To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

St Andrews (Latin: S. Andrea(s);[2] Scots: Saunt Aundraes;[3] Scottish Gaelic: Cill Rìmhinn)[4] is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Dundee and 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Edinburgh. St Andrews has a recorded population of 16,800 in 2011, making it Fife's fourth largest settlement and 45th most populous settlement in Scotland.

The town is home to the University of St Andrews, the third oldest university in the English-speaking world and the oldest in Scotland.[5] According to some rankings, it is ranked as the second best university in the United Kingdom, behind Cambridge.[6][7] The University is an integral part of the burgh and during term time students make up approximately one third of the town's population.[citation needed]

The town is named after Saint Andrew the Apostle. There has been an important church in St Andrews since at least the 747 AD when it was mentioned in the Annals of Tigernach, and a bishopric since at least the 11th century.[citation needed] The settlement grew to the west of St Andrews cathedral with the southern side of the Scores to the north and the Kinness burn to the south. The burgh soon became the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, a position which was held until the Scottish Reformation. The famous cathedral, the largest in Scotland, now lies in ruins.

St Andrews is also known worldwide as the "home of golf". This is in part because The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, founded in 1754, which until 2004 exercised legislative authority over the game worldwide (except in the United States and Mexico). It is also because the famous St Andrews Links (acquired by the town in 1894) are the most frequent venue for The Open Championship, the oldest of golf's four major championships. Visitors travel to St Andrews in great numbers for several courses ranked amongst the finest in the world, as well as for the sandy beaches.

The Martyrs Memorial, erected to the honour of Patrick Hamilton, George Wishart, and other martyrs of the Reformation epoch, stands at the west end of the Scores on a cliff overlooking the sea. The civil parish has a population of 18,421 (in 2011).[8]

The town also contains numerous museums, a botanic garden and an aquarium.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    63 808
    3 186
    3 517
    1 756
    18 390
  • ✪ Tourist Sauce (Scotland Golf): Episode 4, The Old Course at St. Andrews
  • ✪ Choose your accommodation at St Andrews
  • ✪ Places to see in ( St. Andrews - UK )
  • ✪ My Mini Break to St Andrews, Scotland | The Travelista
  • ✪ Freshman year at University of St Andrews

