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Walter Kerr Theatre

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Walter Kerr Theatre
Ritz Theatre
Walter Kerr Theatre - Hadestown (48295952136).jpg
Walter Kerr Theatre in 2019
Address219 West 48th Street
Manhattan, New York, US
Coordinates40°45′38″N 73°59′08″W / 40.7606°N 73.9856°W / 40.7606; -73.9856
OwnerJujamcyn Theaters
TypeBroadway theatre
Capacity975
ProductionHadestown
Construction
OpenedMarch 21, 1921
Years active1921–1939, 1942–1943, 1971–1973, 1983–present
ArchitectHerbert J. Krapp
Website
www.jujamcyn.com

The Walter Kerr Theatre, previously the Ritz Theatre, is a Broadway theater at 219 West 48th Street in the Theater District of Midtown Manhattan in New York City. The theater was designed by Herbert J. Krapp and was constructed for the Shubert brothers in 1921. The venue, renamed in 1990 after theatrical critic Walter Kerr, has 975 seats across three levels and is operated by Jujamcyn Theaters. The facade is plainly designed and is made of patterned brick. The auditorium contains Adam-style detailing, two balconies, and murals.

The Shuberts developed the Ritz Theatre after World War I as part of a theatrical complex around 48th and 49th Streets. The Ritz Theatre opened on March 21, 1921, with the play Mary Stuart, and it was leased to William Harris Jr., who operated it for a decade. After many unsuccessful shows, the theater was leased to the Works Progress Administration's Federal Theatre Project from 1936 to 1939, then served as a CBS and NBC broadcasting studio. The Ritz briefly hosted legitimate shows in 1942 and 1943, and it again functioned as a studio for ABC until 1965. The Ritz was abandoned for several years until Eddie Bracken took over in 1970, renovating it and hosting several short-lived shows from 1971 to 1973. During the 1970s, the Ritz variously operated as a pornographic theater, vaudeville house, children's theater, and poster-storage warehouse. Jujamcyn took over in 1981 and reopened it two years later following an extensive restoration. The theater was renovated again in 1990 and renamed after Kerr.

Site

The Walter Kerr Theatre is on 219 West 48th Street, on the south sidewalk between Eighth Avenue and Broadway, in the Midtown Manhattan neighborhood of New York City.[1][2] The rectangular land lot covers 8,034 square feet (746.4 m2), with a frontage of 80 feet (24 m) on 49th Street and a depth of 100 ft (30 m). The Walter Kerr shares the block with the Eugene O'Neill Theatre to the north and Crowne Plaza Times Square Manhattan to the east. Other nearby buildings include One Worldwide Plaza and St. Malachy Roman Catholic Church to the northwest, the Ambassador Theatre and the Brill Building to the northeast, the Morgan Stanley Building to the southeast, the Longacre Theatre and Ethel Barrymore Theatre to the south, and the Samuel J. Friedman Theatre to the southwest.[2]

Design

The Walter Kerr Theatre (previously the Ritz Theatre) was designed by Herbert J. Krapp and was constructed in 1921 for the Shubert brothers.[1][3] It is part of a group of six theaters planned by the Shuberts after World War I, of which four were built.[4] Edward Margolies was the general contractor who built the theater.[5][6]

Facade

The facade is simple in design, especially when compared with Krapp's other works for the Shubert family.[7][8] The Ambassador and Ritz theaters, in particular, were designed in patterned brick, with the only ornamentation being in the arrangement of the brick. This sparse ornamentation may be attributed to the lack of money in the years after World War I.[7] Theatrical historian William Morrison described the design scheme as "utilitarian in the extreme", decorated only by fire escapes in front of the facade, as well as brickwork laid in a diamond pattern.[9] A marquee hangs above the entrance at ground level, and a large sign is mounted on the right side of the facade, facing east.[10]

Auditorium

The auditorium is accessed by a lobby decorated with fake-granite walls and a burgundy ceiling.[11] The Walter Kerr Theatre has an orchestra level and two balconies.[12] The interior layout was similar to Krapp's earlier Broadhurst and Plymouth (now Gerald Schoenfeld) theaters, but the Ritz had fewer seats than either the Broadhurst or the Plymouth, with only about 975 total at the time of opening.[5][6] The Broadway League cites the theater as having 945 seats,[13] while Playbill gives a figure of 918 seats.[14] Only the orchestra level is wheelchair-accessible; the other seating levels can only be reached by steps.[12] The main restrooms are placed on the first balcony level, but there are wheelchair-accessible restrooms on the orchestra level.[12][14]

Like Krapp's other Broadway houses, the auditorium's interior is decorated in the Adam style.[9] The interior color scheme was originally purple, vermillion, and gold.[5][6] The Shubert family's design studio oversaw the decorative scheme. A contemporary newspaper article said the interior used a gold leaf design that was "suggestive of the Italian Renaissance".[15] In 1983, the theater was redecorated in pink, mauve, and gray.[11][16]

The proscenium arch at the front of the auditorium was 24 ft (7.3 m) tall and 40 ft (12 m) wide.[15] Above the proscenium arch is a mural that was restored in a 1983 renovation.[9][11] This mural depicts Diana with two hounds; it is unknown who originally designed the mural. Two other murals had been planned for the Ritz when it opened, but they were not installed until the 1980s.[9] The theater also contains Art Deco chandeliers, lights, and sconces, which date from 1983.[11][16]

