To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Wallack's Theatre

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

844 Broadway before ...
and after alteration

Four New York City theaters have borne the name Wallack's Theatre. Each has had other names before or after, or both. All are demolished.

The last was one of the ten theaters which in the early 20th century made one block of 42nd Street internationally famous for its concentration of playhouses.

The earlier three played an important part in the history of American theater, as the successive homes of the stock company managed by actors James W. Wallack and his son, Lester Wallack. During its 35-year lifetime, from 1852 to 1887, that company developed and held a reputation as the best theater company in the country.

James W. and Lester Wallack's Theatres

James W. Wallack and Lester Wallack, father and son, were 19th century actors and theater managers; that is, entrepreneurs whose business was a theatrical stock company, a troupe of actors and support personnel presenting a variety of plays in one theater. Actor-managers, such as the Wallacks, were members of their own company. Often, a manager leased a theater from its owner, and since the building was deemed an important part of the playgoer's experience, typically renovated it to his own taste. Sometimes a manager was able to have a theater built to his specifications, as did John Brougham.

485 Broadway

485 Broadway: Brougham's Lyceum 1850–52.[1]
In 1867: the Broadway Theatre.
485 Broadway
As of Name Reference
December 23, 1850 Brougham's Lyceum Ireland:584
September 8, 1852 Wallack's Lyceum Wallack:13–14
November 1, 1852 Wallack's Theatre nyt* 1852-11-01
May 22, 1861 The Broadway Music Hall Brown v1:508
March 1, 1862 The New York Athenæum Brown v1:509
March 17, 1862 Mary Provost's Theatre Brown v1:509
April 21, 1862 George L. Fox's Olympic Theatre Brown v1:510
June 26, 1862 Mary Provost's Theatre Brown v1:511
The New Idea Brown v1:511
September 15, 1862 The German Opera House Brown v1:511
September 7, 1863 The New York Theatre Brown v1:511
November 10, 1863 The Broadway Amphitheatre Brown v1:511
May 2, 1864 The Broadway Theatre Brown v1:512
April 28, 1869 [last performance] Brown v1:523

On December 23, 1850, Irish actor-manager John Brougham opened his Lyceum at 485 Broadway[2] near Broome Street. The next day, the New York Herald reported:

This new temple of Thespis was opened last evening, before a brilliant and crowded audience, with an éclat which prognosticates its future career to be triumphant. ... [It] is capable of containing about 1,800 or 2,000 persons. ... The whole presents a very pretty little theatre. ... Mr. Trimble, the well-known builder, has added another 'story' to his architectural fame. ... The opening entertainments commenced with a humorous and appropriate address, entitled 'Brougham and Co.,' in which the whole company were introduced. ... The performances concluded with the laughable interlude of Deeds of Dreadful Note, and a new piece, called The Light Guard, or Woman's Rights.[3][4]

Builder and architect John M. Trimble, a theater specialist, had rebuilt the Bowery Theatre in 1845 after its destruction by fire, and had designed the Broadway Theatre, between Pearl and Anthony (now Worth) Streets in 1847. Earlier in 1850, he had built the new "Lecture Room" (theater) of Barnum's American Museum, and Tripler Hall (a concert venue).

The performances at the new theater were principally burlesques and farces. Brougham was a successful actor, but this enterprise failed. After two seasons, James W. Wallack leased the house and, following custom, renamed it for himself.[5] Aged 57, he was a well-known and well-respected British American actor who had proved himself as a manager at the National Theater (Church and Leonard Streets) from 1837 until it burned down in 1839.[6][7] After extensive renovation, he opened his new theater on September 8, 1852, with The Way to Get Married and The Boarding School.[8] His sons, Lester, age 32, and Charles, were stage-manager and treasurer, respectively.[9] Theodore Moss, who was to become a lifelong associate of the Wallacks, was assistant treasurer and later became treasurer, his position for many years. Admissions were fifty and twenty-five cents.[10]

The elder Wallack had made his first appearance in America at age 24, on September 7, 1818, playing Macbeth at the Park Theatre to much acclaim.[11] Lester's first appearance in the United States had been made, also to much acclaim, at age 27 on opening night of the aforementioned Broadway Theatre, September 27, 1847, playing Sir Charles Coldstream in the after piece, Dion Boucicault's and Charles Mathews' farce Used Up. (His stage name was John Lester; he didn't work as Lester Wallack until October 1858.)[12]

In 1854, Putnam's Monthly commented:

There are two theatres in New York, and but two which are devoted exclusively to the performance of the regular drama; these are Burton's in Chambers Street, and Wallack's in Broadway. ... Wallack's Lyceum, in Broadway, is an exceedingly elegant little house, the style of the interior decoration is in excellent taste, and the effect of a full house is light, cheerful, exhilarating, and brilliant. ... Great attention is always paid to the production of pieces at this brilliant little house, and the costumes and scenery form an important part of the attraction. English comedy and domestic dramas form the chief attractions at Wallack's, and the house is generally full. The utmost order and decorum are maintained ... and everything offensive to the most delicate taste carefully excluded from the stage.[13]

For the two seasons 1856–58 Wallack leased the house to William Stuart, who managed it with Lester Wallack as stage manager, Dion Boucicault as general director, and Theodore Moss as treasurer. Stuart, an Irishman whose real name was Edmund O'Flaherty, had been a Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom. An alleged embezzler, he fled to New York in 1854, and wrote for the New York Tribune. He later managed the Winter Garden, and then the New Park Theatre, on Broadway between 21st and 22nd Streets, and was widely popular socially.[14]

The elder Wallack performed October 20 through November 22, 1856, and May 11 through June 6, 1857. Brown asserts that Wallack's engagement was unsuccessful, that he played to the poorest houses of the season, and that he insisted on appearing in parts for which at this time he was too old, though he had gained a reputation in them twenty years before. Wallack did not perform during the 1857–58 season, and he resumed management of the theater in fall 1858. He appeared for the first time that season on December 9, as Shylock in The Merchant of Venice; on January 17 created the part of Colonel Delmar in The Veteran, Lester's new play, which ran 102 nights; and ended his acting career on May 14, as Benedick in Much Ado About Nothing. He managed the house for two more seasons.[15][16]

Ireland's assessment (published in 1867):

