Romanticised painting of an account of the arrival of Jan van Riebeeck, founder of Cape Town.

White South Africans continue to participate in politics, having a presence across the whole political spectrum from left to right.

South African President Jacob Zuma commented in 2009 on Afrikaners being "the only white tribe in a black continent or outside of Europe which is truly African", and said that "of all the white groups that are in South Africa, it is only the Afrikaners that are truly South Africans in the true sense of the word."[43] These remarks have led to the Centre for Constitutional Rights (CCR) laying a complaint with the Human Rights Commission against Zuma.[44] In 2015, a complaint was investigated for hate speech against Jacob Zuma who said "You must remember that a man called Jan van Riebeeck arrived here on 6 April 1652, and that was the start of the trouble in this country."[45]

Former South African President Thabo Mbeki stated in one of his speeches to the nation that: "South Africa belongs to everyone who lives in it. Black and White."[46] The history of white people in South Africa dates back to the sixteenth century.

Prior to 1994, a white minority held complete political power under a system of racial segregation called apartheid. Some white people supported this policy, but some others opposed it. During apartheid, immigrants from Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan were considered honorary whites in the country, as the government had maintained diplomatic relations with these countries. These were granted the same privileges as white people, at least for purposes of residence.[47] Some African Americans such as Max Yergan were granted an 'honorary white' status as well.[48]


Historical population

Statistics for the white population in South Africa vary greatly. Most sources show that the white population peaked in the period between 1989 and 1995 at around 5.2 to 5.6 million. Up to that point, the white population largely increased due to high birth rates and immigration. Subsequently, between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s, the white population decreased overall. However, from 2006 to 2013, the white population increased.

Year White population % of total population Source
1904 1,116,805 21.6% 1904 Census
1911 1,270,000 Increase 22.7% Increase 1911 Census[9]
1960 3,088,492 Increase 19.3% Decrease 1960 Census
1961 3,117,000 Increase 19.1% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1961
1962 3,170,000 Increase 19.0% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1962
1963 3,238,000 Increase 19.0% Steady Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1963
1964 3,323,000 Increase 19.0% Steady Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1964
1965 3,398,000 Increase 19.0% Steady Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1965
1966 3,481,000 Increase 19.0% Steady Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1966
1967 3,563,000 Increase 19.0% Steady Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1967
1968 3,639,000 Increase 19.0% Steady Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1968
1969 3,728,000 Increase 19.0% Steady Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1969
1970 3,792,848 Increase 17.1% Decrease 1970 Census
1971 3,920,000 Increase 17.0% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1971
1972 4,005,000 Increase 16.9% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1972
1973 4,082,000 Increase 16.8% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1973
1974 4,160,000 Increase 16.7% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1974
1975 4,256,000 Increase 16.8% Increase Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1975
1976 4,337,000 Increase 18.2% Increase Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1976
1977 4,396,000 Increase 17.9% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1977
1978 4,442,000 Increase 18.5% Increase Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1978
1979 4,485,000 Increase 18.4% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1979
1980 4,522,000 Increase 18.1% Decrease 1980 Census[11]
1981 4,603,000 Increase 18.0% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1981
1982 4,674,000 Increase 18.3% Increase Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1982
1983 4,748,000 Increase 18.2% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1983
1984 4,809,000 Increase 17.7% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1984
1985 4,867,000 Increase 17.5% Decrease 1985 Census[11]
1986 4,900,000 Increase 17.3% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1986
1991 5,068,300 Increase 13.4% Decrease 1991 Census
1992 5,121,000 Increase 13.2% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1992
1993 5,156,000 Increase 13.0% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1993
1994 5,191,000 Increase 12.8% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1994
1995 5,224,000 Increase 12.7% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1995
1996 4,434,697 Decrease 10.9% Decrease South African National Census of 1996
1997 4,462,200 Increase 10.8% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1997
1998 4,500,400 Increase 10.7% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1998
1999 4,538,727 Increase 10.5% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1999
2000 4,521,664 Decrease 10.4% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2000
2001 4,293,640 Decrease 9.6% Decrease South African National Census of 2001
2002 4,555,289 Increase 10.0% Increase Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2002
2003 4,244,346 Decrease 9.1% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2003
2004 4,434,294 Increase 9.5% Increase Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2004
2005 4,379,800 Decrease 9.3% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2005
2006 4,365,300 Decrease 9.2% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2006
2007 4,352,100 Decrease 9.1% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2007
2008 4,499,200 Increase 9.2% Increase Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2008
2009 4,472,100 Decrease 9.1% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2009
2010 4,584,700 Increase 9.2% Increase Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2010
2011 4,586,838 Increase 8.9% Decrease South African National Census of 2011
2013 4,602,400 Increase 8.7% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2013
2014 4,554,800 Decrease 8.4% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2014
2015 4,534,000 Decrease 8.3% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2015
2016 4,515,800 Decrease 8.1% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2016
2017 4,493,500 Decrease 8.0% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2017
2018 4,520,100 Increase 7.8% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2018
2019 4,652,006 Increase 7.9% Increase Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2019
2020 4,679,770 Increase 7.8% Decrease Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2020

Fertility rates

Contraception among white South Africans is stable or slightly falling: 80% used contraception in 1990, and 79% used it in 1998.[49] The following data shows some fertility rates recorded during South Africa's history. However, there are varied sources showing that the white fertility rate reached below replacement (2.1) by 1980. Likewise, recent studies show a range of fertility rates, ranging from 1.3 to 2.4. The Afrikaners tend to have a higher birthrate than that of other white people.[citation needed]

Year Total fertility rate[50] Source
1960 3.5 Decrease SARPN
1970 3.1 Decrease SARPN
1980 2.4 Decrease SARPN
1989 1.9 Decrease
1990 2.1 Increase SARPN
1996 1.9 Decrease SARPN
1998 1.9 Steady SARPN
2001[51] 1.8 Decrease
2006[51] 1.8 Steady
2011 1.7 Decrease Census 2011

Life expectancy

The average life expectancy at birth for males and females

Year Average life expectancy Male life expectancy Female life expectancy
1980[52] 70.3 66.8 73.8
1985[53] 71 ? ?
1997 73.5 70 77
2009[54][55] 71 ? ?