Transcription

"You guys think you're gonna get on or what?" "Yeah we hope. I mean we got here at, I don't know 3 a.m.?" "That's bad or sick. I don't know which one." SOLY: Bobby Jones once said if you've played less than 10 rounds at The Old Course and you claim to like it you're a liar. Or something along those lines. I can't find the actual quote and I'm not positive he actually said it. But we're gonna assume that he did and today we're gonna try to figure out what that means. St. Andrews is synonymous with golf and I don't just mean The Old Course. I mean the whole town of St. Andrews. It's called the home of golf for a reason and it's because this place has been golf obsessed since the 15th century. The people of St. Andrews liked the game so much that King James II banned the sport in 1457 because he felt young men were playing too much golf and not practicing their archery. It remained taboo until King James the fourth became a golfer himself and lifted the ban. In 1754 the Society of St. Andrews golfers was formed, which eventually became the Royal and Ancient Club. the R&A clubhouse still sits directly behind the first tee and despite the stuffy stereotypes that come with the R&A, the golf Mecca that it stands besides remains as one of golf's most open and most played courses. Getting a tee time here is difficult but anyone can do it and in this episode we're gonna explain how. St. Andrews just feels like a golf town. The game seems to find its way into every conversation, every pub and even every cab ride. LAURIE: "I guess it's the home of golf because it's got the earliest documented evidence of golf actually being played as a sport in Scotland. And then what it's gone on to become over the years – you know 29 Open Championships all the great players that have played on the Old Course and the fact that the property has grown into seven courses, I mean it just eats, sleeps, breathes golf. Golf is even in the cemeteries where you'll find the grave of Old Tom Morris Part of this golf obsession is because the game is incredibly affordable for the locals. Like most places in Scotland St. Andrews charges high prices to the droves of tourists that flock there each year. This subsidizes rounds for locals and students and keeps prices low. The class system that seems to hold back the sport in the state seems to not exist on this side of the pond. At least not nearly to the same extent. St. Andrews' most famous attraction, The Old Course is jammed right in the middle of town, surrounded by the village's most iconic buildings. The course springs up out of nowhere when you see it for the first time. The thing that hits you immediately is the accessibility. You can park right next to the 18th green and on Sundays the course is closed and turns into a public park where you can walk your dog play catch or do pretty much whatever the hell you want. RANDY: "We just got out of the pub. We're going to go across the Swilken Bridge." D.J. "Randy, what you think of the course so far?" "I can't see it. For real though, I just love playing amongst buildings that's the best." "You're saying you like infrastructure." "Yeah." "Tron, what do you think?" "I'm gonna reserve judgment. I know a lot's been written and talked about this place. "What did you think of the Swilken Bridge?" "I thought the Swilken Bridge was a (expletive) disgrace." "That's a bold take." And of course St. Andrews is not just the Old Course. There's seven courses in total and six of them sit on the same stretch of land. The Old Course might be the greatest golf course in the world, which is why it's the only one we're gonna focus on here. But the other courses are such an added bonus. If you're struggling to get on the Old Course, your options are plentiful and incredibly fun to play. With a bit of history and geography out of the way it's time for the question that every Scottish golf trip asks at some point: How do you actually get on the Old Course? There are three ways. Option one is to simply book a tee time and this is tougher than it sounds. These tee times must be booked way in advance and you can only do it during a small window from late August to early September. This allows paying customers the chance to book tee times for the following year. This works great if you know your travel dates well in advance. But if not there are other options here as well. Many golf travel companies hold tee times at the old course and can offer a pre-arranged times if you're unable to book during this window. Option two is what is called the ballot and people swear by this system but personally I'm 0-for-3 trying it. Nearly half the tee times each year are given out through this lottery system. It's pretty simple. Two days prior to the day you'd like to play you enter your name, handicap and home club in the online lottery and hope to be selected for a tee time. And option 3 is your failsafe – the singles queue. what makes this place so damn cool is that despite the massive demand to play here you can line up at the ass crack of dawn and beg for a tee time at the door. And at 6 a.m. they open the doors to anyone lined up outside and they fill in any holes in the day's tee sheet with willing singles. Personally I've done this three times and I'm three for three and getting a tee time at the Old Course but you got to work for it. LAURIE: "Earliest one I've ever heard that was an Australian guy he came about 18 months ago. He queued up at 7:30 the night before and the people in the office were kind of saying you don't need to be here. But he was adamant he wanted to be first off in the morning so he had his sleeping bag." What time did you guys get here? 1:30 for me. 1:30? Yes. 12:30. How you holding up? I'm tired. I'm an old man I'm tired." We had a goal to be there by 3:00 a.m. and since that was still hours from now we had plenty of time to hit the second most famous golf spot in St. Andrews. "The famous Dunvegan Pub. We're going to pop in here for a pint, maybe just a bite of dinner." "Does that sound like something that might be interesting?" TRON: "Hey guys I get it now." Any golfer that has ever come through St. Andrews has been to the Dunvegan and if you're a famous one you're memorialized on the wall. It's golf's ultimate 19th hole and it sits within shouting distance of the 18th green. "What's the review of the Dunvegan?" What's this street called? Golf Place. We are literally in a place of golf. We're out scouting number one. We're in the shadow of the R&A. RANDY: "Trying to get a feel for things here. Little out of bounds right I think could be in play for me. So I'm only gonna just blow it all the way left. Hopefully it's got a little cut on it. We got to bed just before 1:00 a.m. which meant we had about 90 minutes of sleeping time before we had to get up for the singles queue. By coincidence we happened to be in St. Andrews at the same time as our buddy Pooshdaddy, whose real name is allegedly Micah. You may remember him from our pairing together in the Kia Classic pro-am in March. Poosh is the lead singer of Iration, a reggae band that is way more popular than I realized when we first met him. We even got to see them play in St. Augustine and if you can't tell we're kind of fans. As luck would have it we even planned to line up for the Old Course on the same day. 2:45 meeting time. It's 2:46. I'm all alone. We have one. ... We got two. Did you get some good Z's? D.J.: "Yeah like two. Let's do this." Where's the large Randy? Crandall, let's go. Maybe he really did die of sickle-cell. D.J.: "Shake your ass man. Let's go." Meet you there? How long you need? Get it together. Let's go. I didn't set an alarm, I did the timer. I was like two hours in it until I obviously hit snooze and then with the timer it actually just turned off. Poosh said there's there's already six people there in line so we got to get a move on. Sick. (Expletive) sick! Morning. Morning. Tron is asleep already. We're going to get a little bump from Neil. NEIL: "Hey guys! How we feeling?" It was an early wake-up call. 2:40 wake-up call this morning." Did you guys have a few pints? We lifted a few pints. The wait is long and cold but it turns into this kind of beautiful scene as the sun's coming up. You're meeting golf fans just as crazy as you are from all over the world. First draft pick here, what's the strategy? I think I'm gonna go early as long as I have enough time to get some food and some coffee. Maybe an energy drink or some Redbull. Are we getting excited? We're starting to see our lines. We got a bit of a game plan. 5:45, we're about to open. "Seven people in front of us, seven behind us." And eventually the doors open and the wait is over. "We're just hearing rumors right now. Not sure what's fully available." It was a little bit scary for a minute. I'm a little bit thirsty. A little hungry. It's a battle of attrition out there and we won. When you line up you have no idea what tea time you're gonna get. You could be off at 7:00 a.m. you could be off at 5:00 p.m. but luckily for us we were teeing off just shortly after noon so we all went back to bed. If you've watched the other episodes in this season it's clear that we caught Scotland in the best conditions possible. Crazy firm turf, balls rolling out for eternity with dust flying out of the ground on the pure strikes. That continued at the Old Course and it made it even more fun and strategic. The Old Course is not long by modern standards and with the lack of governance of modern technology it's actually a bit sad to see where they have to fit some of the championship tee boxes. Several tees are over on the new course and the 17th tee, one of the most iconic holes in golf, has a tee box that's