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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language. A vocabulary, usually developed with age, serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge. Acquiring an extensive vocabulary is one of the largest challenges in learning a second language.

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Transcription

- [Tiffani] As an English learner, you sometimes experience a problem when you're reading something or even when you're having a conversation with people and even sometimes when you're listening to a podcast or other audio file. This problem is vocabulary. But there is a formula. This formula will help you to learn 1,000 English vocabulary words and that's what I will teach you today. Welcome to Speak English With Tiffani. I'm teacher Tiffani, let's jump right in. Okay, so here's the problem. The problem is you want to improve your English vocabulary but it just seems too hard. Now let's look at this a little closer. So the first thing is you memorize lots of words but what happens is you can't remember or use them. Many of my students have told me that they memorize vocabulary words but then when they get in conversations, they're not able to use them and that's what happens. Or you start off strong but what happens is you get tired and often give up. And often give up completely. Now to be honest with you I also experienced the same thing when I was studying Korean. I would study hundreds of vocabulary words but then after two or three weeks I would get tired and just stop. So again, you start off strong but you get tired and often give up completely. This is the problem. Now there is a solution. The solution is three words lead to 1,000 words. Now don't worry I'm going to explain this very clearly and it will really help you to learn 1,000 words. Alright now the first aspect of this solution, before I explain it in detail, is the memorization and repetition. Memorization and repetition is so important because it is a set pattern that will help your brain. That will help your brain. Now remember in one of my previous video lessons I explained how your brain works, okay? There are certain triggers that help your brain remember certain things so a set pattern will also help your brain when you are trying to remember or memorize English vocabulary words and the next thing is learn and use. Many times you will learn vocabulary words but you're not able to use them. This solution, this formula I'm gonna teach you, will help you do both. So again this will help you use them in daily life. When you meet someone that is a native English speaker or even another English learner, you can use the words that you're learning, okay? Alright, so the breakdown. Let's look at the breakdown of this solution or this formula. Okay so again 1,000 words by doing three words each day. There's five parts, the select, memorize, visualize, apply, and review. Okay so let's look at the breakdown in a little bit more detail. The first section is select, so you select the three words that you will use for that day. Now remember in the beginning I said this is a formula and it's actually a part of a 16 day cycle. Now the first part of the cycle is the select column, the first column, so on the first day, day one, you will learn only three words. And each day after that you're only learning three new words. Now let me explain exactly how this selection happens, okay? So once again, you select the words that you will use for that day, this is how it's going to happen, so let's start right here on top. There are many different ways that you can select words. Let's say for example that you are watching something on TV so you can select words from TV shows or movies that you watch. You may have a favorite American television show that you watch and you may hear a vocabulary word that you don't know so you can choose it from the television show or you may even have a special book or magazine or newspaper that you enjoy reading, an English newspaper or magazine. So you can pick a vocabulary word from books, magazines, or the newspaper, or the newspapers you read, newspapers that you read. The other method you can use actually is something that you may already have inside. So this is your brain. So there are some words that you already know. You can actually look for or find synonyms, okay? Find synonyms for words you already know. For example, let's say I already know the word big, that's a word that you already know but a synonym for the word big is enormous. So I already know this word but enormous is a synonym for that word, okay? So these are three different ways you can actually select vocabulary words. Okay let's keep going. The next part of the breakdown is to memorize. You're going to memorize the definitions of the words from the previous day so again let's look at our 16 day cycle. Now we've moved to the second column, the memorize column. Now on the far left you see the day column, then next the select, and then next the memorize. So on day one you only memorized or selected three words. Now on day two you still need to select three new words but now is when you're going to memorize the three words you looked up the first day. It's very important, you're memorizing on the second day. Let's go in more detail, okay? So again, memorize the definitions of the words from the previous day. Okay so let's look at it a little closer. So here's what's gonna happen, so right here, let's give him some glasses, okay? Let's give this student some glasses. So we have this student, this English learner right here. So what's gonna happen? The first thing is to read over the words and meanings. You're going to think about them. Remember I chose enormous so I'm gonna look over the word enormous and realize, ah, this means big, this means big. The next thing you're going to do is you're going to make something, okay? I'll explain exactly what these are, I can write really tiny, alright so what you're going to do, let's put RD, let's put it like this. You're going to make flash cards for each word. Remember it's not gonna take you a long time because it's only for three words, okay? Make flashcards and then what you're going to do, let's put a little clock right here for us, got a little clock right here, put a little bell on top. Okay what you're going to do is time yourself as you memorize, make this O a little better, as you memorize each word. You want to get to the point to where you can memorize and know three words in 30 seconds. This is your goal. This is your goal. Alright so let's keep going to the next phase. Alright so the next phase is to visualize. Now for the visualizing step you're gonna select various images that go along with each of the vocabulary words. Use them to memorize the words more. Okay so let's go back and look at the 16 day cycle again. So now we're on the next column, the visualize column. Alright so again on day one we selected three words, day two we also selected three words but then we also added the memorizing of the