The establishment heretofore known as Brougham's Lyceum, which during the [1851–52] season had ceased to attract any share of public attention, [in 1852] passed into the hands of James W. Wallack, who, with [his department heads], soon succeeded not only in rivaling, but in a measure superseding Burton's Theatre in public esteem. The hand of a master was visible in every production, and the taste, elegance, and propriety displayed about the whole establishment gave it a position of respectability never hitherto enjoyed in New York, except at the old Park Theatre.[17]

In 1861, Wallack moved his company. After he left number 485, the theater was continued under various managers and names and underwent various vicissitudes — German opera, melodrama, legitimate theatre, concerts, Lent's Circus — until 1864, when it came under the management of George Wood, who restored its pre-circus condition and opened it May 2 as the Broadway Theatre.[18] On April 1, 1867, Wood transferred the lease to Barney Williams, who managed the house for its last two years. The final performance was a benefit for Williams' business manager on Wednesday, April 28, 1869, comprising Ireland as It Was, the farces The Returned Volunteer and Game of Tag, two dance numbers, and performers with velocipedes. The Broadway Theatre was soon torn down and replaced by the extant (in 2013) building comprising a store and lofts.[19]

844 Broadway at 13th Street

etching of the 13th St. theatre, from the rear
844 Broadway, rear; view NW from 4th Ave. and 13th St.
844 Broadway at 13th Street
As of Name Reference
September 25, 1861 Wallack's Theatre Brown v2:245
September 15, 1881 The Germania Theatre Brown v2:303
March 26, 1883 The Star Theatre Brown v2:303
April 20, 1901 [last performance] nyt* April 21, 1901[20]

As the city grew northward, James Wallack sought to follow. So did William Gibson, a glass stainer and supplier of architectural ornament, who by 1860 had acquired land on the northeast corner of Broadway and 13th Street[21] for a new home for his business (and himself). Gibson was persuaded to include in his development a new home for Wallack's company as well.[22]

Sketches for the interior of the theater were begun by Trimble, the last he ever made: the work and his career were ended by blindness. The design was carried out by his student Thomas R. Jackson.[23]

For something more than twenty years [writes Brown] the most famous theatre in the United States was that of James W. Wallack, situated on the northeast corner of Broadway and Thirteenth Street. ... It was in this house the name of Wallack won its proudest laurels. [James] W. Wallack was its first manager, but he never played there, and to all intents and purposes J. Lester Wallack, with Theodore Moss in the business department, was from the first head and front of the theatre. ... The initial program was The New President, by Tom Taylor, September 25, 1861.[24]

The first season closed June 9, 1862, with a benefit to Theodore Moss.[25] The New York Times wrote:

The last night at Wallack's was an appropriate climax to nine months of brilliantly successful management. ... The entertainment offered on [Moss'] behalf on Monday was, in our opinion, the very best that had been advertised anywhere for a twelve-month. The Little Treasure and Rural Felicity were given, and between the pieces Mr. Wallack—the Veteran himself—delivered his annual speech.[26]

It was his last appearance on any stage; he died Christmas Day, 1864.[27][28]

In 1869, Junius Henri Browne wrote:

Wallack's is, and has been for years, the best theater in the United States, and is quite as good as any in Europe outside of Paris. It is devoted almost entirely to comedy, and has no 'stars,' as that term is usually employed, but the most capable and best-trained company that can be selected at home or abroad. Plays without any particular merit succeed, because they are so carefully put upon the stage, so fitly costumed and so conscientiously enacted. ... The old stage traditions and time-honored conventionalisms are given up there. Mouthing, ranting, and attitudinizing are not in vogue; and men and women appear and act as such, and represent art instead of artificiality. It is commonly said that New-York goes to Wallack's; and so it does more than to any other place of amusement. But lovers of good acting from every section usually avail themselves of a sojourn in the city to witness the artistic representations at that theater.[29]

Among the actors were, at various times, Charles Fisher, John Gilbert, James Williamson, J. W. Wallack Jr., E. L. Davenport, J. H. Stoddart, Charles Mathews, E. M. Holland, Steele Mackaye, Charles Coghlan, Harry Edwards, Madame Ponisi, Mary Gannon, Mrs. John Hoey, Rose Eytinge, Effie Germon, Jeffreys Lewis, Ada Dyas, Stella Boniface, and Madeline Henriques.[30]

According to Brown, some of the notable performances, not only on account of their artistic quality, but on account of the large receipts, were The Poor Gentleman, The Provoked Husband, She Stoops to Conquer, Still Waters Run Deep, The School for Scandal, Captain of the Watch, Central Park, The Belle's Stratagem, and The Rivals.

But the great run of those days was made by Rosedale, in which Lester Wallack was a singularly graceful, handsome, and attractive hero. The rôle fitted him admirably. The play ran in 1863 for 125 nights, something almost unprecedented. ... The most phenomenal run at the house occurred during the following decade, when Dion Boucicault produced The Shaughraun, which had 143 performances."[31]

By 1881, shrinking audiences prompted Wallack to seek, once again, a new location farther north, where most of the theaters were located by that time. In February, he leased the corner of 30th Street and Broadway and agreed to sell his lease on number 844 to Adolph Neuendorff, the conductor-composer whose German language Germania Theatre company had been playing in Tammany Hall since 1873.[32] On July 2, Wallack's company closed its last season at the old house with The World. On September 15 Neuendorff opened at 844, renamed Germania Theatre, with a festive program, but the move proved disastrous. By early 1883, he was bankrupt, and sold the theater back to Lester Wallack, who renamed it the Star Theatre and reöpened it on March 26 with an engagement by a company headed by Boucicault presenting several of his plays.[33]

That summer Wallack announced the house would be devoted to touring companies exclusively; it was extensively redecorated and the stage rebuilt with traps and built-in platforms. The new season opened August 27 with Lawrence Barrett's production of Francesca da Rimini, by George H. Boker. Henry Irving's Lyceum Theatre stock company of London (whose leading lady was Ellen Terry) opened its first American tour at the Star on October 29. The New York Times published an investigation of ticket speculation, a subject of public complaint, and its connection to theater managements, beginning December 13, with an article spotlighting the Star Theatre and Theodore Moss.[34] Edwin Booth appeared for a month in December and January.