History

Times Square became the epicenter for large-scale theater productions between 1900 and the Great Depression.[17] During the 1900s and 1910s, many theaters in Midtown Manhattan were developed by the Shubert brothers, one of the major theatrical syndicates of the time.[18] The Shuberts originated from Syracuse, New York, and expanded downstate into New York City in the first decade of the 20th century.[19][20] The brothers controlled a quarter of all plays and three-quarters of theatrical ticket sales in the U.S. by 1925.[19][21] After World War I, the Shuberts contemplated the construction of six theaters along 48th and 49th Streets, just north of Times Square.[22][23] Of these, only four were built, and only three (the Ambassador, O'Neill, and Kerr) survive.[4][a]

Original Broadway run

1920s

The Shuberts announced plans for their six new theaters in September 1920.[25][26][27] The brothers believed that the sites on 48th and 49th Streets could be as profitable as theaters on 42nd Street, which historically was Times Square's legitimate theatrical hub. A site on 48th Street was selected in addition to three on 49th Street, and Krapp was hired to design the theaters.[28] That February, the Shuberts announced that the theater on 48th Street would be called the Ritz and that it would open the next month.[5][6] Only 66 days had elapsed from the start of construction to the theater's completion,[15][29] which the New-York Tribune called a "world's record".[15]

The theater opened on March 21, 1921, with John Drinkwater's Mary Stuart.[30][31] The next month, William Harris Jr. leased the Ritz Theatre for ten years,[32][33] and he immediately brought the Porter Emerson Browne play The Bad Man to the Ritz.[33][34] Later that year, the theater hosted its first hit:[35] the play Bluebeard's Eighth Wife, featuring Ina Claire.[36][37] The Ritz mostly hosted short runs of plays in its early years,[13][14] such as Madame Pierre in 1922 with Roland Young.[29][38] The next year, the theater hosted The Enchanted Cottage with Katharine Cornell,[29][39][40] as well as In Love with Love with Lynn Fontanne.[35][41] The play Outward Bound, with Margalo Gillmore, Leslie Howard, and Alfred Lunt, opened at the Ritz in January 1924.[35][42] That July, Hassard Short leased the theater for his Ritz Revue,[43][44] which opened in September[45] and was the theater's first musical production.[46] Also that year, Al Jolson's Coolidge-Dawes Theatrical League was established at the theater,[47] and the venue staged the John Galsworthy play Old English with George Arliss.[29][48]

The play The Kiss in the Taxi opened at the Ritz in 1925 with Claudette Colbert,[49][50] and Young Blood with Helen Hayes opened later that year.[51][52] This was followed in 1927 by Bye, Bye, Bonnie with Ruby Keeler,[53][54] The Legend of Leonora with Grace George,[55][56] and The Thief with Alice Brady and Lionel Atwill.[57][58] A. H. Woods leased the Ritz later that year to show his play The First of These Gentlemen.[59] The play Excess Baggage opened at the end of 1927, featuring Frank McHugh and Miriam Hopkins,[60][61] and lasted through mid-1928.[62] The next production was also a success: Courage with Janet Beecher, which opened in October 1928[63][64] and ran until the following June.[65] Subsequently, the theater hosted Broken Dishes, which opened in November 1929 and featured Donald Meek and Bette Davis.[66][67] The same month, the popular comedy Mendel, Inc. opened with Smith and Dale, running through the next year.[68][69] By the end of the 1920s, the Shuberts had taken over the Ritz Theatre's bookings from Harris after several flop runs.[46]

1930s

The Federal Theatre Project's  Living Newspaper production, Power (February–August 1937)
The Federal Theatre Project's Living Newspaper production, Power (February–August 1937)

Many of the Ritz Theatre's productions in the 1930s were short-lived.[13][14] Among these shows was a version of the English play Nine till Six with an all-female cast in late 1930.[70][71] The next year saw a two-week run of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play Alison's House,[72][73] as well as Elliott Lester's Two Seconds.[74][75] Additionally, Ruth Draper performed a series of character sketches at the Ritz in late 1932.[76][77] The Elizabeth McFadden melodrama Double Door occupied the Ritz during late 1933,[78][79] while Mildred Natwick and Frank Lawton starred the next year in The Wind and the Rain.[80][81] Other shows of the period included Petticoat Fever in 1935 with Leo G. Carroll and Dennis King,[82][83] as well as Co-Respondent Unknown in 1936 with Peggy Conklin and Ilka Chase.[84][85]

In December 1936, the Works Progress Administration (WPA)'s Federal Theatre Project hosted a week-long run of its dance program, The Eternal Prodigal, at the Ritz after eleven months of preparation.[86][87] The theater hosted Power, a show produced as part of the WPA's Living Newspaper series, the following February;[88][89] it lasted for five months.[90] In November 1937, the Surry Players presented their revival of Shakespeare's As You Like It at the Ritz.[91][92] Next, Gilbert Miller's production of the T. S. Eliot play Murder in the Cathedral opened at the Ritz in February 1938,[93][94] running for six weeks.[46][95] The WPA then premiered the musical Pinocchio at the Ritz in January 1939,[96][97] but the production closed that May after the Federal Theatre Project was dissolved.[46][98]

