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Western European Time

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Time in Europe:
Light Blue Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Blue Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
Red Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Yellow Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
Ochre Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Green Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
Turquoise Armenia Time / Azerbaijan Time / Georgia Time / Samara Time (UTC+4)
 Pale colours: Standard time observed all year
 Dark colours: Summer time observed

Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western Europe and consists of countries using UTC±00:00 (also known as Greenwich Mean Time, abbreviated GMT).[1][2] It is one of the three standard time zones in the European Union along with Central European Time and Eastern European Time.[3][2]

The following Western European countries and regions use UTC±00:00 in winter months:

All the above countries except Iceland[14] implement daylight saving time in summer (from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October each year), switching to Western European Summer Time (WEST, UTC+01:00), which is one hour ahead of WET.[15] WEST is called British Summer Time in the UK and is legally defined as Irish Standard Time in Ireland.

The nominal span of the UTC±00:00 time zone is 7.5°E to 7.5°W (0° ± 7.5°), but does not include the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Gibraltar or Spain (except Canary Islands) which use Central European Time (CET) even though these are mostly or completely west of 7.5°E. Conversely, Iceland and eastern Greenland use UTC±00:00 although both are west of 7.5°W. In September 2013, a Spanish parliamentary committee recommended switching to UTC±00:00.[16][17][18]

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Historical uses

A slight variation of UTC±00:00, based until 1911 on the Paris Meridian, was used in:

Until the Second World War, France used UTC±00:00. However, the German occupation switched France to German time, and it has remained in CET since then.[31] Two other occupied territories, Belgium and the Netherlands, did the same, and Spain also switched to CET in solidarity with Germany under the orders of General Franco.[32]

In the United Kingdom, from 1940 to 1945 British Summer Time (BST=CET) was used in winters, and from 1941 to 1945 and again in 1947, British Double Summer Time (BDST=CEST) was used in summers. Between 18 February 1968 and 31 October 1971, BST was used all year round.[33][34]

In Ireland, from 1940 to 1946 Irish Summer Time (IST=CET) was used all year round, with no 'double' summer time akin to that in the United Kingdom. Between 18 February 1968 and 31 October 1971, Irish Standard Time was used all year round.[35][36]

In Portugal, CET was used in the mainland from 1966 to 1976 and from 1992 to 1996. The autonomous region of the Azores used WET from 1992 to 1993.[37][38][39]


Difference between legal time and local mean solar time in Europe during the winter
Colour Legal time vs local mean time
1 h ± 30 m behind
0 h ± 30 m
1 h ± 30 m ahead
2 h ± 30 m ahead

Regions located outside UTC longitudes

Located west of 22°30′ W ("physical" UTC−2)

Located west of 7°30′ W ("physical" UTC-1)

Areas located within UTC+00:00 longitudes using other time zones

These areas are actually located between 7°30′E and 7°30′W (nominally UTC+0) but use UTC+01:00 (Central European Time, nominally for longitudes between 7°30′E and 22°30′E):

All of

and most of

and minor parts of other countries.


  1. ^ "EU summer-time arrangements under Directive 2000/84/EC" (PDF). European Parliament. 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Reasoned opinion on subsidiarity" (PDF). Committee on Legal Affairs –European Parliament. 2019.
  3. ^ "Seasonal clock change in the EU". European Commission. 2016-09-22. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  4. ^ "Time Zones of Portugal". Statoids. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  5. ^ "Lighter nights would keep youngsters fitter and safer, say doctors". Western Mail. Cardiff. 27 June 2005.
  6. ^ David Ennals "British Standard Times Bill [Lords]", Hansard, House of Commons Debate, 23 January 1968, vol 757 cc290-366, 290–92
  7. ^ "British Standard Time", Hansard (HC), 2 December 1970, vol 807 cc1331-422
  8. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Dublin, Ireland". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  9. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1960-1969 in Dublin, Ireland". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  10. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  11. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Tórshavn, Faroe Islands". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  12. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Danmarkshavn, Greenland". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  13. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Reykjavik, Iceland". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  14. ^ "Countries that do not observe DST |". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  15. ^ "What Countries Do Daylight Savings?". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  16. ^ "Spain considers time zone change to boost productivity". BBC News. 27 September 2013.
  17. ^ Hamilos, Paul (26 September 2013). "Adiós, siesta? Spain considers ending Franco's change to working hours". The Guardian (London).
  18. ^ Dewey, Caitlin (26 September 2013). "Spaniards are less productive, constantly tired because Spain is in the wrong time zone". The Washington Post.
  19. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Andorra La Vella, Andorra". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  20. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Brussels, Belgium". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  21. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Brussels, Belgium". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  22. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Brussels, Belgium". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  23. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Paris, Île-de-France, France". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  24. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Paris, Île-de-France, France". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  25. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1850-1899 in Gibraltar, Gibraltar". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  26. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1950-1959 in Gibraltar, Gibraltar". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  27. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Luxembourg, Luxembourg". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  28. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Luxembourg, Luxembourg". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  29. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Monaco, Monaco". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  30. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Monaco, Monaco". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  31. ^ Poulle, Yvonne (1999). "La France à l'heure allemande" (PDF). Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes. 157 (2): 493–502. doi:10.3406/bec.1999.450989. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
  32. ^ "Spain Has Been In The 'Wrong' Time Zone For 7 Decades". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  33. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1960-1969 in London, England, United Kingdom". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  34. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1970-1979 in London, England, United Kingdom". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  35. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1960-1969 in Dublin, Ireland". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  36. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1970-1979 in Dublin, Ireland". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  37. ^ Decreto Legislativo Regional n.º 29/92/A (23-12-1992) (in Portuguese), Diário da República (Diary of the Republic) – 1st Series - A, nr. 295, p. 5932-(2), 23 December 1992. Retrieved 11 January 2014
  38. ^ Decreto Legislativo Regional n.º 8/93/A (26-03-1993) (in Portuguese), Diário da República (Diary of the Republic) – 1st Series - A, nr. 72, p. 1496-(272), 23 March 1993. Retrieved 11 January 2014
  39. ^ Decreto Legislativo Regional n.º 9/93/A (15-07-1993) (in Portuguese), Diário da República (Diary of the Republic) – 1st Series - A, nr. 164, p. 3845–3846, 15 July 1993. Retrieved 11 January 2014
This page was last edited on 21 September 2023, at 18:02
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