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Voiceless glottal affricate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Voiceless glottal affricate
IPA number113 146
Audio sample

The voiceless glottal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨ʔ͡h⟩ and ⟨ʔ͜h⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ?_h. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨ʔh⟩ in the IPA and ?h in X-SAMPA.

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Features of the voiceless glottal affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is glottal, which means it is articulated at and by the vocal cords (vocal folds).
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Yuxi dialect[1][2] [ʔ͡ho˥˧] 'can, may' Corresponds to /kʰ/ in Standard Chinese.[2][3]
English Received Pronunciation[4] hat [ʔ͡haʔt] 'hat' Possible allophone of /h/, especially in stressed syllables.[4] See English phonology


  1. ^ Yang (1969), pp. 393–394.
  2. ^ a b Colarusso (2012), p. 2.
  3. ^ Yang (1969), p. 394.
  4. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 148.


  • Colarusso, John (2012), The Typology of the Gutturals (PDF)
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Yang, Shifeng (1969), A Report of Investigating Dialects in Yunnan Province [雲南方言調查報告]
This page was last edited on 4 May 2019, at 15:29
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