Playhouse

Broadcasting studio

View of the plain brick facade
View of the plain brick facade

Lee Shubert leased the Ritz to CBS in October 1939.[99][100] Consequently, the Ritz became known as CBS Theater No. 4, supplementing three other broadcast studios at 141 West 45th Street, 251 West 45th Street, and 1697 Broadway.[100][101] CBS quickly put Theater No. 4 into use for the taping of The Gay Nineties Revue and Walter O'Keefe's Tuesday Night Party.[101] The Ritz had served as a CBS theater for only a few months when NBC signed a 25-week lease for the theater in January 1940.[102][103] Among other things, the NBC studio was used for taping the TV program 21 Men and a Girl,[104] as well as a speech by 1940 U.S. presidential candidate Wendell Willkie.[105] NBC's lease on the Ritz expired at the beginning of 1942,[106] and the theater returned to legitimate use with the opening of the revue Harlem Cavalcade in May 1942.[107][108] Leonard Sillman's New Faces of 1943 opened that December.[82][109] This was followed in 1943 by a revival of the long-running play Tobacco Road.[110][111][112]

The Blue Network leased the Ritz Theatre in late 1943,[113] initially using the theater for public-relations broadcasts.[114] The Blue Network studio was used to broadcast Radio Hall of Fame, the first regular-network show to be recorded by television cameras,[115] as well as such events as a concert recital by Thomas Beecham.[116] The Hattie Hill estate sold the theater to the Simon brothers in March 1945; at the time, it was a broadcast studio for WJZ-TV (later WABC-TV).[117][118] That November, the Shubert brothers acquired the theater from Leonard H. Burns, Margaret F. Doyle, and Harriet P. Stieff.[119][120] ABC, which operated WJZ-TV, was leasing the theater for three-year periods as of 1946.[121] It was one of three studios ABC was using by the late 1940s.[122] ABC's broadcasts at the theater included a game show called Stop the Music (for which a second-floor dressing room was equipped with a telephone switchboard),[123] as well as a Thanksgiving variety show.[124]

ABC upgraded the lighting and expanded the Ritz's stage by about 600 sq ft (56 m2) in 1950;[125] this required the removal of all seating in the orchestra.[126] At the time, the Ritz was one of several former Broadway theaters that had been converted to broadcast studios within the last several years.[127] The ABC studio remained in use even as the Shuberts sold the theater to John Minary in July 1956.[128][129] In turn, Minary sold the theater to real-estate investor Joseph P. Blitz that December; at the time, the venue was reported as having 600 seats.[130][131] Blitz co-owned the theater with Herbert Fischbach, who in February 1957 bought out Blitz's stake.[132] The Royal Ballet obtained an option on the Ritz in 1962, intending to show four ballets by Alan Carter.[133] Leonard Tow and Roger Euster, owners of the Little Theatre (another Broadway house converted to a studio), acquired the Ritz in 1963.[134] The next year, Euster sold his stake to Leonard B. Moore.[135] Subsequently, the theater was dark from 1965 to 1969.[136]

Brief legitimate return, children's theater

Marquee
Marquee

In 1970, Eddie Bracken took over the theater.[136] Scott Fagan and Martin Duberman's rock musical Soon was booked for the Ritz, marking the first legitimate production at the theater in nearly three decades,[137] but Soon flopped with three performances in January 1971.[138][139] This was followed in April 1971 by August Strindberg's Dance of Death, with Rip Torn and Viveca Lindfors,[138][140] which closed after five performances.[141] Both of these plays used temporary seats that were installed above the concrete orchestra.[126] Subsequently, the theater hosted pornographic films and vaudeville, with a massage parlor backstage.[126][136]

The producer Arthur Whitelaw and his partners Seth Whitelaw, Ben Gerard, and Joseph Hardy, took a 15-year lease on the Ritz,[136] originally intending to house their Movie Musical Theatre there.[126] They restored the theater in 1972 for $225,000, installing new carpets, chairs, and lighting.[136] The restored theater had 896 seats, though the first two rows of seats could be removed.[126] The Ritz reopened on March 8, 1972, with the musical Children! Children!, featuring Gwen Verdon.[142][143] The show was so poorly received that it closed the same night.[144][145] The next show was the play Hurry, Harry in October 1972;[146][147] like its predecessors, the show was a flop, closing after two performances.[148] This was followed in February 1973 by the British hit No Sex Please, We're British with Maureen O'Sullivan,[149][150] but it failed on Broadway with 16 performances.[151]

After the Ritz had been vacant for several months, the Robert F. Kennedy Theater for Children took over in September 1973, opening the next month.[152][153] During this time, the children's theater was fighting lawsuits over whether it could be named after the late politician Robert F. Kennedy.[154][155] The RFK Children's Theater neglected to pay rent and, in 1976, it was evicted from the Ritz under an action brought by the Fidelity Mutual Life Insurance Company of Philadelphia.[156] Afterward, the Ritz was used to store posters.[11][154] The city government took over the theater, and the venue's roof began to leak.[154]