Province White unemployment rate (strict)
Eastern Cape[56] 4.5%
Free State
Gauteng[57] 8.7%
KwaZulu-Natal[58] 8.0%
Limpopo[59] 8.0%
Mpumalanga[58] 7.5%
North West
Northern Cape[60] 4.5%
Western Cape 2.0%


Average annual household income by population group of the household head.[61][62]

Population group Average income (2015) Average income (2011) Average income (2001)
White R 444 446 (321.7%) R 365 134 (353.8%) R 193 820 (400.6%)
Indian/Asian R 271 621 (196.6%) R 251 541 (243.7%) R 102 606 (212.1%)
Coloured R 172 765 (125.0%) R 112 172 (108.7%) R 51 440 (106.3%)
Black R 92 983 (67.3%) R 60 613 (58.7%) R 22 522 (46.5%)
Total R 138 168 (100%) R 103 204 (100%) R 48 385 (100%)

Percentage of workforce

Province Whites % of the workforce Whites % of population
Eastern Cape[56] 10% 4%
Free State
Gauteng[63] 25% 18%
KwaZulu-Natal[58] 11% 6%
Limpopo[59] 5% 2%
North West
Northern Cape[60] 19% 12%
Western Cape[64] 22% 18%


Language 2011 2001 1996
Afrikaans 60.8% 59.1% 57.7%
English 35.9% 39.3% 38.6%
Other languages 3.3% 1.6% 3.7%
Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%


Religion among white South Africans remains high compared to other white ethnic groups, but likewise it has shown a steady proportional drop in both membership and church attendance with until recently the majority of white South Africans attending regular church services.

Religious affiliation of white South Africans (2001 census)[65]
Religion Number Percentage (%)
– Christianity 3,726,266 86.8%
– Dutch Reformed churches 1,450,861 33.8%
Pentecostal/Charismatic/Apostolic churches 578,092 13.5%
Methodist Church 343,167 8.0%
- Catholic Church 282,007 6.6%
Anglican Church 250,213 5.8%
– Other Reformed churches 143,438 3.3%
Baptist churches 78,302 1.8%
Presbyterian churches 74,158 1.7%
Lutheran churches 25,972 0.6%
– Other Christian churches 500,056 11.6%
Judaism 61,673 1.4%
Islam 8,409 0.2%
Hinduism 2,561 0.1%
No religion 377,007 8.8%
Other or undetermined 117,721 2.7%
Total 4,293,637 100%

White South Africans

Science and technology


Royalty and Aristocracy

Arts and media





See also


  1. ^ "Mid-year population estimates 2020" (PDF). Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  2. ^ "South Africa – Community Survey 2016". Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  3. ^ a b c Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. p. 21. ISBN 9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015.
  4. ^ Hunt, John (2005). Campbell, Heather-Ann (ed.). Dutch South Africa: Early Settlers at the Cape, 1652–1708. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 13–35. ISBN 978-1904744955.
  5. ^ Keegan, Timothy (1996). Colonial South Africa and the Origins of the Racial Order (1996 ed.). David Philip Publishers (Pty) Ltd. pp. 15–37. ISBN 978-0813917351.
  6. ^ a b c Lloyd, Trevor Owen (1997). The British Empire, 1558–1995. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 201–203. ISBN 978-0198731337.
  7. ^ Greaves, Adrian. The Tribe that Washed its Spears: The Zulus at War (2013 ed.). Barnsley: Pen & Sword Military. pp. 36–55. ISBN 978-1629145136.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  8. ^ "Census of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope. 1865". HathiTrust Digital Library. 1866. p. 11. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  9. ^ a b c Shimoni, Gideon (2003). Community and Conscience: The Jews in Apartheid South Africa. Lebanon, New Hampshire: University Press of New England. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-1584653295.
  10. ^ Kriger, Robert; Kriger, Ethel (1997). Afrikaans Literature: Recollection, Redefinition, Restitution. Amsterdam: Rodopi BV. pp. 75–78. ISBN 978-9042000513.
  11. ^ a b c d "Population of South Africa by population group" (PDF). Dammam: South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries. 2004. Archived from the original on 28 February 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  12. ^ "What's in a name? Racial categorisations under apartheid and their afterlife". Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
  13. ^ "The People of South Africa" (PDF). Government of the Republic of South Africa. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2008.
  14. ^ "Redirecting old link". Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  15. ^ "Simon Wood meets the people who lost most when Mandela won in South Africa". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  16. ^ "Foreign Correspondent – 30/05/2006: South Africa – Poor Whites". ABC. Archived from the original on 5 December 2007. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  17. ^ Peet van Aardt (24 September 2006). "Million whites leave SA – study". Archived from the original on 16 April 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  18. ^ White flight from South Africa | Between staying and going Archived 12 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Economist, 25 September 2008
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