out of bounds. We slept about what, three hours? Thereabouts. Maybe a tad longer with the exception of that fire alarm. I feel terrible. Thanks for asking. I think I felt better before. I could have played on two hours. Now I feel worse. It's terrible. I think my body feels a little better, maybe, but just mentally I'm gone. It was on the edge, now I've lost it it's gone. The first tee shot, completely benign, but very nerve wracking. That's why we have the sex wood. I don't want to try to put an iron on the ball. I want to put a bigger head on the ball I think. I think your caddie will let you know what you're doing on No. 1. He's gonna look you in the eyes and say listen, let me hop on. This is my show. Are we battling nerves? Actually I don't get first tee jitters. I just fan open the putter face but I don't really ever get first tee jitters. Famous last words. One of the cool parts about being in the singles queue is that you end up getting paired with people from all over the world. Tron played with this kid in the Gucci sweatpants. DJ ended up with a group of Australians who were in the midst of a six-week trip. "This is gonna be the No Laying Up group?" "That's us." Just had a venti Starbucks. Unfair advantage. Randy can see over the burn up there. It's a low stinger, it'll play. 18 of those. That may be the best miss. Wind cheaters all day. Actually playing the Old Course can be absolute chaos. Only four greens stand alone and the remaining 14 holes are played to seven double greens. Fun fact is that the sum of the shared greens always equals eighteen as the 2nd and the 16th hole share a green. The 3rd and 15th and so on. On almost every hole there might be 16 people standing on a single green as one foursome and their caddies are going out and another foursome and their caddies are heading in. At the furthest point the 7th and 11th holes actually crisscross and there might be 30 people on this point of the property. It's the ultimate glorious madness. I'll admit it, the first two times I played the Old Course I didn't "get it." It was still incredible to tee off on that first hole with my heart pumping. To pick out a line over the Old Course Hotel on the 17th and check the boxes that every golfer should experience in their lifetime. But it didn't fully resonate with me, which is a common reaction for first timers. "I guess I see why people wouldn't like it the first time. Actually, no, I don't. They're idiots. If you don't like it first time... it's the best. It's so weird and fun and I don't know. I don't know how you could have more fun playing golf than that." That's cool man thanks, Deej. Bloody St. Andrews. A wee better than East Lothian. Having a local rivalry – You know, it's the heartbeat of golf tourism in Scotland. And it's a misunderstood course. I really didn't know what to think or what to expect. I knew it was gonna be kind of mind-blowing. I knew a little you know a lot about the routing, but until you see it in person it didn't, it doesn't really click. I think it's a lot like Augusta in that you've seen it and you feel like you know it but when you actually go for the first time and see it in person it you just get – I don't know it's it's a validation and maybe a new appreciation. I think it's once you get into it you start a flavour a feel for what's been here for hundreds of years and bits of it don't make sense but that's brilliant bit about it. I think even those people they could be a little bit underwhelmed in which is the same thing once you go into that back nine and you're coming down 12, 13 you're going past Hell bunker, you just get caught up in the moment. You reach that 17th tee and you're looking at a railway shed, you just go no other golf course in the world would be built today with a railway shed 140 yards away from the tee That you're supposed to hit a ball over. I mean it's fantastic. You know this place gives you a buzz. You're standing on the first tee at the Old Course. Is it a good hole? it's a field with a river across it. You know, protecting a fairly flat green. But you know, I think when you play the Old Course the first time, you may be underwhelmed but really taken by the history. But once you get to play it and you played a few times you begin to understand it. Great golf course. Staying left doesn't save you. I'm a member of the St. Andrews Club up there. my first medal I was 2 under par at the turn. you know and she just gently said well done, well done young man. And then she whipped me all the way back. I think I finished 12 over thanks the two bunkers. You know that's that that's the Old Course. Scottish golf. Don't get over yourself. It took a special caddy for it to all really click. Last summer I played one of the rounds of my life at the Old Course with my man Brett Murray on the bag. He was plotting me around the historic links like a sherpa and I just followed him blindly. I knew that on this return visit I had to have him back on the bag. "This is my man right here. Didn't even have to say anything, he takes it straight to the back tees. What are we hitting off one this year? I think it's going to be 5 or 6. With Brett's help the lightbulb really went off for me in terms of strategy in golf as a whole. And this is where I started to understand Bobby Jones's quote. The Old Course is on a very flat piece of land but it's not flat at all and these contours dictate your entire strategy. Your first time through you can stand up on the second tee and think holy shit it's a double wide fairway I can hit it anywhere. But after you take the safe play up the left, you now realize you have no route to the hole as there's an enormous mound between you and the flag. Oh and also it's rock hard out here so you need to play a run-up shot that's only really possible to control from the right side. To illustrate this let's take a look at the third hole. Playing into the 16th fairway again looks very appealing from the tee but as you see here the route to the flag is completely cut off by this massive bunker. Alternatively the more risky route sets you up in a scoring position if you pull off the tee shot. Every single hole at the Old Course puts you through this kind of exercise and the wind changes every hole every day. You need to think about run-out, playing up alternate fairways, all of it just to try to gain an edge and that's where the genius of the Old Course lies. A 15 handicap will love the fact that you can land a 747 in these fairways and a lower handicap player is in for the chess match of his or her life, trying to figure out the best angles to come in from. D.J.: "Not a very good start for me." The golf course truly is different every single day, which is why I can never really fully be figured out. In 1995 as an amateur Tiger Woods played his first round there and remarked, "What are these bunkers for? They're not even close to being in play." The wind switches and, oh my god, they are in play. That's the genius of this place. After 11 you make your turn inward and the remaining seven holes are played back towards the town. The landmarks keep getting bigger and I can't describe how cool it is to hear your caddie pick out church towers in the distance for your line. In the right wind the 12th can be driveable. The 13th again provides a myriad of options. The 14th is the only par-5 on the back and features Hell Bunker. "I thought hell was sleeping on the beanbag chair in a tour van. But it's actually right here." The 15th is another stout par-4 and the 16th features the principal's nose bunkers and an awesome green to tee transition to the highlight of the day, Number 17. The Road Hole is one of the most famous holes in golf. While its essence is one of the most copied templates in the game, if someone built this hole today it would likely be the last golf course they ever built. With the help of your caddie you pick out a line over this wall and you swing away. TRON: "17 is it's the best golf hole in the world and it's like it's not even up for debate. It is unequivocally the best golf hole in the entire world." Consistent with the rest of the course there's bailout room to the left but you have tall grass and a bad angle waiting for you there. To get the best angle you have to be willing to take on the OB on the right and risk the lives of those having a beer at the Jigger Inn. On this approach you're better off playing in front and left of the green rather than risking ending up on the road but of course you also have to avoid the road hole bunker. It may look small but everything feeds down into it. It's hard to emphasize how close that road cuts into the green and how tiny the landing area is. Big Randy didn't really take that into account. Well I pumped my second OB it hit the the big road here and hopped the fence right there. Yeah, it's a Callaway 3. Hey it's sacrifice to the gods, huh? Yeah. I made a hell of a six though. You know what comes next, but rather than our boring bridge photos can we just please take a minute and look at the audacity of this guy to cut in front of DJ's group and ask them to borrow a club for a photo? Backtracking to the 17th fairway a beer or six is a requirement at the aforementioned Jigger Inn. While the itinerary for this trip was all world the Old Course is simply in a class of its own and there's a reason why we say that the Old Course is essential for any first-timer visiting Scotland. RANDY: "I don't know sometimes I feel like describing the Old Course – it's like I just don't have a good enough vocabulary or I haven't thought of a good enough analogy for how it fits." "I just don't think there's proper words to describe some elements of it." "Yeah it's more of a feeling."