Jujamcyn operation

1980s

In 1981, developer Jason Carter and Jujamcyn Theaters submitted bids for the Ritz at a foreclosure auction.[157] Carter won the auction, but he sold the theater to Jujamcyn for $1.7 million,[158] keeping its air rights for the construction of a skyscraper called Ritz Plaza.[157] The Ritz had to continue presenting legitimate shows in exchange for the air rights, but Carter had intended to build apartments above the theater.[159] In August 1981, Jujamcyn announced that it had acquired the Ritz and ANTA (now August Wilson) theaters.[160] Jujamcyn announced it would reopen the Ritz to counterbalance the impending demolition of the Helen Hayes and Morosco theaters two blocks south.[158][161] Roger Morgan Studios and Karen Rosen of KMR Design[b] oversaw the theater's renovation, which cost $1.5 million.[11][158] New lighting fixtures and seats were installed, along with new stage lighting, plumbing, and air-conditioning. A new 85 ft-wide (26 m) stage was built, while the 43 ft-wide (13 m) proscenium opening was retained.[11] The second balcony level, used for air-conditioning equipment, was turned into a seating level.[158]

The renovation was actually completed in 1982, but Jujamcyn had not been able to book any shows for the 1982–1983 theatrical season.[162] The show Hell of a Town had actually been booked in 1982[163][164] but was later dropped.[165] Finally, on May 10, 1983, The Flying Karamazov Brothers reopened the theater with their eponymous juggling show.[166][167] The next January, Ian McKellen appeared in a solo show, Acting Shakespeare;[168][169] it ran for a month.[170] Afterward, the Ritz tried limiting the audiences for several shows to 499 seats, because a 500-seat house would require negotiations with Broadway theatrical unions.[171] Broadway theatrical unions had classified the Ritz as "endangered" because it was consistently underused.[172] Producer Morton Gottlieb first proposed the 499-seat plan for his play Dancing in the End Zone in 1984.[171][173] This was followed by Doubles in 1985,[16][174] which subsequently became a success and switched to using the theater's full capacity,[171] as well as the revue Jerome Kern Goes to Hollywood in 1986.[16][175]

The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (LPC) had started considering protecting the Ritz as a landmark in 1982,[176] with discussions continuing over the next several years.[177] While the LPC commenced a wide-ranging effort to grant landmark status to Broadway theaters in 1987,[178] the Ritz was among the few theaters for which the LPC denied either exterior or interior landmark status.[179][c] Among the theater's productions in 1987 were the play A Month of Sundays, the musical Nite Comic, and a Penn & Teller special.[16] In 1989, Rocco Landesman announced that the theater would be refurbished for $1.9 million and that it would be renamed for drama critic Walter Kerr.[181][182] The last production staged at the Ritz prior to its renaming was Chu Chem, which ran from April to May 1989.[183][184] By the end of the year, the facade had been cleaned at a cost of $400,000.[185]

1990s and 2000s

The theater reopened on March 5, 1990, with a musical tribute to Walter Kerr.[186] The first production at the newly renovated theater was August Wilson's The Piano Lesson, which opened the next month,[187][188] running through January 1991.[189] The Shuberts, the Nederlanders, and Jujamcyn formed the Broadway Alliance in June 1990, wherein each company set aside one of its theaters to present dramas and comedies at reduced ticket prices.[190] The program covered the Belasco, Nederlander, and Walter Kerr theaters.[191] The Paul Rudnick play I Hate Hamlet then opened in April 1991[192][193] and ran for 80 performances.[194][195] This was followed in 1992 by Abraham Tetenbaum's short-lived play Crazy He Calls Me[16][196] and Wilson's Two Trains Running.[197][198] Tony Kushner's Angels in America: Millennium Approaches, the first part of a two-part play, opened in May 1993.[199][200] The second part, Angels in America: Perestroika, opened in November 1993;[201][202] the two parts were performed in repertory until the end of 1994.[203] Terrence McNally's play Love! Valour! Compassion! transferred from off-Broadway in 1995,[204] and Patti LuPone performed a solo concert later that year for 46 performances.[205][206] Wilson's Seven Guitars premiered at the Walter Kerr in 1996,[207][208] followed by a revival of Noël Coward's play Present Laughter.[209][210]

The dance special Forever Tango launched at the Walter Kerr in 1997,[211] running for nine months.[212] The next two productions were hits by Irish playwrights.[213] Martin McDonagh's off-Broadway play The Beauty Queen of Leenane moved to the Walter Kerr in 1998,[214][215] followed the next year by Conor McPherson's The Weir.[216][217] Coward's Waiting in the Wings had its first Broadway production at the Walter Kerr in December 1999,[218][219] relocating three months later to the Eugene O'Neill Theatre.[213] The Eugene O'Neill play A Moon for the Misbegotten was then revived in March 2000, running for several months.[220][221] David Auburn's play Proof transferred from off-Broadway that October,[222][223] running for 917 performances through January 2003.[224][225] Next, the comedy Take Me Out opened in February 2003 and ran for a year,[226][227] This was followed in April 2004 by the short-lived drama Sixteen Wounded,[228][229] then in December 2004 by Wilson's Gem of the Ocean.[230][231]