Over the next several years, there appeared such stars as Joseph Jefferson, E. H. Sothern, Fanny Janauschek, John Edward McCullough, Johnston Forbes–Robertson, William E. Sheridan, Helena Modjeska, Maurice Barrymore, Anna Judic, Fanny Davenport, Henry Miller, Frederick Mitterwurzer (a German star, supported by a German-language company), Mr.and Mrs. William J. Florence, Stuart Robson, William H. Crane, Mary Anderson, Sarah Bernhardt, and Wilson Barrett, many of whom had multiple engagements, as did Boucicault, Lawrence Barrett, Irving, and Booth. The McCaull Comic Opera Company had a multi-week run in 1885–86 and another in 1886–87.[35]

On August 22, 1887, the house opened under the management of Henry E. Abbey, John B. Schoeffel,[36] and Maurice Grau[37] as Abbey, Schoeffel and Grau, who were primarily importers of European companies and stars to tour North America; they also managed the Metropolitan Opera House in its first season (1883–84) and again subsequently. Johnson and Slavin's minstrels, Hedwig Raabe (a German actress with a German-language company), magician Alexander Herrmann, and Brockmann's Monkey Theatre Company[38] appeared, plus Irving, Jefferson, Julia Marlowe, and the Florences.

During the summer of 1888, the interior was largely redesigned and reconstructed to improve sightlines and add seats. On August 27, 1888, the theater opened with Theodore Moss as proprietor and Charles Burnham as manager.[39] Johnson & Slavin's minstrels, Lydia Thompson, John W. Albaugh, Henry E. Dixey, Annie Pixley, Marie Wainwright, Fanny Davenport, John Wild,[40] Benoît–Constant Coquelin, Rose Coghlan, and Robson and Crane appeared, and attractions included Boston's Howard Athenaeum Specialty Company and The Crystal Slipper from the Chicago Opera House.[41]

During the summer of 1889, the stage was removed and a "section stage" was constructed. The roof was raised 25 feet, so that the heaviest scenery could be drawn up out of sight without folding it. Electric lights were introduced in the auditorium and on the stage, though the gas was retained for use in emergencies, or in producing stage effects in which it might be superior to the electric light. New ventilation equipment was installed. The entire orchestra floor was reconstructed; the circle which had been added to this part of the auditorium the previous summer was removed. The boxes were reärranged, and the original iron fronts of the balcony and gallery were replaced by papier-mâché and woodwork. The capacity was 1,573.[42]

For the next six seasons (1889–95) Theodore Moss managed the theater himself. His biggest star was comedian William H. Crane, whose hits included For Money, On Probation, The Pacific Mail, The Player, and, especially, The Senator.

During the summer of 1890, a new cooling system was installed, with an electric-powered Sturtevant blower forcing 20,000 cubic feet of air a minute over two tons of ice in a basement tank, and then through ducts to registers under the main-floor aisles. Wall fans circulated the air. A huge sponge, saturated with perfume, was placed at the mouth of the principal air duct.[43]

By 1895, the city's first-class theaters had reached the West 40's; in May, Moss announced that he was repositioning his 13th Street theater as a "popular-priced" house, but he immediately changed course, selling his interest, which comprised leases he held on the ground and building.[44]

The purchaser was Neil Burgess, a comedian who was best known for his perennial hit, The County Fair, with its famous racing scene which featured real horses on treadmills. Burgess spent six months rebuilding the stage, electrical lighting system, and dressing rooms. On November 2, 1895, he opened in a new vehicle: The Year One, by Charles Barnard, which—despite a similar racing scene—was an irredeemable failure.[45] Early the next year he went on tour, leasing the theater as of January 27 to Walter Sanford, who soon subleased it to Jacob Litt, producer of melodramas.

The next season opened Saturday night, August 29, 1896, with low admission prices, under the management of R. M. Gulick & Co. (Gulick, Henry M. Bennett, William T. Keogh, and Thomas Davis), who also operated theaters in Brooklyn, Pittsburg, Philadelphia, and Boston, and who would manage the Star for its remaining five seasons (1896–1901). There was a new bill every Monday, except for occasional multi-week runs.[46]

Burgess went bankrupt and Moss reäcquired the primary leases, which expired May 1, 1899, finally ending his association with the Star Theatre. In that year the ground owner, William Waldorf Astor, announced the projected redevelopment of the site, but the Gulick firm made a good enough offer that the plan was postponed and a provisional lease was granted to them, which in the event ran two years.[47]

On Saturday, April 20, 1901, with Thomas E. Shea starring in The Man-o'-War's Man, the Star Theatre closed forever. There was no ceremony.[48][49] A time-lapse film of the demolition, which began the same month, was made by the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company from the window of its office diagonally across Broadway; it was added to the National Film Registry in 2002.[50] The theater was replaced by an eight-story commercial structure, designed by Clinton & Russell, whose principal tenant was the clothier Rogers, Peet & Co.[51]

Today the entire block is occupied by a 1999 mixed-use building, with an entrance to a multiplex cinema on the Wallack's site.[52]

30th Street and Broadway

The School for Scandal on the cover of Harper's Weekly for January 7, 1882
The School for Scandal on the cover of Harper's Weekly for January 7, 1882
Wallack's Theatre, 30th Street, as planned. Apartments over the entrance were not built.[53]
Palmer's Theatre, 30th Street, in 1892. Previously and subsequently called Wallack's Theatre.[54]
Wallack's Theatre (right) at 30th Street in 1910. At left, New Grand Hotel.[55]

Ground was broken for Lester Wallack's new theater at 30th Street and Broadway[56] May 21, 1881,[57] and on December 4, The New York Times reported:

The building, which is erected on ground leased for 21 years, with the privilege of two renewals of 21 years each, has frontage of 105 feet on Broadway and 122 feet on Thirtieth-street. In due course, a nine-story flat-house will rise above the theatre [never built], and shops will environ it. ... The main entrance is on Broadway and is 30 feet wide, the visitor passing under a portico resting on six polished red granite columns. There are, besides, two gallery entrances on Broadway, an entrance on Thirtieth-street, and stage entrances on Thirtieth-street and on Broadway. ... The parquet and balcony contain 800 seats. ... The gallery contains 450 most comfortable chairs. There are also eight boxes. ... Under the Broadway curbstone and the main entrance is a café. ... A magnificent chandelier of copper and brass, with a spread of 14 feet and 200 burners, depends from the dome, and smaller gas-fixtures spring from the painted panels on the walls and other points. Electric lights will be used outside the theatre, and the question of using them within was ... dismissed from immediate consideration. ... The architect is Mr. George A. Freeman Jr.[58]