first three words and we're also going to be visualizing on that day the first three words. Now again I'm gonna explain it very clearly so let's jump in to explain it very clearly, again, selecting various images that go along with each of the vocabulary words, use them to memorize the words more. So here we go, alright so the first thing you need to do, let's do a little head right here. Student with their eyes closed. His brain right here, he's thinking, his mind. Alright so what's gonna happen is you first need to think about each word and see what picture pops into your head. This is important because everyone is different. If I say good food, the first thing that pops in my mind may be different from what pops in your mind so it's important to see what pops into your mind. Now the next thing you're going to do is you're going to get on the computer, you're gonna get on the computer and what you're going to do is you're going to go online and find an image that matches, okay? Find an image that matches what you saw in your mind. Now again remember it's only for three words so it's not gonna take you a long time but go online and find an image that matches each word so you're looking for three images, three images. Now after you find the images, what you're going to do is you're going to make another flashcard but this time instead of the word being on the top, the word will be on the bottom and on top you will place the image so again you're going to finally make image flash cards and practice with them. Remember these steps are so important because you need to practice and learn vocabulary in different ways, not just sitting and looking at a book and memorizing. Your brain needs to see things that are visual and connected to different situations in order for you to learn and use the vocabulary words so let's keep going. Alright so the next step is to apply. Now that you know the meanings, use each of the vocabulary words in a sentence that you create. Okay so again the 16 day cycle, now we're on the next column, the apply column, so again day one we just selected three new words. Day two we selected three new words and we also memorized and visualized the first three words and now as we move down to day number three we're still selecting three words, we're memorizing what we learned or what we selected the previous day and we're visualizing and now we're applying the first three words. Now this applying I will explain, let's go and I will explain it in more detail. So again now that you know the meanings, use each of the vocabulary words in a sentence that you create. So here's what's gonna happen. Let's have a student right here. So we have this student right here, right? Now this student is looking at something right now so let's do this like this, let's have this right here, give her some fingers so she's holding the book. Okay so this student is looking at something right now. What you're going to do is you're going to review the meaning and, this is the key right here, think about your life. This is key. Review the meaning and think about your life. So here we go, let me show you an example, so let's look at an example so that you can understand exactly what this step means. So let's say for example I have this right here. This is my dictionary. And the word I selected was enormous, enormous, which means very big so again it means very big, that's the definition I found in the dictionary, correct? Now what's going to happen is I'm going to look at the dictionary sentence example, I'm gonna look for the dictionary sentence example and let's say the dictionary says the building is enormous, the building is enormous, that's the pattern that the dictionary uses. The building is enormous. Now what I'm going to do is think about my life and I'm gonna write my own sentence so you're going to write your sentence so your sentence which is my sentence right now is gonna be ah, maybe my school. So I can say my university is enormous. So what happened? I changed this part right here. So instead of the building, I put my university but everything else is the same. This is what you're going to do for the apply step in this formula. Let's keep going. Now the last thing for the breakdown is the review step. The final step in the breakdown method is to review all of the previous steps and see which step you need to practice more so remember it's a 16 day cycle. Now this 16 day cycle has many different columns but on the 16th day you're going to review all of the 42 words you learned on the previous 15 days. Now don't worry I'm gonna explain exactly how to do this. So let's look at it in more detail. once again the final step in the breakdown method is to review all of the previous steps and see which step you need to practice more. So let's jump in, here we go. For the first thing we need to do let's put our timer right here so we have our little clock right here, this is our timer, our bell. So you're gonna find a timer and what you're gonna do is you're going to set a five minute timer. This is very important, only five minutes, set a five minute timer for the review time. Very important, remember you've been practicing these words for 15 days so you should be able to bring them to mind very quickly so what you're gonna do next is remember there was a 15 day period for the review day so let's just do it real quick like this, let's just kinda do a small sketch so the 15 day period and during that period we had different flash cards so we had a word flash card, remember we had the word flash card that we made and we also had image flash cards that we made, okay so what's gonna happen is you need to review both within the five minute time period. Now it seems like a short period of time to review 42 words but remember your brain is amazing, you've been using and reviewing these words for a 15 day period so that means you actually will know more than you realize. What's gonna happen is during this five minute period you need to go very quickly and there may be some words that you get wrong. If there are words that you get wrong that just means you need to review them again so what's gonna happen is you're gonna have a separate pile. This is the review again pile. So what you're gonna do is if you get any wrong put them in the review again pile and what's important is what you're gonna do is when you start the next cycle you're going to go over them every other day until you feel comfortable and you feel like you know them well. This is the review step, okay? Okay great job now I've created the actual formula and spreadsheet that you will need to do this and put this into action. The 1,000 vocabulary words plan is a free download that I created just for you so if you wanna download it go to speakenglishwithtiffani.com/1000vocabularywords again it's totally free and you can use it to learn and use 1,000 English vocabulary words. Also remember to watch my next English video lesson that you can see on the left side of your screen. Until then, keep studying English and I'll talk to you again soon.