After Jujamcyn president James Binger died in 2004,[232] Rocco Landesman bought the Walter Kerr and Jujamcyn's four other theaters in 2005, along with the air rights above them.[233] Jordan Roth joined Jujamcyn as a resident producer the same year.[234] John Patrick Shanley's play Doubt: A Parable also opened at the Walter Kerr in 2005, running for over a year.[235][236] Subsequently, the musical Grey Gardens opened in late 2006 for a 307-performance run,[237][238] and Chazz Palminteri's solo show A Bronx Tale launched at the theater in 2007.[239][240] The Walter Kerr showed several relatively short runs in 2008 and 2009, including A Catered Affair, The Seagull, and Irena's Vow.[228] In 2009, Roth acquired a 50 percent stake in Jujamcyn and assumed full operation of the firm when Landesman joined the National Endowments of the Arts.[241][242] At the end of that year, the Stephen Sondheim musical A Little Night Music was revived, running until January 2011.[243][244]

2010s to present

Stage of the Walter Kerr Theatre with the set of Hadestown
Stage of the Walter Kerr Theatre with the set of Hadestown

The first new productions of the 2010s were a revival of John Guare's The House of Blue Leaves in 2011,[245][246] followed the same year by the musical Lysistrata Jones.[247][248] The Walter Kerr then hosted the plays Clybourne Park, The Heiress, and The Testament of Mary over the next two years,[13][14] as well as a revival of the Forever Tango dance special in mid-2013.[249] The musical comedy A Gentleman's Guide to Love and Murder opened in November 2013,[250][251] and it stayed for almost 1,000 performances through the beginning of 2016, having nearly failed early on.[252] The next two shows were revivals:[13] Arthur Miller's drama The Crucible, which opened in March 2016,[253][254] and William Finn and James Lapine's musical Falsettos, which opened that October.[255][256]

The Walter Kerr then hosted an original production of the musical Amélie in April and May 2017.[257][258] That October, musician Bruce Springsteen commenced his concert special Springsteen on Broadway, which was originally supposed to stay at the theater for eight weeks. The show instantly became popular[259] and was extended three times,[d] the last performance being December 15, 2018.[262][263] The musical Hadestown was the next show to open at the Walter Kerr, premiering in April 2019.[264][265] The theater closed in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic,[266] reopening on September 2, 2021, with performances of Hadestown.[267]

Notable productions

Ritz Theatre

Walter Kerr Theatre

Since its reopening, the Walter Kerr has housed seven winners of the Tony Award for Best Play: Angels in America: Millennium Approaches, Angels in America: Perestroika, Love! Valour! Compassion!, Proof, Take Me Out, Doubt, and Clybourne Park. It also housed two winners of the Tony Award for Best Musical: A Gentleman's Guide to Love and Murder and Hadestown.[13]

References

Notes

  1. ^ The other was the 49th Street Theatre at 235 West 49th Street, which opened in 1921 and was demolished in 1940.[24]
  2. ^ Although Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 134, describes Rosen as having been part of a 1990 renovation, contemporary sources cite her as having renovated the theater in 1983.
  3. ^ Only the Ritz, Nederlander, and Broadway theaters were denied both interior and exterior landmark status. Several other theaters had either their exterior or interior landmark status rejected, but not both.[179] Hearings for several theaters on 42nd Street were deferred to 2016, when they were rejected.[180]
  4. ^ Springsteen on Broadway was originally supposed to end in November 2017. It was extended first to February 2018, then to June[260] and finally to December.[261]
  5. ^ Composed of two productions: Angels in America: Millennium Approaches[199] and Angels in America: Perestroika[201]