Contents

Name and etymology

The earliest recorded name of the area is Cennrígmonaid. This is Old Gaelic and composed of the elements cenn (head, peninsula), ríg (king) and monaid (moor). This became Cell Rígmonaid (cell meaning church) and was Scoticised to Kilrymont. The modern Gaelic spelling is Cill Rìmhinn. It is likely that the Gaelic name represents an adaptation of a Pictish form *Penrimond.[9] The name St Andrews derives from the town's claim to be the resting place of bones of the apostle Andrew. According to legend, St Regulus (or Rule) brought the relics to Kilrymont, where a shrine was established for their safekeeping and veneration while Kilrymont was renamed in honour of the saint.[10] This is the origin of a third name for the town Kilrule.

History

St Andrews Cathedral in 1845[11]
St Andrews Cathedral in 1845[11]
Martyrs' Monument[12][13]
Martyrs' Monument[12][13]
In Memory Of The Martyrs Patrick Hamilton, Henry Forrest, George Wishart And Walter Mill,  Who In Support Of The Protestant Faith Suffered Death By Fire At St Andrews, Between The Years MDXXVIII AND MDLVIII. The Righteous shall be in Everlasting  Remembrance.[14]
In Memory Of The Martyrs Patrick Hamilton, Henry Forrest, George Wishart And Walter Mill, Who In Support Of The Protestant Faith Suffered Death By Fire At St Andrews, Between The Years MDXXVIII AND MDLVIII. The Righteous shall be in Everlasting Remembrance.[14]

The first inhabitants who settled on the estuary fringes of the rivers Tay and Eden during the mesolithic (middle stone age) came from the plains in Northern Europe between 10,000 and 5,000 BCE.[15] This was followed by the nomadic people who settled around the modern town around 4,500 BCE as farmers clearing the area of woodland and building monuments.[15]

In the mid-eighth century a monastery was established by the Pictish king Oengus I, traditionally associated with the relics of Saint Andrew, a number of bones supposed to be the saint's arm, kneecap, three fingers and a tooth believed to have been brought to the town by St Regulus.[16] In AD 877, king Causantín mac Cináeda (Constantine I or II) built a new church for the Culdees at St Andrews and later the same year was captured and executed (or perhaps killed in battle) after defending against Viking raiders.[17]

In AD 906, the town became the seat of the bishop of Alba, with the boundaries of the see being extended to include land between the River Forth and River Tweed.[18] In 940 Constantine III abdicated and took the position of abbot of the monastery of St Andrews.[19]

The establishment of the present town began around 1140 by Bishop Robert on an L-shaped vill, possibly on the site of the ruined St Andrews Castle.[20] According to a charter of 1170, the new burgh was built to the west of the Cathedral precinct, along Castle Street and possibly as far as what is now known as North Street.[16] This means that the lay-out may have led to the creation of two new streets (North Street and South Street) from the foundations of the new St Andrews Cathedral filling the area inside a two-sided triangle at its apex.[16] The northern boundary of the burgh was the southern side of the Scores (the street between North Street and the sea) with the southern by the Kinness Burn and the western by the West Port.[21] The burgh of St Andrews was first represented at the great council at Scone Palace in 1357.[21]

St Andrews, in particular the large cathedral built in 1160, was the most important centre of pilgrimage in medieval Scotland and one of the most important in Europe. Pilgrims from all over Scotland came in large numbers hoping to be blessed, and in many cases to be cured, at the shrine of Saint Andrew. The presence of the pilgrims brought about increased trade and development.[22] Recognised as the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, the town now had vast economic and political influence within Europe as a cosmopolitan town.[23] In 1559, the town fell into decay after the violent Scottish Reformation and the Wars of the Three Kingdoms losing the status of ecclesiastical capital of Scotland.[24] Even the University of St Andrews was considering relocating to Perth around 1697 and 1698.[23] Under the authorisation of the bishop of St Andrews, the town was made a burgh of barony in 1614. Royal Burgh was then granted as a charter by King James VI in 1620.[25][26] In the 18th century, the town was still in decline, but despite this the town was becoming known for having links 'well known to golfers'.[23] By the 19th century, the town began to expand beyond the original medieval boundaries with streets of new houses and town villas being built.[23] Today, St Andrews is served by education, golf and the tourist and conference industry.[23]

Governance

St Andrews Town Hall
St Andrews Town Hall

St Andrews is represented by several tiers of elected government. The Royal Burgh of St Andrews Community Council, meeting on the first Monday of the month in the Council Chamber of the Town Hall, forms the lowest tier of governance whose statutory role is to communicate local opinion to local and central government. The current Chairman is Mr Callum MacLeod. The chairman uses the title of Provost of St Andrews on official and ceremonial occasions.

Fife Council, the unitary local authority for St Andrews, based in Glenrothes is the executive, deliberative and legislative body responsible for local governance.[27] The Scottish Parliament is responsible for devolved matters such as education, health and justice while reserved matters are dealt with by the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.[27]

The first parliament to take place in the town was in 1304, when King Edward I came to be received by Bishop William de Lamberton as overlordship of Scotland. As many as 130 landowners turned up to witness the event ranging from Sir John of Combo to Sir William Murray of Fort.[28] In the early days of the union of 1707, St Andrews elected one member of parliament along with Cupar, Perth, Dundee and Forfar.[29] The first elected parliament was introduced on 17 November 1713 as St Andrews Burgh, which merged with Anstruther, the result of a reform bill in 1832.[29] The act of reformation seats in 1855, would find one MP sitting for St Andrews Burgh (which would include Anstruther Easter, Anstruther Wester, Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny and Pittenweem).[29] Prior to 1975 the town was governed by a council, provost and baillies. In 1975, St Andrews came under Fife Regional Council and North East Fife District Council. The latter was abolished when a single-tier authority was introduced in 1996 as Fife Council based in Glenrothes.

St Andrews forms part of the North East Fife constituency, electing one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom by the first past the post system. The constituency is represented by Stephen Gethins, MP of the Scottish National Party.[30] For the purposes of the Scottish Parliament, St Andrews forms part of the North East Fife constituency. The North East Fife Scottish Parliament (or Holyrood) constituency created in 1999 is one of nine within the Mid Scotland and Fife electoral region. Each constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and the region elects seven additional members to produce a form of proportional representation. The seat was won at the 2016 Scottish Parliament Election by Willie Rennie, for the Scottish Liberal Democrats.[31][32]

At EU level, St Andrews is part of the pan-Scotland European Parliament constituency which elects seven Members of the European Parliament (MEP)s using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.[33] Scotland returns two Labour MEPs, two SNP MEPs, one Conservative and Unionist MEP and one UKIP MEP, to the European Parliament.[33]

Demography

St Andrews compared according to UK Census 2001[34][35][36][37]
St Andrews Fife Scotland
Total population 14,209 349,429 5,062,011
Foreign born 11.60% 1.18% 1.10%
Over 75 years old 10.51% 7.46% 7.09%
Unemployed 1.94% 3.97% 4.0%

According to the 2001 census, St Andrews had a total population of 14,209.[34] The population increased to around 16,680 in 2008[38] and 16,800 in 2012[1] The demographic make-up of the population is much in line with the rest of Scotland. The age group from 16 to 29 forms the largest portion of the population (37%).[34] The median age of males and females living in St Andrews was 29 and 34 years respectively, compared to 37 and 39 years for those in the whole of Scotland.[34]