Contents

Definition and usage

Vocabulary is commonly defined as "all the words known and used by a particular person".[1] Knowing a word, however, is not as simple as merely being able to recognize or use it. There are several aspects of word knowledge that are used to measure word knowledge.

Productive and receptive knowledge

The first major distinction that must be made when evaluating word knowledge is whether the knowledge is productive (also called achieve) or receptive (also called receive); even within those opposing categories, there is often no clear distinction. Words that are generally understood when heard or read or seen constitute a person's receptive vocabulary. These words may range from well-known to barely known (see degree of knowledge below). A person's receptive vocabulary is the larger of the two. For example, although a young child may not yet be able to speak, write, or sign, he or she may be able to follow simple commands and appear to understand a good portion of the language to which they are exposed. In this case, the child's receptive vocabulary is likely tens, if not hundreds of words, but his or her active vocabulary is zero. When that child learns to speak or sign, however, the child's active vocabulary begins to increase. It is also possible for the productive vocabulary to be larger than the receptive vocabulary, for example in a second-language learner who has learned words through study rather than exposure, and can produce them, but has difficulty recognizing them in conversation.

Productive vocabulary, therefore, generally refers to words that can be produced within an appropriate context and match the intended meaning of the speaker or signer. As with receptive vocabulary, however, there are many degrees at which a particular word may be considered part of an active vocabulary. Knowing how to pronounce, sign, or write a word does not necessarily mean that the word that has been used correctly or accurately reflects the intended message; but it does reflect a minimal amount of productive knowledge.

Degree of knowledge

Within the receptive–productive distinction lies a range of abilities that are often referred to as degree of knowledge. This simply indicates that a word gradually enters a person's vocabulary over a period of time as more aspects of word knowledge are learnt. Roughly, these stages could be described as:

  1. Never encountered the word.
  2. Heard the word, but cannot define it.
  3. Recognize the word due to context or tone of voice.
  4. Able to use the word and understand the general and/or intended meaning, but cannot clearly explain it.
  5. Fluent with the word – its use and definition.

Depth of knowledge

The differing degrees of word knowledge imply a greater depth of knowledge, but the process is more complex than that. There are many facets to knowing a word, some of which are not hierarchical so their acquisition does not necessarily follow a linear progression suggested by degree of knowledge. Several frameworks of word knowledge have been proposed to better operationalise this concept. One such framework includes nine facets:

  1. orthography – written form
  2. phonology – spoken form
  3. reference – meaning
  4. semantics – concept and reference
  5. register – appropriacy of use or cash register
  6. collocation – lexical neighbours
  7. word associations
  8. syntax – grammatical function
  9. morphology – word parts

Definition of word

Words can be defined in various ways, and estimates of vocabulary size differ depending on the definition used. The most common definition is that of a lemma (the uninflected or dictionary form; this includes walk, but not walks, walked or walking). Most of the time lemmas do not include proper nouns (names of people, places, companies, etc). Another definition often used in research of vocabulary size is that of word family. These are all the words that can be derived from a ground word (e.g., the words effortless, effortlessly, effortful, effortfully are all part of the word family effort). Estimates of vocabulary size range from as high as 200 thousand to as low as 10 thousand, depending on the definition used. [2]

Types of vocabulary

Listed in order of most ample to most limited:[3][4]

Reading vocabulary

A literate person's vocabulary is all the words they can recognize when reading. This is generally the largest type of vocabulary simply because a reader tends to be exposed to more words by reading than by listening.