Citations

  1. ^ a b White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010). AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-19538-386-7.
  2. ^ a b "219 West 48 Street, 10019". New York City Department of City Planning. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  3. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1987, p. 13.
  4. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1987, p. 10.
  5. ^ a b c d Allen, Kelcey (February 21, 1921). "Amusements: Shuberts Name New Theatre The "Ritz."". Women's Wear Daily. Vol. 22, no. 42. p. 12. ProQuest 1666062687.
  6. ^ a b c d "Shuberts Announce Opening Of Ritz Theater in March". New-York Tribune. February 21, 1921. p. 4. ProQuest 576399078.
  7. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1987, pp. 15–16.
  8. ^ Stern, Robert A. M.; Gilmartin, Patrick; Mellins, Thomas (1987). New York 1930: Architecture and Urbanism Between the Two World Wars. New York: Rizzoli. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-8478-3096-1. OCLC 13860977.
  9. ^ a b c d Morrison 1999, p. 117.
  10. ^ Morrison 1999, p. 116.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Sommers, Michael (April 29, 1983). "Redone Ritz Is Fifth House For Jujamcyn". Back Stage. Vol. 24, no. 17. pp. 84, 88. ProQuest 962980340.
  12. ^ a b c "Walter Kerr Theatre". Jujamcyn Theaters. June 19, 2019. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 7, 2022.
  13. ^ a b c d e f The Broadway League (April 17, 2019). "Walter Kerr Theatre – New York, NY". IBDB. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  14. ^ a b c d e "Walter Kerr Theatre (1990) New York, NY". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  15. ^ a b c d "New Ritz Theater Is Added To the Shuberts' String Of New York Playhouses". New-York Tribune. March 20, 1921. p. B1. ProQuest 576350551.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 134.
  17. ^ Swift, Christopher (2018). "The City Performs: An Architectural History of NYC Theater". New York City College of Technology, City University of New York. Archived from the original on March 25, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
  18. ^ Landmarks Preservation Commission 1987, p. 4.
  19. ^ a b Landmarks Preservation Commission 1987, p. 8.
  20. ^ Stagg 1968, p. 208.
  21. ^ Stagg 1968, p. 217.
  22. ^ Bloom 2007, p. 8; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 125.
  23. ^ "Amusement Notes: Messrs. Shubert To Build New Theatres". Women's Wear. Vol. 21, no. 117. November 18, 1920. p. 14. ProQuest 1665840914.
  24. ^ "Cinema 49 in New York, NY". Cinema Treasures. Archived from the original on December 22, 2021. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  25. ^ "Six New Theatres Planned For This City By Shuberts: Over 250 Plays Booked for Circuit Throughout Country — Season's Program Most Expensive Ever Outlined". Women's Wear. Vol. 21, no. 65. September 16, 1920. p. 12. ProQuest 1666168273.
  26. ^ "The Legitimate: Shubert Plans". The Billboard. Vol. 32, no. 39. September 25, 1920. p. 20. ProQuest 1031617328.
  27. ^ "Shuberts to Stage Many New Plays In 1921-1922 Season: Dramatic and Musical Productions To Be Given in Enlarged Circuit of Theaters; 6 More Houses Here". New-York Tribune. September 16, 1920. p. 10. ProQuest 576247252.
  28. ^ Bloom 2007, p. 8.
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  31. ^ Broun, Heywood (March 22, 1921). ""Mary Stuart" Brings Fine Role To Great Actress: John Drinkwater's New Play at the Ritz Gives Clare Eames Chance to Shine in Part of Many Dimensions". New-York Tribune. p. 8. ProQuest 576342627.
  32. ^ "Wm. Harris Jr. Leases Ritz Theatre". The New York Times. April 20, 1921. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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  38. ^ Woollcott, Alexander (February 16, 1922). "The Play". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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  41. ^ "In Love With Love". The Christian Science Monitor. August 11, 1923. p. 6. ProQuest 510834677.
  42. ^ "Outward Bound". The Christian Science Monitor. January 17, 1924. p. 8. ProQuest 510897758.
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  44. ^ "Hassard Short Leases Ritz To House Perennial Revue". New York Herald Tribune. July 16, 1924. p. 8. ProQuest 1113011424.
  45. ^ "Short's 'Ritz Revue' of Gorgeous Beauty; A Triumph on the Visual Side, but Is Somewhat Lacking in Comedy". The New York Times. September 18, 1924. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  46. ^ a b c d Bloom 2007, p. 265.
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  48. ^ Young, Stark (December 28, 1924). "The Prompt Book; The Astaires and Mathematics and Music -- Notable Bill at Yiddish Art Theatre -- Old English". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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    "The Kiss in a Taxi (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1925)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 26, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  50. ^ "The Play; Far From the Boulevard". The New York Times. August 26, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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  52. ^ "From Shaw to Forbes; Spirited Revival of "Androcles" by the Theatre Guild -- Americanism of "Young Blood" -- The New Theatre". The New York Times. November 29, 1925. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  53. ^ Atkinson, J. Brooks (January 14, 1927). "The Play; Routine Musical Comedy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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  55. ^ Atkinson, J. Brooks (March 30, 1927). "The Play; Barrie in Revival". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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  57. ^ Atkinson, J. Brooks (April 23, 1927). "The Play; The Amiable Thief". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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  59. ^ "A. H. Woods Plans Four Productions; His First Probably Will Be "The First of These Gentlemen" at Ritz Theatre". The New York Times. April 9, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  60. ^ "Excess Baggage' Enjoyed; Comedy and Pathos Blended in New Play of Theatrical Life". The New York Times. December 27, 1927. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  61. ^ "Excess Baggage". The Christian Science Monitor. January 5, 1928. p. 10. ProQuest 512321841.
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    "Excess Baggage (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1927)". Playbill. Archived from the original on November 20, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  63. ^ "'Courage' Has New Angle to Old Theme; Janet Beecher Acts Creditably a Well-Written Part". The New York Times. October 9, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  64. ^ "'Courage,' Latest Play by Tom Barry, Has Family Theme: Offering at the Ritz Theater Gives Junior Durkin Good Opportunity for Comedy". New York Herald Tribune. October 9, 1928. p. 23. ProQuest 1113635696.