The place of birth of the town's residents was 87.78% United Kingdom (including 61.80% from Scotland), 0.63% Republic of Ireland, 4.18% from other European Union countries, and 7.42% from elsewhere in the world.[34] The economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 23.94% in full-time employment, 8.52% in part-time employment, 4.73% self-employed, 1.94% unemployed, 31.14% students with jobs, 9.08% students without jobs, 13.24% retired, 2.91% looking after home or family, 2.84% permanently sick or disabled, and 1.67% economically inactive for other reasons.[36]

In 2016, St Andrews was reported to be home to the "Most Expensive Street in Scotland", with average house prices in The Scores in excess of 2 million pounds.[39]

Weather and climate

Sunset, St. Andrews by Sam Bough, 1856
Sunset, St. Andrews by Sam Bough, 1856
View from St Salvator's Tower
View from St Salvator's Tower

St Andrews has a temperate maritime climate, which is relatively mild despite its northerly latitude. Winters are not as cold as one might expect, considering that Moscow and Labrador in Newfoundland lie on the same latitude. Daytime temperatures can fall below freezing and average around 4 °C. However, the town is subject to strong winds. Night-time frosts are common; however, snowfall is more rare. The nearest official Met Office weather station for which data are available is at Leuchars, about 3.3 miles (5.3 km) northwest of St Andrews town centre.

The absolute maximum temperature is 30.8 °C (87.4 °F), recorded in August 1990.[40] In a typical year, the warmest day[41] should reach 26.1 °C (79.0 °F) and a total of 2 days[42] should record a temperature of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or above. The warmest calendar month (since 1960) was July 2006,[43] with a mean temperature of 16.8 °C (62.2 °F) (mean maximum of 21.6 °C (70.9 °F), mean minimum of 11.9 °C (53.4 °F))

The absolute minimum temperature (since 1960) stands at −14.5 °C (5.9 °F) recorded during February 1972,[44] although in an 'average' year, the coldest night should only fall to −8.3 °C (17.1 °F).[45] Typically, just short of 60 nights a year will experience an air frost. The coldest calendar month (since 1960) was December 2010,[46] with a mean temperature of −0.8 °C (30.6 °F) (mean maximum 1.9 °C (35.4 °F), mean minimum −3.5 °C (25.7 °F) )

Rainfall, at little more than 650 mm per year makes St Andrews one of the driest parts of Scotland, shielded from Atlantic weather systems by several mountain ranges. Over 1 mm of rain is recorded on just under 117 days of the year.

Sunshine, averaging in excess of 1,500 hours a year is amongst the highest for Scotland, and comparable to inland parts of Southern England. St Andrews is about the furthest north annual levels of above 1500 hours are encountered.

All averages refer to the 1971–2000 observation period.

Climate data for Leuchars, elevation 10 m, 1971–2000, extremes 1960-
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.2
(57.6)
15.2
(59.4)
21.4
(70.5)
23.1
(73.6)
24.1
(75.4)
29.1
(84.4)
29.1
(84.4)
30.8
(87.4)
26.6
(79.9)
23.2
(73.8)
17.1
(62.8)
14.9
(58.8)
30.84
(87.51)
Average high °C (°F) 6.3
(43.3)
6.9
(44.4)
9.0
(48.2)
11.0
(51.8)
13.6
(56.5)
16.8
(62.2)
19.0
(66.2)
18.9
(66.0)
16.2
(61.2)
12.8
(55.0)
9.0
(48.2)
7.0
(44.6)
12.2
(54.0)
Average low °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
0.6
(33.1)
1.8
(35.2)
3.2
(37.8)
5.6
(42.1)
8.4
(47.1)
10.5
(50.9)
10.3
(50.5)
8.4
(47.1)
5.7
(42.3)
2.4
(36.3)
1.1
(34.0)
4.9
(40.8)
Record low °C (°F) −13.7
(7.3)
−14.5
(5.9)
−11.7
(10.9)
−5.8
(21.6)
−3
(27)
0.0
(32.0)
2.4
(36.3)
2.2
(36.0)
−0.9
(30.4)
−3.8
(25.2)
−10.2
(13.6)
−13.1
(8.4)
−14.5
(5.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 68.6
(2.70)
45.8
(1.80)
49.5
(1.95)
43.9
(1.73)
49.5
(1.95)
51.1
(2.01)
46.8
(1.84)
47.2
(1.86)
61.7
(2.43)
66.4
(2.61)
57.3
(2.26)
66.2
(2.61)
653.9
(25.74)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.9 76.6 119.0 152.1 195.0 191.1 190.7 173.9 133.2 105.4 77.4 49.9 1,523.2
Source: Met Office[47]

Transport

The St Andrews Railway provided a connection to the main Edinburgh to Aberdeen Line at Leuchars railway station. This service was ended in 1969. The St Andrews Rail Link project aims at realising a new high-speed twin-cord mainline rail link via Cupar to the south and west and via Leuchars to the north.

Nowadays, the only public transport to reach trains at Leuchars or to connect other towns in Fife is the Stagecoach bus station located near the town centre. Route 99 (and its alternate routes 99A, 99B, 99C, 99D) connects St Andrews to Dundee via Leuchars with buses up to every ten minutes.

Landmarks

West Port
West Port

St Andrews was once bounded by several "ports" (the Lowland Scots word for a town gate). Two are still extant: So'gait port (South Street, now called West Port) and the Sea Yett (as The Pends terminates to the harbour). The West Port is one of few surviving town "Ports" in Scotland[48] and is a scheduled monument.[49] The towers were influenced by those seen at the base of the Netherbow Port in Edinburgh.[50] The central archway which displays semi-octagonal "rownds" and "battling" is supported by corbelling and neatly moulded passageways. Side arches and relief panels were added to the port, during the reconstruction between 1843–1845.[50]

The tower of Holy Trinity
The tower of Holy Trinity

The Category A listed[51] Holy Trinity (also known as the Holy Trinity Parish Church or "town kirk") is the most historic church in St Andrews.[52] The church was initially built on land, close to the south-east gable of the Cathedral, around 1144, and was dedicated in 1234 by Bishop David de Bernham. It then moved to a new site on the north side of South Street between 1410–1412 by bishop Warlock.[50][52] Much of the architecture feature of the church was lost in the re-building by Robert Balfour between 1798–1800.[53] The church was later restored to a (more elaborately decorated) approximation of its medieval appearance between 1907–1909 by MacGregor Chambers.[50][54]

View of the cathedral grounds from the top of St Rule's Tower.
View of the cathedral grounds from the top of St Rule's Tower.