George Albree Freeman (1859–1934),[59] born and raised in New York City, graduated in architecture from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He practiced in Stamford, Connecticut, mostly in the late 19th century, before removing to Sarasota, Florida, where he continued to practice.[60] He was a designer of the Seacroft House, with Bruce Price, in Sea Bright, New Jersey (1882)[61] and the Federal Building, with Harold N. Hall and Louis A. Simon, in Sarasota (1932);[59] expanded Stanford White's 1905 Lambs Club building, 130 West 44th Street in New York City (1915);[62] and designed the Soldiers and Sailors' Monument in Stamford (1920).[60]

The new theater was dedicated January 4, 1882, "with a magnificent revival of The School for Scandal, which had an exceptionally fine cast" led by John Gilbert and Rose Coghlan. As in the past, the treasurer was Theodore Moss.[63]

Jenkins comments:

Here Wallack had an excellent stock company as before; but the house never became so famous or so popular as the old Thirteenth Street theatre—perhaps, because a new generation of theatre goers had grown up and the actor-manager was getting old.[64]

And losing his health. The Wallack stock company played six seasons at 30th Street and 35 altogether. The company ended its last home season on May 7, 1887, played a week in Brooklyn, and on May 16 went to Daly's Theatre, across the street, for a two-week run of The Romance of a Poor Young Man. On May 30 its engagement, and its existence, ended.[65] Wallack retired as a manager.

30th Street & Broadway
As of Name Reference
April 1, 1882 Wallack's Brown v3:310
October 8, 1888 Palmer's Brown v3:331
December 7, 1896 Wallack's Brown v3:355
May 1, 1915 [last performance] nyt* May 2, 1915[66]

The next season began October 11, 1887, with Lester Wallack as proprietor; Theodore Moss and the firm of Abbey, Schoeffel and Grau as lessees; Abbey as manager; and a stock company that included many of Wallack's former players.[67] It was unsuccessful and lasted only one season but went out in style, with eleven weeks of old Wallack hits directed by Wallack himself. Wallack's health did not permit him to act, or even attend the last performance on May 5, 1888: The School for Scandal, again starring Gilbert and Coghlan.[68] In July Abbey stepped down as manager and A. M. Palmer, well-respected as the manager of the stock companies at the Madison Square and (formerly) Union Square Theatres, took a ten-year lease, announcing that he would rename the house after himself.[69]

Lester Wallack died at his country home near Stamford, Connecticut, September 6, 1888, age 68.[70]

Palmer's Theatre[71] opened October 8, 1888, as a "combination house" (i. e., a theater for the presentation of combination companies), having been previously booked with the Abbey firm's attractions for most of the first season. Palmer's announced goal was to establish a stock company there, either by using players from his company at the smaller Madison Square Theatre, or by transferring the entire troupe. But although his actors performed occasional engagements at Palmer's, it remained a combination house.

Among the performers appearing at Palmer's Theatre were Benoît–Constant Coquelin and Jane Hading, Richard Mansfield, Rose Coghlan, Mary Anderson, Mrs. James Brown–Potter, Charles Wyndham, Tommaso Salvini, E. S. Willard, Marie Wainwright, John Drew (Jr.), Maude Adams, Annie Russell, Lillie Langtry, Julia Marlowe, and Georgia Cayvan.

The McCaull company played 30 weeks in 1889 and 17 in 1891. Comic operas were also given by the companies of Henry E. Dixey, Digby Bell, and Della Fox, among others. The biggest hit at Palmer's Theatre was the burlesque 1492 Up to Date, which played 29 weeks (not counting a summer hiatus, during which the show played the Garden Theatre) in 1893 and 1894.

By November 1896, Palmer was $31,000 in arrears to Moss, who threatened to sue. Instead, Palmer relinquished his lease two years early, on November 16. Moss restored the theater's original name on December 7.[72]

For the next five years (1896–1901) Moss, with his son, Royal E. Moss, managed the theater as a combination house. Maurice Barrymore, Lionel Barrymore, Julia Arthur, Frank Daniels, William H. Crane, and Otis Skinner appeared, among many other stars. On May 16, 1898, the Royal Italian Grand Opera Company gave the New York premiere of Puccini's opera La bohème. In March 1900, police closed the theater and arrested Olga Nethersole, the star of Sapho; her manager, Marcus Mayer; the leading man, Hamilton Revelle; and Theodore Moss; for violating public decency by performing the play. They were tried and acquitted, and the show's run continued in April.[73]

Moss died July 13, 1901, at his country home in Sea Bright, New Jersey, just a few weeks after the Star Theatre's demolition. Moss' eldest daughter had married Lester Wallack's eldest son; another daughter was married to architect C. P. H. Gilbert. Unlike Lester Wallack, Moss died a wealthy man. His will left the entire estate to his wife Octavia, and requested that the name of Wallack's Theatre be retained.[74]

Octavia Moss became the manager of Wallack's Theatre, with active control in the hands of her son, Royal, and Charles Burnham continuing as business manager.[75]

In May 1902, Mrs. Moss renewed the ground lease.[76] Over the following years, the theater's hits included The Sultan of Sulu (1902–03),[77] a musical satire by George Ade with music by Alfred George Whathall; The County Chairman (1903–04)[78] by George Ade, starring Maclyn Arbuckle; The Squaw Man (1905–06)[79] by Edwin Milton Royle, starring William Faversham and George Fawcett; The Rich Mr. Hoggenheimer (1906–07),[80] a musical farce with book and lyrics by Harry B. Smith and music by Ludwig Engländer, and starring Sam Bernard; A Knight for a Day (1907–08),[81] a musical comedy with book and lyrics by Robert B. Smith and music by Raymond Hubbell; Alias Jimmy Valentine (1910)[55] by Paul Armstrong, starring H. B. Warner and Laurette Taylor; Pomander Walk (1910–11)[82] by Louis N. Parker, starring George Giddens and Lennox Pawle; Disraeli (1911–12)[83] by Louis N. Parker, starring George Arliss; and Grumpy (1913–14),[84] a thriller by Horace Hodges and T. Wigney Percyval, starring Cyril Maude and Margery Maude.

