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Voiceless glottal fricative

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Voiceless glottal fricative
h
IPA Number146
Encoding
Entity (decimal)h
Unicode (hex)U+0068
X-SAMPAh
Braille
⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)
Audio sample

The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate,[1][2] is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨h⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h, although [h] has been described as a voiceless vowel because in many languages, it lacks the place and manner of articulation of a prototypical consonant as well as the height and backness of a prototypical vowel:

[h and ɦ] have been described as voiceless or breathy voiced counterparts of the vowels that follow them [but] the shape of the vocal tract […] is often simply that of the surrounding sounds. […] Accordingly, in such cases it is more appropriate to regard h and ɦ as segments that have only a laryngeal specification, and are unmarked for all other features. There are other languages [such as Hebrew and Arabic] which show a more definite displacement of the formant frequencies for h, suggesting it has a [glottal] constriction associated with its production.[3]

Lamé contrasts voiceless and voiced glottal fricatives.[4]

Features

Features of the "voiceless glottal fricative":

  • In some languages, it has the constricted manner of articulation of a fricative. However, in many if not most it is a transitional state of the glottis, with no manner of articulation other than its phonation type. Because there is no other constriction to produce friction in the vocal tract in the languages they are familiar with, many phoneticians[who?] no longer consider [h] to be a fricative. However, the term "fricative" is generally retained for historical reasons.
  • It may have a glottal place of articulation. However, it may have no fricative articulation, in which case the term 'glottal' only refers to the nature of its phonation, and does not describe the location of the stricture nor the turbulence. All consonants except for the glottals, and all vowels, have an individual place of articulation in addition to the state of the glottis. As with all other consonants, surrounding vowels influence the pronunciation [h], and [h] has sometimes been presented as a voiceless vowel, having the place of articulation of these surrounding vowels.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe Shapsug хыгь [həɡʲ] 'now' Corresponds to [x] in other dialects.
Albanian hire [hiɾɛ][stress?] 'the graces'
Arabic Modern Standard[5] هائل [ˈhaːʔɪl] 'enormous' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[6] հայերեն About this sound[hɑjɛɾɛn]  'Armenian'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ [hajmaːnuːtʰa] 'faith'
Asturian South-central dialects uerza ['hweɾθɐ] 'force' F- becomes [h] before -ue/-ui in some south-central dialects. May be also realized as [ħ, ʕ, ɦ, x, χ]
Oriental dialects acer [haˈθeɾ] "to do" F- becomes [h] in oriental dialects. May be also realized as [ħ, ʕ, ɦ, x, χ]
Avar гьа [ha] 'oath'
Azeri hin [hin] 'chicken coop'
Basque North-Eastern dialects[7] hirur [hiɾur] 'three' Can be voiced [ɦ] instead.
Bengali হাওয়া [hao̯a] 'wind'
Berber aherkus [ahərkus] 'shoe'
Cantabrian muer [mu'heɾ] 'woman' F- becomes [h]. In most dialects, -LJ- and -C'L- too. May be also realized as [A

as [ħ, ʕ, ɦ, x, χ]

Chechen хIара / hara [hɑrɐ] 'this'
Chinese Cantonese / hói About this sound[hɔːi̯˧˥] 'sea' See Cantonese phonology
Taiwanese Mandarin / hǎi About this sound[haɪ̯˨˩˦] A velar fricative [x] for Standard Chinese. See Standard Chinese phonology
Danish[4] hus [ˈhuːˀs] 'house' Often voiced [ɦ] when between vowels.[4] See Danish phonology
English high [haɪ̯] 'high' See English phonology and H-dropping
Esperanto hejmo [hejmo] 'home' See Esperanto phonology
Eastern Lombard Val Camonica Bresa [brɛha] 'Brescia' Corresponds to /s/ in other varieties.
Estonian hammas [hɑmˑɑs] 'tooth' See Estonian phonology
Faroese hon [hoːn] 'she'
Finnish hammas [hɑmːɑs] 'tooth' See Finnish phonology
French Belgian hotte [ˈhɔt] 'pannier' Found in the region of Liège. See French phonology
Galician Occidental, central, and some oriental dialects gato ['hätʊ] 'cat' Realization of [g] in some dialects. May be also realized as

[ɦ, ʕ, x, χ, ʁ, ɡʰ]. See gheada.