To the east of the town centre, lie the ruins of St Andrews Cathedral.[55] This was at one time Scotland's largest building, originated in the priory of Canons Regular founded by Bishop Robert Kennedy. St Rule's Church, to the south-east of the medieval cathedral is said to date from around 1120 and 1150, being the predecessor of the cathedral.[56] The tall square tower, part of the church, was built to hold the relics of St Andrew and became known as the first cathedral in the town.[56][57] After the death of Bishop Robert Kennedy, a new cathedral was begun in 1160 by Bishop Arnold (his successor) on a site adjacent to St Rule's Church.[56][57] Work on the cathedral was finally completed and consecrated in 1318 by Bishop William de Lamberton with Robert the Bruce (1306–29) present at the ceremony.[56][57] The Cathedral and associated buildings, including St Rule's Church, are protected as a scheduled monument.[58]

The ruins of St Andrews Castle

The ruins of St Andrews Castle are situated on a cliff-top to the north of the town.[59][60] The castle was first erected around 1200 as the residence, prison and fortress of the bishops of the diocese. Several reconstructions occurred in subsequent centuries, most notably due to damage incurred in the Wars of Scottish Independence.

St Andrews bandstand
St Andrews bandstand

The castle was occupied, besieged and stormed during The Rough Wooing and was severely damaged in the process.

The majority of the castle seen today dates to between 1549 and 1571. The work was commissioned by John Hamilton (archbishop of St Andrews) in a renaissance style which made the building a comfortable, palatial residence while still remaining well-fortified.[59] After the Reformation, the castle passed to several owners, who could not maintain its structure and the building deteriorated into a ruin. The castle is now a scheduled monument administered by Historic Environment Scotland.[61]

The apse of the Dominican friary, Blackfriars, can still be seen on South Street (between Madras College and Bell Street).[62] Other defunct religious houses that existed in the medieval town, though less visible, have left traces, as for instance the leper hospital at St Nicholas farmhouse (The Steading) between Albany Park and the East Sands leisure centre.[63]

Education

Original building of Madras College on South Street
Original building of Madras College on South Street

Today, St Andrews is home to one secondary school, one private school and three primary schools.[64] Canongate Primary School, which opened in 1972 is located off the Canongate, beside the St Andrews Botanic Garden. The school roll was recorded in February 2008 as 215.[65] Lawhead Primary School, which opened in 1974 is on the western edge of the town. The school roll was recorded in September 2009 as 181.[66] Greyfriars Primary School

Madras College is the sole secondary school in the town. The school which opened to pupils in 1833 was based on a Madras system – founded and endowed by Dr Andrew Bell (1755–1832), a native of the town.[67][68] Prior to the opening, Bell was interested in the demand for a school which was able to teach both poor and privileged children on one site.[67] The high reputation of the school meant that many children came from throughout Britain to be taught there, often lodging with masters or residents in the town.[67] The school is now located on two campuses – Kilrymont and South Street (incorporating the original 1833 building). Pupils in S1-S3 are served by Kilrymont and S4-S6 by South Street.[69]

Plans to build a replacement for Madras College on a single site have been ongoing since 2006. Originally, the school was in negotiations with the University of St Andrews for a joint new build at Lang Lands on land owned by the University. The plans, which were scrapped in August 2011, would have seen the school share the University's playing fields.[70] In October 2011, a scoring exercise drawn up by the council to decide the best location for the new Madras College was put before parents, staff and the local community to ask for their views. A £40 million redevelopment of the Kilrymont building proved to be most popular and was officially given the go-ahead in November 2011.[71][72] This decision was met with controversy from parents, staff and the local community.[72] Work on the new school to date has yet to start, following a decision from a group of senior councillors to analyse the other potential sites than push ahead with the controversial redevelopment.[73] This means that the new school, which was expected to be open for August 2015, has now been delayed until at least 2017.[72][73]

The University of St Andrews Classics Building, Swallowgate
The University of St Andrews Classics Building, Swallowgate

The private school known as St Leonards School was initially established as the St Andrews School for girls company in 1877. The present name was taken in 1882 when a move to St Leonards House was made.[74] The school is now spread across thirty acres between Pends Road and Kinnesburn.[74] A private school for boys was also set up in 1933 as New Park. The operations of the school merged with the middle and junior sections of St Leonards to become St Leonards-New Park in 2005.[74]

The University of St Andrews which is the third oldest English-speaking university and the oldest university in Scotland was founded between 1410 and 1413.[75] A charter for the university was issued by Bishop Henry Wardlaw between 1411 and 1412 and this was followed by Avignon Pope Benedict XIII granting university status to award degrees to students in 1413.[50][75] The school initially started out as a society for learned men in the fields of canon law, the arts and divinity.[75] The chapel and college of St John the Evangelist became the first building to have ties with the university in 1415.[50] The two original colleges to be associated with the university were St Salvator in 1450 by Bishop James Kennedy and St Leonard in 1512 by archbishop Alexander Stewart and prior James Hepburn.[50]

Sport and recreation

Golf

St Andrews is known widely as the "home of golf".[76] According to the earliest surviving document from 1552, the "playing at golf" on the links adjacent to the "water of eden" was granted permission by Archbishop Hamilton.[76] The most famous golf course in the town is the Old Course, purchased by the town council in 1894.[77] The course which dates back to medieval times, is an Open Championship course – which was first staged in 1873.[23][78] Famous winners at St Andrews have included: Old Tom Morris (1861, 1862, 1867 and 1874), Bobby Jones (1927 and 1930 British Amateur), Jack Nicklaus (1970 and 1978) and Tiger Woods (2000 and 2005).[78][79] According to Jack Nicklaus, "if a golfer is going to be remembered, he must win at St Andrews".[78] There are seven golf courses in total – Old, New, Jubilee, Eden, Strathtyrum, Balgove and the Castle - surrounding the western approaches of the town.[77][78] The seventh golf course (the Castle) was added in 2007 at Kinkell Braes, designed by David McLay Kidd.[78]