Mrs. Moss died January 15, 1910.[85] Royal Moss, administrator of her estate, leased Wallack's Theatre to Charles Burnham.[86]

In January 1915, the Treblig Realty Company, comprising Mrs. Moss' heirs, sold the theater.[87] On January 27, English actor-manager Granville Barker and his troupe began a repertory season at Wallack's.[88] In March, plans were announced for a 12-story factory building to replace 29–33 West 30th Street – i. e., the stage and dressing rooms – curtailing Barker's run.[89]

The last performance at Wallack's 30th Street theater occurred on Saturday night, May 1, 1915, when Barker's company presented Androcles and the Lion and The Man Who Married a Dumb Wife. Following the plays, an epilogue written for the occasion by Oliver Herford was read by Rose Coghlan, the leading lady on opening night in 1882.[90]

The new building opened in 1916. The rest of the theatre was turned into retail stores, until it was replaced in 1931 by an eight-story factory building, 1220 Broadway. Both are office buildings today.[91]

254 West 42nd Street

photo of exterior of The Hackett Theater in 1909, with signs announcing that actress Grace George is starring; inset shows photo of James K. Hackett's face
254 West 42nd Street: The Hackett Theater in 1909, during the run of A Woman's Way.[92]
254 West 42nd St.[93]
As of Name
December 5, 1904 Lew Fields
August 27, 1906 Hackett
August 31, 1911 Harris
September 7, 1920 Frazee
November 12, 1924 Wallack's
1940 Anco Cinema
1997 [demolished]
Wedding Bells at the Harris Theatre (1919)
Wedding Bells at the Harris Theatre (1919)

In 1903, producer Fred R. Hamlin and producer/director Julian Mitchell had a big Broadway hit with The Wizard of Oz, a musical staging of the L. Frank Baum story, and they had another with Babes in Toyland, a Victor Herbert[94] operetta, later in the year. In 1904, Oscar Hammerstein I[95] announced plans to build his eighth Manhattan theater (after the Harlem and Manhattan opera houses, the Olympia and Victoria music halls, and the Columbus, Olympia and Republic theaters), on vacant land he had recently bought at 254–58 West 42nd Street,[96] calling it the National. It would be designed by Albert E. Westover[97] (Albert Edward Westover [Sr.], 1860–1933),[98] a Philadelphia architect who designed several theaters in that city for vaudeville operator B. F. Keith and is credited with Hammerstein's Republic.[99] The same year, comedians Joe Weber[100] and Lew Fields[101] ended their decades-long partnership, giving their final show May 28, at the New Amsterdam Theatre.[102] On May 31, the new partnership of Hamlin, Mitchell & Fields contracted to lease Hammerstein's (not-yet-built) new house. They announced they would name it for Fields and produce musicals and burlesques.[103]

Their first offering was a new Victor Herbert operetta, It Happened in Nordland, with libretto and lyrics by Glen MacDonough,[104] starring Fields and Marie Cahill,[105] together with a burlesque of The Music Master, a current hit play. The Lew Fields Theatre opened on December 5, 1904, eight days after Hamlin's unexpected death.[106] The show was a hit;[107] the production ran through April 29, 1905, went on a road tour,[108] resumed on August 31 with Blanche Ring instead of Marie Cahill, and closed on November 18, for another tour.[109]

On May 23, 1906, Fields formed a corporation with Lee Shubert of the Shubert Brothers, taking joint possession of the Herald Square Theatre.[110] Fields and Mitchell moved there in August, and the former Lew Fields Theatre was leased by the well-known actor-manager James K. Hackett, who renamed it for himself.[111] The Hackett Theater opened August 27 with a farce imported from London, The Little Stranger, starring Edward Garratt.[112] Its first big success was the seven-month run of The Chorus Lady, starring Rose Stahl, from October 15, 1906, through June 1, 1907. (The play had opened at the Savoy Theatre on September 1.)[113] In the first week of February 1907, Hammerstein sold the theater to Henry B. Harris,[114] the theatrical producer who bought the Hudson Theatre the next year and built the Folies-Bergere in 1911.[115] Hackett retained his lease and the playhouse its name.

Another big success at the Hackett was the Shubert production The Witching Hour, a dramatic play by Augustus Thomas, which played from November 20, 1907, to June 27, 1908, and from August 17, 1908, to September 19, 1908 (when it moved to the West End Theatre on 125th Street).[116] From September 21 through October 10, 1908, Hackett reprised his starring role in The Prisoner of Zenda, which he had first played on February 10, 1896.[117] (In 1913, he starred in the novel's first film adaption, which was produced by Adolph Zukor and was the first production of the Famous Players Film Company.)

In 1911, Hackett's lease expired and Henry B. Harris took over, making major interior and exterior alterations. (The adjacent 1909 picture shows, in addition to the canopy, that the lobby projects beyond the building line. The city ordered such encroachments removed in 1910 for the narrowing of the sidewalks on 42nd Street and Times Square.)[118] He named the playhouse The Harris Theatre in honor of his father, William Harris Sr., also a theater owner and producer, and an associate of the Theatrical Syndicate,[119] and opened on August 31 with a new play, Maggie Pepper, again starring Rose Stahl.[120]

Henry B. Harris died in the sinking of the RMS Titanic in April 1912.[121] His estate operated the theater for the next two and a half years, and September 21, 1914, leased it to Selwyn and Company; i.e., Crosby Gaige and the Selwyn brothers.[122] (Four years later the three opened their own theater across the street, now called the American Airlines Theatre.) They mounted several productions at the Harris, the first on October 23: The Salamander, by Owen Johnson (adapted from his book), starring Carroll McComas.[123] When the Selwyn & Co. lease expired on July 1, 1920, Harris's widow sold the theater to H. H. Frazee, a producer and theater owner and owner of the Red Sox baseball team,[124] who again made renovations and opened the Frazee Theatre with a new play September 7: The Woman of Bronze, starring Margaret Anglin, which ran for 252 performances.[125] Dulcy, a comedy by George S. Kaufman and Marc Connelly, opened on August 13, 1921, made Lynn Fontanne a star, and ran through March 11, 1922.[126]

