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Voiced alveolar affricate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A voiced alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are several types with significant perceptual differences:

This article discusses the first two.

Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate

Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate
IPA Number104 133
Entity (decimal)ʣ
Unicode (hex)U+02A3
Audio sample

The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨d͡z⟩ or ⟨d͜z⟩ (formerly ⟨ʣ⟩).


Features of the voiced alveolar sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • The stop component of this affricate is laminal alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge. For simplicity, this affricate is usually called after the sibilant fricative component.
  • There are at least three specific variants of the fricative component:
    • Dentalized laminal alveolar (commonly called "dental"), which means it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of [z] is very strong.[1]
    • Non-retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue slightly behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Acoustically, it is close to [ʒ] or laminal [ʐ].
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


The following sections are named after the fricative component.

Dentalized laminal alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] ձուկ About this sound[d̻͡z̪uk]  'fish'
Belarusian[3] дзеканне/dzekannje [ˈd̻͡z̪ekän̪ʲe] 'dzekanye' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Czech[4] Afgánec byl [ˈävɡäːnɛd̻͡z̪ bɪɫ̪] 'an Afghan was' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants. See Czech phonology
Hungarian[5] bodza [ˈbod̻͡z̪ːɒ] 'elderberry' See Hungarian phonology
Kashubian[6] [example  needed]
Latvian[7] drudzis [ˈd̪rud̻͡z̪is̪] 'fever' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[8] ѕвезда/dzvezda [ˈd̻͡z̪ve̞z̪d̪ä] 'star' See Macedonian phonology
Pashto ځوان [d͡zwɑn] 'youth' 'young' See Pashto phonology
Polish[9] dzwon About this sound[d̻͡z̪vɔn̪]  'bell' See Polish phonology
Russian[10] плацдарм/platsdarm [pɫ̪ɐd̻͡z̪ˈd̪är̠m] 'bridgehead' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[11] otac bi [ǒ̞t̪äd̻͡z̪ bi] 'father would' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants.[11] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene[12] brivec brije [ˈbríːʋəd̻͡z̪ bríjɛ] 'barber shaves' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants.
Ukrainian[13] дзвін/dzvin [d̻͡z̪ʋin̪] 'bell' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[14] [example  needed] Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants.[14] See Upper Sorbian phonology

Non-retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Najdi[15] قـليب [d͡zɛ̝lib] 'well' Corresponds to /q/, /ɡ/, or /dʒ/ in other dialects.
Catalan[16] dotze [ˈd̪odd̻͡z̺ə] 'twelve' The fricative component is apical. See Catalan phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[17] zèèg [d͡zɛːx] 'saw' Occasional allophone of /z/; distribution unclear.[17]
English Most dialects adds [ˈæd͡z] 'adds' See English phonology
Broad Cockney[18] day [ˈd͡zæˑɪ̯] 'day' Possible word-initial, intervocalic and word-final allophone of /d/.[19][20] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[20] [ˈd͡zeˑɪ̯]
New York[21] Possible syllable-initial and sometimes also utterance-final allophone of /d/.[21] See English phonology
Scouse[22] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /d/.[22] See English phonology
Georgian[23] ვალი [d͡zvɑli] 'bone'
Hebrew תזונה [d͡zuna] 'nutrition'
Luxembourgish[24] spadséieren [ʃpɑˈd͡zɜ̝ɪ̯əʀən] 'to go for a walk' Marginal phoneme that occurs only in a few words.[24] See Luxembourgish phonology
Marathi जोर [d͡zorə] 'force' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated versions. The unaspirated is represented by ज, which also represents [d͡ʒ]. The aspirated sound is represented by झ, which also represents [d͡ʒʱ]. There is no marked difference for either one.
Nepali [äd͡zʌ] 'today' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated versions. The unaspirated is represented by /ज/. The aspirated sound is represented by /झ/. See Nepali phonology
Portuguese European[25] desafio [d͡zəˈfi.u] 'challenge' Allophone of /d/ before /i, ĩ/, or assimilation due to the deletion of /i ~ ɨ ~ e/. Increasingly used in Brazil.[26]
Brazilian[25][26] aprendizado [apɾẽ̞ˈd͡zadu] 'learning'
Many speakers mezzosoprano [me̞d͡zo̞so̞ˈpɾɐ̃nu] 'mezzo-soprano' Marginal sound. Some might instead use spelling pronunciations.[27] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Moldavian dialects[28] zic [d͡zɨk] 'say' Corresponds to [z] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Spanish Some Rioplatense dialects día ['d͡zia̞] 'day' Corresponds to either [ð] or [d] in standard Spanish. See Spanish phonology.
Chinese Swatow 日本 [d͡zit̚˨˩.pʊn˥˧] 'Japan'


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Italian[29] zero [ˈd͡zɛːɾo] 'zero' The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical. In the latter case, the stop component is laminal denti-alveolar.[29] See Italian phonology

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant affricate



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English General American[30] dream [d͡ɹ̝ʷɪi̯m] 'dream' Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /dr/; more commonly postalveolar [d̠͡ɹ̠˔].[30] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[30]
Italian Sicily[31] Adriatico [äd͡ɹ̝iˈäːt̪iko] 'the Adriatic Sea' Apical. It is a regional realization of the sequence /dr/, and can be realized as the sequence [dɹ̝] instead.[32] See Italian phonology

See also


  1. ^ Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  2. ^ Kozintseva (1995:6)
  3. ^ Padluzhny (1989:48–49)
  4. ^ Palková (1994:234–235)
  5. ^ Szende (1999:104)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
  7. ^ Nau (1998:6)
  8. ^ Lunt (1952:1)
  9. ^ Rocławski (1976:162)
  10. ^ Chew (2003:67 and 103)
  11. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:67)
  12. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  13. ^ S. Buk; J. Mačutek; A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Glottometrics. 16: 63–79. arXiv:0802.4198.
  14. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984:22, 38))
  15. ^ Lewis jr. (2013), p. 5.
  16. ^ Hualde (1992:370)
  17. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 240.
  18. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 322-323.
  19. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  20. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  21. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 515.
  22. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.
  23. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  24. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 72.
  25. ^ a b (in Portuguese) Palatalization of dental occlusives /t/ and /d/ in the bilingual communities of Taquara and Panambi, RS – Alice Telles de Paula Page 14
  26. ^ a b Seqüências de (oclusiva alveolar + sibilante alveolar) como um padrão inovador no português de Belo Horizonte – Camila Tavares Leite
  27. ^ Adaptações fonológicas na pronúncia de estrangeirismos do Inglês por falantes de Português Brasileiro – Ana Beatriz Gonçalves de Assis
  28. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  29. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 75–76.
  30. ^ a b c Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186–188, 192.
  31. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 64.
  32. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 64–65.


External links

This page was last edited on 26 August 2020, at 05:06
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