Other leisure facilities in the town include a canoe club;[80] junior football team; rugby club (known as Madras Rugby Club); tennis club; university sports centre and a links golf driving range. The East Sands Leisure Centre, which opened in 1988, sits on the outskirts of the town as the town's swimming pool with gym facilities. The University of St Andrews have expressed plans to provide a new multimillion-pound leisure centre to replace East Sands.[81]

West Sands Beach

West Sands, looking towards St Andrews
West Sands, looking towards St Andrews

West Sands Beach in St Andrews, Scotland,[82][83][84][85] served as the set for the opening scene in the movie Chariots of Fire.[84][85][86][87] This scene was reenacted during the 2012 Olympics torch relay.[88][89] The beach was also featured in the 2012 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony[90][91]

The 2-mile-long (3 km) beach is adjacent to the famous St Andrews Links golf course.[92] Sand dunes on the beach, which have long protected the golf course, are themselves in danger of eroding away, and are the subject of a restoration project.[93]

Places of interest

Lade Braes Walk

Remains of Law Mill at the head of the Lade Braes Walk in St Andrews, Fife
Remains of Law Mill at the head of the Lade Braes Walk in St Andrews, Fife

The Lade Braes Walk is a scenic public footpath of about 1 12 miles (2.4 km) that follows the route of a medieval mill lade through St Andrews.[94] The walk starts in the town centre near Madras College and runs roughly westward, through Cockshaugh Park to Law Mill.[95] The lade's function was to transport water from a higher upstream point on the Kinness Burn to the water mill in the grounds of St Andrews Cathedral Priory where it arrived at an elevated level simply by following the contours of the land. It may have been built before 1144.[96] In the late 19th century, the lade was covered over and the area from Cockshaugh Park to Law Mill was landscaped and planted with trees.[97] The remains of Law Mill, its grain drying kiln and water wheel are a category C listed building.[98] A Brae is an old Scots word for the high ground adjoining a river bank.[99]

Museum of the University of St Andrews

The Museum of the University of St Andrews is a small museum dedicated to the history of the University of St Andrews. The museum, which is free to enter, looks at the University's foundation, student life at the University, and innovative ideas and inventions associated with staff, students, and alumni. The museum also shows a range of temporary exhibitions on different themes. Highlights of the displays include the University's three medieval maces, which are rare examples of ornate ceremonial University maces from the 15th century, and a large astrolabe dating from 1575.[100]

St Andrews Botanic Garden

The St Andrews Botanic Garden is an 18-acre botanical garden in the Canongate suburb to the south of the town. It contains more than 8000 species of native and exotic plants. These are laid out in zones of woodland, meadow, shrubbery, herbaceous bedding, a large rockery and a series of ponds. There are also vegetable and herb gardens, and several large greenhouses, one of which contains a butterfly house.[101]

St Andrews Museum

The St Andrews Museum is a municipal museum focusing on the history of the town of St Andrews in St Andrews established in 1991 it is located in Kinburn Park. It holds a collection of objects of historical value that are related to the town from the earliest times up to the twentieth century.[102] It is located in the historic Kinburn house named after the Battle of Kindurn during the Crimean war.

St Andrews Aquarium

The St Andrews Aquarium is located on the cliff foot of the Scores overlooking West Sands. As well as over 100 fish species on display there are also penguins and meerkats.[103]