Georgian[8] ავა [hɑvɑ] 'climate'
German[9] Hass [has] 'hatred' See Standard German phonology
Greek Cypriot[10] μαχαζί [mahaˈzi] 'shop' Allophone of /x/ before /a/.
Hawaiian[11] haka [haka] 'shelf' See Hawaiian phonology
Hebrew הַר [har] 'mountain' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi Standard[5] हम [ˈhəm] 'we' See Hindustani phonology
Hmong hawm [haɨ̰] 'to honor'
Hungarian helyes [hɛjɛʃ] 'right' See Hungarian phonology
Italian Tuscan[12] i capitani [iˌhäɸiˈθäːni] 'the captains' Intervocalic allophone of /k/.[12] See Italian phonology
Japanese すはだ / suhada [su͍hada] 'bare skin' See Japanese phonology
Korean 하루 / haru [hɐɾu] 'day' See Korean phonology
Kabardian тхылъхэ [tχɪɬhɑ] 'books'
Lakota ho [ho] 'voice'
Lao ຫ້າ [haː˧˩] 'five'
Leonese guaje [ˈwahe̞] 'boy'
Lezgian гьек [hek] 'glue'
Limburgish Some dialects[13][14] hòs [hɔːs] 'glove' Voiced [ɦ] in other dialects. The example word is from the Weert dialect.
Luxembourgish[15] hei [hɑ̝ɪ̯] 'here' See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay hari [hari] 'day'
Mutsun hučekniš [hut͡ʃɛkniʃ] 'dog'
Navajo hastiin [hàsd̥ìːn] 'mister'
Norwegian hatt [hɑtː] 'hat' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto هو [ho] 'yes'
Persian هفت [hæft] 'seven' See Persian phonology
Pirahã hi [hì] 'he'
Portuguese Many Brazilian dialects[16] marreta [maˈhetɐ] 'sledgehammer' Allophone of /ʁ/. [h, ɦ] are marginal sounds to many speakers, particularly out of Brazil. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialects Honda [ˈhõ̞dɐ] 'Honda'
Minas Gerais (mountain dialect) arte [ˈahtʃ] 'art'
Colloquial Brazilian[17][18] chuvisco [ɕuˈvihku] 'drizzle' Corresponds to either /s/ or /ʃ/ (depending on dialect) in the syllable coda. Might also be deleted.
Romanian hăț [həts] 'bridle' See Romanian phonology
Serbo-Croatian Croatian[19] hmelj [hmê̞ʎ̟] 'hops' Allophone of /x/ when it is initial in a consonant cluster.[19] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Spanish[20] Andalusian higo [ˈhiɣo̞] 'fig' Corresponds to Old Spanish /h/, which was developed from Latin /f/ but muted in other dialects.
Many dialects obispo [o̞ˈβ̞ihpo̞] 'bishop' Allophone of /s/. See Spanish phonology
Some dialects jaca [ˈhaka] 'pony' Corresponds to /x/ in other dialects.
Swedish hatt [ˈhatː] 'hat' See Swedish phonology
Sylheti ꠢꠣꠝꠥꠇ [hamux] 'snail'
Thai ห้า [haː˥˩] 'five'
Turkish halı [häˈɫɯ] 'carpet' See Turkish phonology
Ubykh [dwaha] 'prayer' See Ubykh phonology
Urdu Standard[5] ہم [ˈhəm] 'we' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Vietnamese[21] hiểu [hjew˧˩˧] 'understand' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh haul [ˈhaɨl] 'sun' See Welsh orthography
West Frisian hoeke [ˈhukə] 'corner'
Yi / hxa [ha˧] 'hundred'

See also

Notes

References

  • Arvaniti, Amalia (1999), "Cypriot Greek" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 29 (2): 173–178, doi:10.1017/S002510030000654X
  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
  • Hall, Robert A. Jr. (1944). "Italian phonemes and orthography". Italica. American Association of Teachers of Italian. 21 (2): 72–82. doi:10.2307/475860. JSTOR 475860.
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307
  • Hualde, José Ignacio; Ortiz de Urbina, Jon, eds. (2003), A grammar of Basque, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-017683-1
  • Kohler, Klaus (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Laufer, Asher (1991), "Phonetic Representation: Glottal Fricatives", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 91–93, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004448
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Smyth, Herbert Weir (1920). A Greek Grammar for Colleges. American Book Company. Retrieved 1 January 2014 – via CCEL.
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Wright, Joseph; Wright, Elizabeth Mary (1925). Old English Grammar (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.

External links

This page was last edited on 25 November 2019, at 13:12
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