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    "Courage (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1928)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 26, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  66. ^ "Broken Dishes" Depicts Revolution; Donald Meek Scores in Martin Flavin's Amusing Domestic Comedy". The New York Times. November 6, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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    "Broken Dishes (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1929)". Playbill. Archived from the original on November 23, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  68. ^ "Mendel, Inc.," to Continue". The New York Times. May 18, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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  70. ^ ""Nine Till Six" Coming; English Play, With All-Feminine Cast, at the Ritz, Sept. 29". The New York Times. September 3, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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  72. ^ "Alison's House' to Close; Pulitzer Prize Play Ends Tomorrow After Two Weeks at Ritz". The New York Times. May 22, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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  76. ^ "Ruth Draper Extends Run; Will Appear at Ritz Theatre for Two More Weeks of Benefits". The New York Times. December 7, 1932. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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  78. ^ "Theatrical Notes". The New York Times. September 21, 1933. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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  80. ^ "Theatrical Notes". The New York Times. February 1, 1934. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
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  82. ^ a b Bloom 2007, p. 265; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 132.
  83. ^ "News of the Stage; Dennis King Will Provide the Evening's New Entertainment -- Other Theatre Business". The New York Times. March 4, 1935. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  84. ^ Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 132.
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  86. ^ Martin, John (December 3, 1936). "WPA Dance Group Offers ' Prodigal'; Gluck-Sandor as Choreographer Achieves Triumph With His Modern Situations". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
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  88. ^ "News of the Stage; Special Holiday Matinees Do Thriving Business'Power,' WPA Show, Opens Tonight at Ritz". The New York Times. February 23, 1937. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
  89. ^ "News of the Theater: 'Power' Will Open Tonight; Frank Mccormack Gels Role in 'Tide Rising'". New York Herald Tribune. February 23, 1937. p. 15. ProQuest 1243522721.
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  91. ^ Atkinson, Brooks (November 1, 1937). "The Play; Surry Players Make Their New York Debut in a Revival of 'As You Like It'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
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  93. ^ "Play by T. S. Eliot Back on Broadway; ' Murder in the Cathedral' Will Go On This Evening at the Ritz Theatre". The New York Times. February 16, 1938. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
  94. ^ "News of the Theater: Murder in the Cathedral". New York Herald Tribune. February 16, 1938. p. 13. ProQuest 1331180229.
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  96. ^ Atkinson, Brooks (January 3, 1939). "The Play; Uncle Sam Produces 'Pinocchio' Primarily for the Citizens of Future Generations". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
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  98. ^ "3 WPA Shows Close Amid Hot Protests; 'Pinocchio,' 'Life and Death of an American' and 'Sing for Your Supper' End". The New York Times. July 1, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
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  106. ^ "Impolite 'Mikado' Will Bow Tonight; 'Gangsters of Japan' New Line in Operetta Presented at the St. James Theatre". The New York Times. February 3, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
  107. ^ L.n (May 2, 1942). "The Play; In Which 'Harlem Cavalcade' Comes Down From 135th St. to Join the Broadway Ranks of Vaudeville". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
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  112. ^ "Stage Favorites Returning Tonight; 'Tobacco Road' Revival Set for the Ritz, 'Blossom Time' at the Ambassador". The New York Times. September 4, 1943. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
  113. ^ Gould, Jack (November 21, 1943). "Along Radio Row; Mr. Driscoll Reports -- WNYC Music Notes New Programs -- Other Items". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
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  117. ^ "Simon Brothers Purchase Ritz Theatre on 48th St". The New York Times. March 8, 1945. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
  118. ^ "West 48th St. Theater Taken By Simon Bros.: Ritz Playhouse Conveyed by Hattie Hill Heirs; Midtown Trading Active". New York Herald Tribune. March 8, 1945. p. 29. ProQuest 1269856876.
  119. ^ "Shuberts Buy Ritz Theatre". The New York Times. November 13, 1945. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  120. ^ "Federman Firm Buys Property In Sheridan Sq.: Village Apartment Really Conveyed; Ritz Theater West 48th St. Sold". New York Herald Tribune. November 9, 1945. p. 33. ProQuest 1291121099.
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  123. ^ "'Stop the Music'; Elaborate Ritual Used to Select Numbers". The New York Times. June 20, 1948. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
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    "A Little Night Music (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2009)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  244. ^ a b Brantley, Ben (December 13, 2009). "A Weekend in the Country With Eros and Thanatos". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 13, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  245. ^ a b The Broadway League (April 25, 2011). "The House of Blue Leaves – Broadway Play – 2011 Revival". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "The House of Blue Leaves (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2011)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  246. ^ a b Piepenburg, Erik (June 16, 2011). "'House of Blue Leaves' To Close Early". ArtsBeat. Archived from the original on February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  247. ^ a b The Broadway League (December 14, 2011). "Lysistrata Jones – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Lysistrata Jones (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2011)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  248. ^ a b Healy, Patrick (January 3, 2012). "'Lysistrata Jones' to Close". ArtsBeat. Archived from the original on February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  249. ^ Macaulay, Alastair (July 15, 2013). "Dressed to Kill, and Ready to Stomp All Over You". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  250. ^ Brantley, Ben (November 13, 2013). "Murder as Musical Punch Line". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  251. ^ a b The Broadway League (November 17, 2013). "A Gentleman's Guide to Love & Murder – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "A Gentleman's Guide to Love and Murder (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2013)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  252. ^ Paulson, Michael (September 8, 2015). "'A Gentleman's Guide to Love and Murder' to Close on Broadway in January". ArtsBeat. Archived from the original on February 2, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  253. ^ a b The Broadway League (March 31, 2016). "The Crucible – Broadway Play – 2016 Revival". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "The Crucible (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2016)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  254. ^ a b Brantley, Ben (April 1, 2016). "Review: In Arthur Miller's 'Crucible,' First They Came for the Witches". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  255. ^ a b The Broadway League (October 27, 2016). "Falsettos – Broadway Musical – 2016 Revival". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Falsettos (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2016)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  256. ^ a b Isherwood, Charles (October 28, 2016). "Review: 'Falsettos,' a Perfect Musical, an Imperfect Family". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 13, 2020. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  257. ^ a b The Broadway League (April 3, 2017). "Amélie, A New Musical – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  258. ^ a b Brantley, Ben (April 4, 2017). "Review: 'Amélie' Is Easy to Listen To, but Never Really Sings". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  259. ^ Paulson, Michael (October 10, 2017). "Big Grosses for Bruce Springsteen as Broadway Run Begins". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  260. ^ Libbey, Peter (November 27, 2017). "Bruce Springsteen's Tenure on Broadway Has Been Extended". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 4, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  261. ^ Paulson, Michael (March 21, 2018). "Bruce Springsteen Signs Up for More Time on Broadway". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 16, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  262. ^ a b The Broadway League (October 12, 2017). "Springsteen on Broadway – Broadway Special – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Springsteen On Broadway (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2017)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  263. ^ a b Green, Jesse (October 13, 2017). "Review: 'Springsteen on Broadway' Reveals the Artist, Real and Intense". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 13, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  264. ^ a b The Broadway League (April 17, 2019). "Hadestown – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Hadestown (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2019)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  265. ^ a b Green, Jesse (April 18, 2019). "Review: The Metamorphosis of 'Hadestown,' From Cool to Gorgeous". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 17, 2019. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  266. ^ Paulson, Michael (March 12, 2020). "Broadway, Symbol of New York Resilience, Shuts Down Amid Virus Threat". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 16, 2021. Retrieved October 22, 2021.
  267. ^ Paulson, Michael (September 3, 2021). "Musicals Return to Broadway With 'Waitress' and 'Hadestown'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 4, 2022. Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  268. ^ The Broadway League (August 30, 1920). "The Bad Man – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "The Bad Man (Broadway, Artef Theatre, 1920)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  269. ^ The Broadway League (November 29, 1922). "It Is the Law – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "It Is the Law (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1922)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  270. ^ The Broadway League (January 15, 1923). "The Humming Bird – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "The Humming Bird (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1923)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  271. ^ The Broadway League (February 19, 1923). "The Sporting Thing To Do – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "The Sporting Thing to Do (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1923)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  272. ^ The Broadway League (January 7, 1924). "Outward Bound – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Outward Bound (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1924)". Playbill. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  273. ^ The Broadway League (September 2, 1929). "Soldiers and Women – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Soldiers and Women (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1929)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  274. ^ The Broadway League (February 9, 1933). "Before Morning – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Before Morning (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1933)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  275. ^ The Broadway League (November 21, 1935). "Abide With Me – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Abide with Me (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1935)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  276. ^ The Broadway League (October 30, 1937). "As You Like It – Broadway Play – 1937 Revival". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "As You Like It (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1937)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  277. ^ The Broadway League (January 3, 1938). "Time and the Conways – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Time and the Conways (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1938)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  278. ^ The Broadway League (December 26, 1940). "My Sister Eileen – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on December 25, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "My Sister Eileen (Broadway, Samuel J. Friedman Theatre, 1940)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  279. ^ The Broadway League (April 28, 1971). "Dance of Death – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Dance of Death (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1971)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  280. ^ The Broadway League (May 10, 1983). "The Flying Karamazov Brothers – Broadway Special – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "The Flying Karamazov Brothers (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1983)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 26, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  281. ^ The Broadway League (December 1, 1987). "Penn & Teller – Broadway Special – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Penn & Teller (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1987)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  282. ^ a b c Bloom 2007, p. 226; Botto & Mitchell 2002, p. 135.
  283. ^ The Broadway League (February 14, 1995). "Love! Valour! Compassion! – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Love! Valour! Compassion! (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 1995)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  284. ^ The Broadway League (April 17, 2008). "A Catered Affair – Broadway Musical – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "A Catered Affair (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2008)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  285. ^ The Broadway League (October 2, 2008). "The Seagull – Broadway Play – 2008 Revival". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "The Seagull (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2008)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  286. ^ The Broadway League (March 29, 2009). "Irena's Vow – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Irena's Vow (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2009)". Playbill. Archived from the original on December 8, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  287. ^ The Broadway League (April 19, 2012). "Clybourne Park – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "Clybourne Park (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2012)". Playbill. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  288. ^ The Broadway League (November 1, 2012). "The Heiress – Broadway Play – 2012 Revival". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "The Heiress (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2012)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  289. ^ The Broadway League (April 22, 2013). "The Testament of Mary – Broadway Play – Original". IBDB. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
    "The Testament of Mary (Broadway, Walter Kerr Theatre, 2013)". Playbill. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.

Sources

External links

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