In late 1924, John Cort leased the theater, naming it Wallack's Theatre (his Cort Theatre on 48th Street preëmpted his own name); in two years he had no hits. Frazee sold it in October 1926, and it was leased out again, housing nothing but flops. The last was called Find the Fox, and its third performance, on Saturday evening, June 21, 1930, brought the legitimate career of this theater to an end.[127]

Later that year the theater was leased to Max A. Cohen's company, Excello Estates, which showed movies in it. According to Henderson, "Cohen bought the land underneath Wallack's in 1940 ... tore out the second balcony, put stadium seating in the orchestra" and replaced the facade "with a windowless sheet of bland stucco." He named it Anco Cinema, after his wife, Anne. In 1988, the Anco was gutted and turned into retail space.[128] In 1997, the building was demolished, as part of the 42nd Street Development Project. Its site is now occupied by the facade and other remaining parts of the Empire Theatre (originally called the Eltinge, opened in 1912), which was moved in 1998 170 feet to the west,[129] and whose remnants serve as the entryway of a multi-screen cinema.[130]



*In the following list of references, "nyt" stands for The New York Times.

  1. ^ Number 481, with the sign "A. Roux," appears to be extant. See Google Street View.
  2. ^ Perris (1853), Plate 30.
  3. ^ Jenkins:208
  4. ^ "Brougham's Theatre–The Opening Night" The New York Herald 1850-12-24, p. 1 col. 6
  5. ^ Wallack:145–47
  6. ^ Brown v1:243–54 and Florence:455 last sentence – 456
  7. ^ "Theatrical and Musical: Opening of the Lyceum Theatre—J. W. Wallack, Esq." The New York Herald (morning ed.). September 2, 1852. p. 7, column 4.
  8. ^ "Opening of Wallack's Lyceum". The New York Herald (morning ed.). September 9, 1852. p. 4, column 5.
  9. ^ Charles Wallack died in 1855 ("Death of Mr. Charles Wallack" nyt August 9, 1855 and "Died" nyt 1855-08-10 [first item]). Lester had two additional siblings, James and Henry, neither in theater (Florence:457).
  10. ^ Wallack:18, Jenkins:208, and Brown v1:477
  11. ^ Winter:300
  12. ^ Wallack:11-12, Winter:318, Brown v1:498, and "Amusements" nyt October 6, 1858 (scroll down to "Wallack's Theatre", which gives a review of the opening night naming "Mr. Lester Wallack").
  13. ^ Putnam's Monthly, Vol. 3, No. 14 (February 1854). G. P. Putnam & Co., New York:151.
  14. ^ Brown v1:489, 463; McCarthy:145–47; "Death of William Stuart" nyt December 29, 1886
  15. ^ Brown v1:492–93 and 497–99
  16. ^ Ireland:657–59
  17. ^ Ireland:610–11
  18. ^ The 1847 Broadway Theatre had closed permanently on April 2, 1859 (Ireland:682).
  19. ^ Jenkins:208. (See also Brown v1:511–12.) The present building at 483–485 Broadway was constructed between September 1, 1869 and March 31, 1870, according to: New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, SoHo - Cast-Iron Historic District Designation Report (1973), p. 37.
  20. ^ "The Star Now a Memory" (PDF). The New York Times. April 21, 1901. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  21. ^ See
    • Star Theatre at Internet Broadway Database, which shows address as 844 Broadway
    • Perris (1859), Plate 57, which shows address as 842–846.
  22. ^ "The New Theatre" nyt October 8, 1860
  23. ^ Phelps:329 and nyt October 8, 1860 op. cit.: "For the lot, 150 by 75, which [Wallack] has taken on a lease of ten years, he pays Mr. Gibson an annual rent of $10,000 a year, and all taxes, the rent to commence from to-day. In addition, he is to pay $2,500 for the entrance on Broadway, for the first five years, and $3,500 for the remaining five. Mr. Wallack lodges with Mr. Gibson $5,000 as security for the erection of the building, which sum, on its completion, is to be allowed in the first payment of rent. The theatre is estimated to cost, in erection and fittings, etc., $30,000, and at the close of the ten years passes into Mr. Gibson's hands. Mr. Trimble is preparing the plan."
  24. ^ Brown v2:244–45
  25. ^ Brown v2:248
  26. ^ "Local Intelligence.; Amusements" nyt June 17, 1862
  27. ^ Jenkins:208–10
  28. ^ Brown v3:330
  29. ^ Browne, J. H.:179
  30. ^ Brown v2:245
  31. ^ Brown v2:302
  32. ^ Brown v3:81 and "The German Drama" nyt September 14, 1873 (scroll down). He was followed at that theater by Tony Pastor.
  33. ^ "A New Owner for Wallack's" nyt March 1, 1881; "New-York" nyt 1881-05-04, paragraph 13; "Amusements: Wallack's Theatre" nyt 1881-07-02; "Theatres Getting Ready" nyt 1881-08-07, col. 4, "Wallack's New Theatre"; "Amusements: A New German Theatre" nyt 1881-09-16; "Mr. Boucicault" nyt 1883-03-27; "Events in the Metropolis: Manager Neundorff's Ill Luck" nyt 1883-06-28; "The Star Theatre" nyt 1883-08-19; and Elson:119
  34. ^ "The Star Theatre" nyt August 21, 1883; "Francesca da Rimini" nyt 1883-08-28; and "The Man in the Lobby" nyt December 13, 1883
  35. ^ Brown v2:303–20
  36. ^ Obituary: "John B. Schoeffel Dies in Boston at 72" nyt September 1, 1918
  37. ^ Untitled obituary: nyt March 15, 1907
  38. ^ "Seasick, But Funny" nyt April 24, 1888
  39. ^ "Theatrical Gossip" nyt July 18, 1888
  40. ^ "Running Wild" nyt January 22, 1889
  41. ^ "The Crystal Slipper" nyt November 27, 1888; and Franceschina