International relations

As of St. Andrew's Day 2015, the town is formally twinned with the French medieval town of Loches, with which it had previously shared a cultural exchange for over two decades.[104]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Estimated population of settlements by broad age groups, mid-2012 (table 2a)". National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  2. ^ Variously Sancto Andrea, civitas Sancti Andrea, urbs Sancti Andreæ, urbs Sancti Andree, Sanctus Andrea, &c.
  3. ^ "Scotslanguage.com - Names in Scots - Places in Scotland".
  4. ^ "Ainmean-Àite na h-Alba (AÀA) – Gaelic Place-names of Scotland". www.gaelicplacenames.org.
  5. ^ "History | University of St Andrews". www.st-andrews.ac.uk. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  6. ^ "The top 10 universities in the UK 2020". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  7. ^ Osborn, Matt; Franklin, Will; Osborn, Matt; Franklin, Will (25 May 2015). "University league tables 2016". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  8. ^ Census of Scotland 2011, Table KS101SC – Usually Resident Population, publ. by National Records of Scotland. Web site http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/ retrieved March 2016. See “Standard Outputs”, Table KS101SC, Area type: Civil Parish 1930
  9. ^ Hall, Mark A; Driscoll, Stephen T; Geddess, Jane (11 November 2010). Pictish Progress: New Studies on Northern Britain in the Early Middle Ages. Brill. p. 93. ISBN 9789004188013. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  10. ^ Gifford,J., The Buildings of Scotland:Fife (Yale UP, 1988), p. 357.
  11. ^ James, Grierson (1838). Saint Andrews as it was and as it is (3 ed.). Cupar: Printed by G.S. Tullis. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  12. ^ Fleming, David Hay (1910). Handbook to St. Andrews. St. Andrews: J. & G. Innes. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  13. ^ Fleming, David Hay (1887). The Martyrs and Confessors of St. Andrews. Cupar: "Fife Herald" Office. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  14. ^ Thomson, J. H.; Hutchison, Matthew (1903). The martyr graves of Scotland. Edinburgh: Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier. pp. 210–211. Retrieved 30 July 2019. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  15. ^ a b Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City by The Northern Sea pp.1–2.
  16. ^ a b c Gifford Buildings of Scotland – Fife p.357.
  17. ^ Raymond Lamont-Brown, St Andrews: City by the Northern Sea (Edinburgh: Berlinn, 2006), 9.
  18. ^ Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City by The Northern Sea p.16.
  19. ^ Gifford, Buildings of Scotland:Fife p.357
  20. ^ Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend p.71.
  21. ^ a b Gifford The Buildings of Scotland: Fife p.359.
  22. ^ Omand,D. (ed.) The Fife Book, Birlinn Ltd, 2000, p.118
  23. ^ a b c d e f Cook Old St Andrews p.3.
  24. ^ Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend p.76.
  25. ^ Lamont-Brown St Andrews –City by The Northern Sea p.19.
  26. ^ Omand The Fife Book p.109.
  27. ^ a b "Reserved and devolved matters". Scotland Office. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
  28. ^ Lamont-Brown St Andrews – The City By The Northern Sea p.188.
  29. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown St Andrews – The City By The Northern Sea p.190.
  30. ^ "Fife North East". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  31. ^ "Willie Rennie MSP". Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  32. ^ "Holyrood 2016: Liberal Democrat leader Willie Rennie takes seat from SNP". BBC News. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  33. ^ a b "List of MEPs". European Parliament. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  34. ^ a b c d e "Comparative Populartion: St Andrews Locality Scotland". scrol.co.uk. 2001. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
  35. ^ "Comparative Population Profile: Fife Council Area Scotland". scrol.gov.uk. 2001. Archived from the original on 23 August 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
  36. ^ a b "Comparative Employment Profile: St Andrews Locality Scotland". scrol.gov.uk. 2001. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
  37. ^ "Comparative Employment Profile: Fife Locality Scotland". scrol.gov.uk. 2001. Archived from the original on 23 August 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
  38. ^ "Mid-2008 Population Estimates – Localities in order of size". General Register Office for Scotland. 2008. Archived from the original on 2 July 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2010.
  39. ^ "Scotland's most expensive street now at home of golf". BBC. 23 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  40. ^ "1990 maximum". Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  41. ^ "1971-00 average annual warmest day". Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  42. ^ ">25c days". Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  43. ^ "July 2006 temperature". Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  44. ^ "Feb 1972 minimum". Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  45. ^ "Annual average coldest night". Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  46. ^ "December 2010 temperature". Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  47. ^ "Climate Normals and extremes". Met Office. Archived from the original on 19 October 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  48. ^ Walker and Ritchie Fife, Perthshire and Angus p.79.
  49. ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "St Andrews,West Port (SM90263)". Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g Pride Kingdom of Fife pp.124–126.
  51. ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "Holy Trinity Church (Town Kirk), South Street  (Category A) (LB40633)". Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  52. ^ a b Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City by The Northern Sea p.171.
  53. ^ Fife Regional Council Medieval Abbeys and Historic Churches in Fife p.46.
  54. ^ Cook Old St Andrews p.14.
  55. ^ Fife Regional Council Medieval Abbeys and Historic Churches in Fife p.22.
  56. ^ a b c d Walker and Ritchie Fife, Perthshire and Angus pp.130–132.
  57. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend pp.70–72.
  58. ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "St Andrews Cathedral and Priory and adjacent ecclesiastical remains (SM13322)". Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  59. ^ a b Walker and Ritchie Fife, Perthshire and Angus pp.115–116.
  60. ^ Pride Kingdom of Fife p.121.
  61. ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "St Andrews Castle (SM90259)". Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  62. ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "St Andrews, South Street, Blackfriars' Chapel (34336)". Canmore. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  63. ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "St Andrews, St Nicholas Farm (34312)". Canmore. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  64. ^ "list of primary schools in Fife". Fife Council. Archived from the original on 20 February 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
  65. ^ "Cannongate Primary School". Fife Council. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  66. ^ "Lawhead Primary School". Fife Council. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  67. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown St Andrews – A City By The Northern Sea pp177–178
  68. ^ Cook Old St Andrews p.13.
  69. ^ "Madras College info, fifedirect". Fife Council. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
  70. ^ Johnston, Kristen (9 January 2012). "Council's Madras plan 'fails pupils'". The Courier. p. 1&7. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  71. ^ "New Madras College options to be considered by committee". Fife Council. 28 October 2011.
  72. ^ a b c "Madras College decision spark outrage in St Andrews". St Andrews Herald. 18 November 2011. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  73. ^ a b Alexander, Michael (8 June 2012). "Madras College families facing yet more uncertainty after Kilrymont plan put on ice". The Courier. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  74. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City By The Northern Sea pp183–185.
  75. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend p.83.
  76. ^ a b Pride Kingdom of Fife p.118.
  77. ^ a b Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City by The Northern Sea p.85.
  78. ^ a b c d e Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend pp.224–227.
  79. ^ Cook Old St Andrews p.39.
  80. ^ http://canoe.st-andrews.ac.uk[permanent dead link]
  81. ^ "What does the future hold for St Andrews leisure centre?". St Andrew Citizen. 10 January 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
  82. ^ "British Beaches". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  83. ^ "Trip Advisor". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  84. ^ a b "Keep Scotland Beautiful". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  85. ^ a b "Fife.gov". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  86. ^ "Youtube – Chariots of Fire opening scene". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  87. ^ "Chariots of Fire legacy keeps on running in St Andrews". BBC News site. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  88. ^ "Chariots of Fire beach scene re-enacted on Olympic Torch relay". The Mirror. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  89. ^ "Olympic Torch relay gets Chariots of Fire treatment on West Sands beach". Metro. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  90. ^ "High Speed Dirt – West Sands St Andrews". Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  91. ^ "You Tube – Rowan Atkinson Sequence – Opening Ceremony – London 2012 Olympic Games". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
  92. ^ West Sands Beach in St Andrews, Scotland, Keep Scotland Beautiful
  93. ^ "Beach Awards - Keep Scotland Beautiful". coastal.keepscotlandbeautiful.org.
  94. ^ "Lade Braes". Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  95. ^ "Lade Braes Walk – The Sinner's Guide to St Andrews". Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  96. ^ Smart, RN (1991). Notes on the Water Mills of St Andrews (1989) in 'Three Decades of Historical Notes' (ed. M Innes & J Whelan) p.179.
  97. ^ "History of the Lade Braes". Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  98. ^ "Buildings at Risk Register, Law Mill". Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  99. ^ "Dictionary of the Scots Language :: SND :: Brae n.1". www.dsl.ac.uk. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  100. ^ Ian Carradice, MUSA Guide Book (2008), pp.1-13
  101. ^ "St Andrews Botanic Garden | Home". St Andrews Botanic Garden. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  102. ^ "St Andrews Museum, St Andrews – Museums". Visit Scotland. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  103. ^ "St Andrews Aquarium". www.standrewsaquarium.co.uk. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  104. ^ "St Andrews twinning pact signed in saint's celebrations".

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 7 October 2019, at 15:06
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.