Listening vocabulary

A person's listening vocabulary is all the words they can recognize when listening to speech. People may still understand words they were not exposed to before using cues such as tone, gestures, the topic of discussion and the social context of the conversation.

Speaking vocabulary

A person's speaking vocabulary is all the words they use in speech. It is likely to be a subset of the listening vocabulary. Due to the spontaneous nature of speech, words are often misused. This misuse, though slight and unintentional, may be compensated by facial expressions and tone of voice.

Writing vocabulary

Words are used in various forms of writing from formal essays to social media feeds. Many written words do not commonly appear in speech. Writers generally use a limited set of words when communicating.[citation needed] For example, if there are a number of synonyms, a writer may have a preference as to which of them to use, and they are unlikely to use technical vocabulary relating to a subject in which they have no knowledge or interest.

Focal vocabulary

Focal vocabulary is a specialized set of terms and distinctions that is particularly important to a certain group: those with a particular focus of experience or activity. A lexicon, or vocabulary, is a language's dictionary: its set of names for things, events, and ideas. Some linguists believe that lexicon influences people's perception of things, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis. For example, the Nuer of Sudan have an elaborate vocabulary to describe cattle. The Nuer have dozens of names for cattle because of the cattle's particular histories, economies, and environments[clarification needed]. This kind of comparison has elicited some linguistic controversy, as with the number of "Eskimo words for snow". English speakers with relevant specialised knowledge can also display elaborate and precise vocabularies for snow and cattle when the need arises.[5][6]

Vocabulary growth

During its infancy, a child instinctively builds a vocabulary. Infants imitate words that they hear and then associate those words with objects and actions. This is the listening vocabulary. The speaking vocabulary follows, as a child's thoughts become more reliant on his/her ability to self-express without relying on gestures or babbling. Once the reading and writing vocabularies start to develop, through questions and education, the child starts to discover the anomalies and irregularities of language.

In first grade, a child who can read learns about twice as many words as one who cannot. Generally, this gap does not narrow later. This results in a wide range of vocabulary by age five or six, when an English-speaking child will have learned about 1500 words.[7]

Vocabulary grows throughout our entire life. Between the ages of 20 and 60, people learn some 6,000 more lemmas, or one every other day.[8] An average 20-year-old knows 42,000 words coming from 11,100 word families; an average 60-year-old knows 48,200 lemmas coming from 13,400 word families.[8] People expand their vocabularies by e.g. reading, playing word games, and participating in vocabulary-related programs. Exposure to traditional print media teaches correct spelling and vocabulary, while exposure to text messaging leads to more relaxed word acceptability constraints.[9]

Importance

  • An extensive vocabulary aids expression and communication.
  • Vocabulary size has been directly linked to reading comprehension.[10]
  • Linguistic vocabulary is synonymous with thinking vocabulary.[10]
  • A person may be judged by others based on his or her vocabulary.
  • Wilkins (1972) once said, "Without grammar, very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed."[11]

Vocabulary size

Native-language vocabulary

Estimating average vocabulary size poses various difficulties and limitations due to the different definitions and methods employed such as what is the word, what is to know a word, what sample dictionaries were used, how tests were conducted, and so on.[8][12][13][14] Native speakers' vocabularies also vary widely within a language, and are dependent on the level of the speaker's education.

As a result estimates vary from as little as 10,000 to as many as over 50,000 for young adult native speakers of English.[8][12][13][15]

One most recent 2016 study shows that 20-year-old English native speakers recognize on average 42,000 lemmas, ranging from 27,100 for the lowest 5% of the population to 51,700 lemmas for the highest 5%. These lemmas come from 6,100 word families in the lowest 5% of the population and 14,900 word families in the highest 5%. 60-year-olds know on average 6,000 lemmas more. [8]

According to another, earlier 1995 study junior-high students would be able to recognize the meanings of about 10,000–12,000 words, whereas for college students this number grows up to about 12,000–17,000 and for elderly adults up to about 17,000 or more.[16]

For native speakers of German average absolute vocabulary sizes range from 5,900 lemmas in first grade to 73,000 for adults.[17]

Foreign-language vocabulary

The effects of vocabulary size on language comprehension

The knowledge of the 3000 most frequent English word families or the 5000 most frequent words provides 95% vocabulary coverage of spoken discourse.[18] For minimal reading comprehension a threshold of 3,000 word families (5,000 lexical items) was suggested[19][20] and for reading for pleasure 5,000 word families (8,000 lexical items) are required.[21] An "optimal" threshold of 8,000 word families yields the coverage of 98% (including proper nouns).[20]

Second language vocabulary acquisition

Learning vocabulary is one of the first steps in learning a second language, but a learner never finishes vocabulary acquisition. Whether in one's native language or a second language, the acquisition of new vocabulary is an ongoing process. There are many techniques that help one acquire new vocabulary.