  42. ^ Plans: "The Star's Next Season" nyt January 8, 1889; accomplished: "Changes at the Star" nyt 1889-09-08; capacity: "Theatrical Gossip" nyt 1890-03-20, col. 2 (scroll down)
  43. ^ "Just Where to Get Cool" nyt August 2, 1890
  44. ^ Brown v2:327-38; "Theatres Follow Population" nyt April 18, 1895; "New Policy of the Star Theatre" nyt 1895-05-15; and "Neil Burgess Secures the Star" nyt May 23, 1895
  45. ^ "Neil Burgess's Star Theatre" nyt October 10, 1895; "Mr. Burgess in a New Play" nyt 1895-11-03; and "Amusements. The Star Theatre Opened by Neil Burgess in The Year One" The Sun (New York) 1895-11-03, p. 4 col. 6 (scroll down)
  46. ^ Brown v2:338–42
  47. ^ "The Star Theatre to Remain" and "Neil Burgess a Bankrupt" nyt March 10, 1899 (scroll down); "Neil Burgess Out of Bankruptcy" nyt 1899-04-27 (scroll down); and "The Star Theatre Leased" nyt 1899-08-09 (scroll down)
  48. ^ Brown v2:343
  49. ^ "The Star Now a Memory" nyt April 21, 1901. "Famous Star Theatre is to be Torn Down" nyt 1901-04-07 has an interview with a veteran of both the 485 and 844 companies.
  50. ^ See
  51. ^ "New Building on Star Theatre's Site" nyt November 30, 1899 (scroll down)
  52. ^ Emporis Website, "One Union Square South". Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  53. ^ King:551
  54. ^ King:550
  55. ^ a b See
  56. ^ For 1885 map, see Robinson, Plate 13.
  57. ^ Wallack:24
  58. ^ "Wallack's New Theatre" nyt December 4, 1881. Details at "Wallack's Uptown House" nyt 1881-02-08. The White property was supplemented by two row-houses and later a third (29-33 West 30th Street), which were demolished to make room for the stage, except that half of each, facing the street, was carefully preserved for dressing rooms.
  59. ^ a b "Federal Building", Sarasota History Alive! website. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  60. ^ a b "Connecticut's Civil War Monuments" > Soldiers and Sailors' Monument, Connecticut Historical Society website. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  61. ^ The American Architect and Building News Vol. 13, No. 367 (January 6, 1883). "The Illustrations", p. 6, with drawings on the following pages.
  62. ^ White, "The Lambs Club," location 8467. The building is now (2012) The Chatwal New York Hotel, with a restaurant called The Lambs Club.
  63. ^ Brown v3:310–11. Oscar Wilde lectured at the theater on May 11 ("Mr. Wilde on Decorative Art" nyt May 12, 1882). For an overview of this theater's history, see Burnham, especially from p. 74, last paragraph.
  64. ^ Jenkins:252
  65. ^ Brown v3:324–25 and "The Close of Mr. Wallack's Season". New-York Daily Tribune. May 29, 1887. p. 5, column 1.
  66. ^ "Wallack's" nyt May 2, 1915
  67. ^ Brown v3:324–25; "The Changes at Wallack's" nyt May 11, 1887; and "John Lester Wallack's Will". New-York Daily Tribune. January 9, 1889. p. 7, column 3.
  68. ^ Brown v3:325–29; "Amusements. Wallack's Theatre – The Stock Company's Farewell" nyt February 12, 1888; "Amusements. The Last Night at Wallack's" nyt 1888-05-06; and Montgomery, George Edgar (1889). "The Last Year of 'Wallack's'". In Fuller, Edward (ed.). The Dramatic Year 1887–1888. Boston: Ticknor and Company. p. 62.
  69. ^ Brown v3:329 and "Mr. Palmer Has Wallack's" nyt July 22, 1888
  70. ^ Brown v3:329; "Death of Lester Wallack" nyt September 7, 1888; and "Forty Years on the New-York Stage" nyt September 7, 1888
  71. ^ Brown v3:331–56
  72. ^ "Mr. Moss in Possession" nyt November 20, 1896
  73. ^ Brown v3:356–67
  74. ^ See
  75. ^ "Future of Wallack's Theatre" New-York Tribune July 19, 1901:6, col. 6 (bottom)
  76. ^ "Notes of the Stage" nyt May 15, 1902 (fourth paragraph). Note the mention of Mrs. Lester Wallack's benefit the same month (first paragraph).
  77. ^ "New Plays Last Night. The Sultan of Sulu at Wallack's" nyt December 30, 1902
  78. ^ "George Ade in Comedy" nyt November 25, 1903
  79. ^ "How the Squaw Man is not the Shawman" nyt October 24, 1905
  80. ^ "Sam Bernard's New Play" nyt October 23, 1906
  81. ^ "A Knight for a Day Pleases" nyt December 17, 1907
  82. ^ "An Exquisite Idyl of Georgian Days" nyt December 21, 1910
  83. ^ "Arliss as 'Disraeli' in a Parker Romance" nyt September 19, 1911
  84. ^ "Lots of Suspense in Maude's New Play" nyt November 25, 1913
  85. ^ Death notice, nyt 1910-01-16, col. 2
  86. ^ "Burnham Leases Wallack's" nyt 1910 04 06 (scroll down)
  87. ^ "Wallack's Theatre in Trade" Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide Vol. 95, No. 2443 (January 9, 1915):58, col. 3
  88. ^ "Barker's Season Happily Launched" nyt January 28, 1915
  89. ^ "End of Wallack's Theatre" Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide Vol. 95, No. 2451 (March 6, 1915):375, col. 1; "Wallack's Theatre to Go" nyt March 4, 1915 (scroll down); and "Mid-Broadway Changes" nyt 1915-03-07;
  90. ^ "Farewell at Wallack's Tonight" nyt May 1, 1915 (scroll down); and "Wallack's" nyt 1915-05-02; Patterson, Ada "The Stage Honors Rose Coghlan" Theatre Magazine Vol. 36, No. 256 (July 1922), p. 36, col. 1, last paragraph and following.
  91. ^ Emporis Website, "29 West 30th Street" and "1220 Broadway". Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  92. ^ "A Woman's Way is Pleasantly Shown" nyt February 23, 1909 and A Woman's Way at Internet Broadway Database
  93. ^ Anco Cinema at Internet Broadway Database
  94. ^ Browne, W.:233, "Herbert, Victor"
  95. ^ Browne, W.:218–19, "Hammerstein, Oscar"
  96. ^ See Bromley (1911), Plate 20. On land sale, see "Oscar Hammerstein Buys" Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide Vol. 73, No. 1869 [i.e. 1870] (January 16, 1904):111 and "Another Theatre for Forty-Second Street", ibid.:114, col. 2 (scroll down)
  97. ^ See
  98. ^ Albert Edward Westover at Find a Grave database. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  99. ^ See
    • "Between 14th and 59th Streets" Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide Vol. 64, No. 1658 (December 23, 1899):990, col. 2: item beginning "2113 - 42d st, Nos 207–211 W". (207–211 is the Republic; Westover is named as architect.)
    • White, "New Victory Theater," location 8389
  100. ^ Browne, W.:444–46, "Weber, Joseph M."
  101. ^ Browne, W.:166–68, "Fields, Lew M."
  102. ^ "Stage Shows of Springtime" The Sun (New York) 1904-05-15, Third Section: p. 5 col. 1 paragraph 12; and advertisement for Weber and Fields farewell, same page, cols. 4–5
  103. ^ "Theatre for Lew Fields" nyt June 1, 1904 (scroll down)
  104. ^ Featuring the song "Absinthe Frappé". Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  105. ^ Browne, W.:68, "Cahill, Miss Marie (Mrs. Daniel V. Arthur)"
  106. ^ "Fred R. Hamlin Dead" nyt November 28, 1904
  107. ^ "Lew Fields Scores Again" The Evening World (New York) 1904-12-06, Evening Edition: p. 13 col. 1; and "Fields's Theatre Opens With Dainty Comedy" nyt December 6, 1904
  108. ^ "Musical Attractions" nyt 1905-04-16, col. 3
  109. ^ "Before the Footlights" New-York Tribune 1905-08-27, p. 2 col. 5 paragraph 4; Advertisement for Lew Fields Theatre New-York Tribune 1905-11-11, p. 8 col. 6; and "Miss Bentley Joins Lew Fields" New-York Tribune 1905-11-11, p. 9 col. 3 (scroll down)
  110. ^ "Lew Fields Has Joined Theatre Independents" nyt May 24, 1906
  111. ^ Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide Vol. 77, No. 1990 (May 5, 1906):857, col. 1: item "42d st, s s…Oscar Hammerstein…" and Browne, W.:212–14, "Hackett, James Keteltas"
  112. ^ "A Funny Little Stranger From the Curio Hall" nyt August 28, 1906
  113. ^ "The Chorus Lady and Her Friends" nyt September 2, 1906; "Before the Footlights" New-York Tribune 1906-10-14, p. 2 col. 2 item 10; and "Roof Gardens Open" New-York Tribune 1907-06-02, p. 6 col.1 item 3
  114. ^ See
  115. ^ Helen Hayes Theatre at Internet Broadway Database; Hudson Theatre at Internet Broadway Database; and "H. B. Harris Takes Hudson" New-York Tribune 1908-04-02, p. 1 col. 3 last item
  116. ^ "The Witching Hour" nyt November 21, 1907; "Stage Gossip and Amusement—Resort Theatres" nyt 1908-06-21, col. 3 paragraph 1; "Stage Affairs" New-York Tribune 1908-08-16, p. 3 col. 1 paragraph 4; and "Plays That Hold" nyt 1908-09-13, col. 3
  117. ^ "The Drama. A Revival at the Lyceum" New-York Tribune 1896-02-11, p. 7 col. 2 (scroll down); "Prisoner of Zenda Again" nyt September 22, 1908; and "Hackett in The Crisis" nyt October 11, 1908
  118. ^ See
  119. ^ For an account of the father see his obituary: "William Harris, Sr., Stage Veteran, Dies" nyt November 26, 1916
  120. ^ "Rose Stahl's Rescue Mission" and "The Harris Like New House" nyt September 1, 1911
  121. ^ "Concerning H. B. Harris" nyt April 21, 1912
  122. ^ "Deficit of $32,247 in Harris Estate" New-York Tribune 1914-07-02, p. 9 col. 7; "Deficit in Harris Estate" nyt July 2, 1914; "Selwyn & Co. Get the Harris" The Sun (New York) 1914-09-22, p. 7 col. 3 (scroll down); and Crosby Gaige at Playbill Vault website (retrieved 2015-10-02).
  123. ^ "The Salamander Comes as a Play" nyt October 24, 1914. See also the drawing by Dumas, Anthony F., "Harris Theatre and Loew's American Theatre". Museum of the City of New York Digital Collections, Digital ID: 75.200.54. Click on magnifying glass icon for pan-and-zoom box. The play Lilac Time, named on the theater, played the Harris 1917-05-14 to 1917-06-09.
  124. ^ Reports of the sale in two different newspapers include nearly identical statements which conflict with citations above. Among other questionable aspects is the middle initial of the father's name, which does not appear elsewhere in contemporary sources, including his obituary in The New York Times (cited above). The reports are:
  125. ^ Woolcott, Alexander "The Play" nyt September 8, 1920 and The Woman of Bronze at Internet Broadway Database
  126. ^ Dudley, Bide "The New Plays" The Evening World (New York) 1921-08-15, Wall Street Final Edition, p. 17; and Dulcy at Internet Broadway Database
  127. ^ Henderson (2008):139
  128. ^ Henderson (2008):138–39
  129. ^ See Bromley (1916), Plate 65.
  130. ^ See


External links

Map of all coordinates, or show using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML

40°43′18″N 74°00′01″W / 40.72169°N 74.00020°W / 40.72169; -74.00020 (485 Broadway) 40°44′03″N 73°59′27″W / 40.73404°N 73.99070°W / 40.73404; -73.99070 (844 Broadway) 40°44′49″N 73°59′17″W / 40.74690°N 73.98809°W / 40.74690; -73.98809 (30th Street and Broadway) 40°45′24″N 73°59′21″W / 40.75674°N 73.98924°W / 40.75674; -73.98924 (254 West 42nd Street)

This page was last edited on 16 August 2021, at 19:12
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.