Memorization

Although memorization can be seen as tedious or boring, associating one word in the native language with the corresponding word in the second language until memorized is considered one of the best methods of vocabulary acquisition. By the time students reach adulthood, they generally have gathered a number of personalized memorization methods. Although many argue that memorization does not typically require the complex cognitive processing that increases retention (Sagarra and Alba, 2006),[22] it does typically require a large amount of repetition, and spaced repetition with flashcards is an established method for memorization, particularly used for vocabulary acquisition in computer-assisted language learning. Other methods typically require more time and longer to recall.

Some words cannot be easily linked through association or other methods. When a word in the second language is phonologically or visually similar to a word in the native language, one often assumes they also share similar meanings. Though this is frequently the case, it is not always true. When faced with a false friend, memorization and repetition are the keys to mastery. If a second language learner relies solely on word associations to learn new vocabulary, that person will have a very difficult time mastering false friends. When large amounts of vocabulary must be acquired in a limited amount of time, when the learner needs to recall information quickly, when words represent abstract concepts or are difficult to picture in a mental image, or when discriminating between false friends, rote memorization is the method to use. A neural network model of novel word learning across orthographies, accounting for L1-specific memorization abilities of L2-learners has recently been introduced (Hadzibeganovic and Cannas, 2009).[23]

The Keyword Method

One useful method of building vocabulary in a second language is the keyword method. If time is available or one wants to emphasize a few key words, one can create mnemonic devices or word associations. Although these strategies tend to take longer to implement and may take longer in recollection, they create new or unusual connections that can increase retention. The keyword method requires deeper cognitive processing, thus increasing the likelihood of retention (Sagarra and Alba, 2006).[22] This method uses fits within Paivio's (1986)[24] dual coding theory because it uses both verbal and image memory systems. However, this method is best for words that represent concrete and imageable things. Abstract concepts or words that do not bring a distinct image to mind are difficult to associate. In addition, studies have shown that associative vocabulary learning is more successful with younger students (Sagarra and Alba, 2006).[22] Older students tend to rely less on creating word associations to remember vocabulary.

Word lists

Several word lists have been developed to provide people with a limited vocabulary either for the purpose of rapid language proficiency or for effective communication. These include Basic English (850 words), Special English (1,500 words), General Service List (2,000 words), and Academic Word List. Some learner's dictionaries have developed defining vocabularies which contain only most common and basic words. As a result word definitions in such dictionaries can be understood even by learners with a limited vocabulary.[25][26][27] Some publishers produce dictionaries based on word frequency[28] or thematic groups.[29][30][31]

The Swadesh list was made for investigation in linguistics.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary
  2. ^ Brysbaert M, Stevens M, Mandera P and Keuleers E (2016) How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant’s Age. Front. Psychol. 7:1116. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01116 [1]
  3. ^ Barnhart, Clarence L. (1968).
  4. ^ The World Book Dictionary. Clarence L. Barnhart. 1968 Edition. Published by Thorndike-Barnhart, Chicago, Illinois.
  5. ^ Miller (1989)
  6. ^ Lenkeit
  7. ^ "Vocabulary". Sebastian Wren, Ph.D. BalancedReading.com http://www.balancedreading.com/vocabulary.html
  8. ^ a b c d e Brysbaert, Marc; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Keuleers, Emmanuel (29 July 2016). "How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant's Age". Frontiers in Psychology. 7. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01116.
  9. ^ Joan H. Lee (2011). What does txting do 2 language: The influences of exposure to messaging and print media on acceptability constraints (PDF) (M. A.). University of Calgary. Retrieved 20 November 2013. Lay summary.
  10. ^ a b Stahl, Steven A. Vocabulary Development. Cambridge: Brookline Books, 1999. p. 3. "The Cognitive Foundations of Learning to Read: A Framework", Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, [2], p. 14.
  11. ^ Wilkins, David A. (1972). Linguistics in Language Teaching. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 111.
  12. ^ a b Goulden, Robin; Nation, Paul; Read, John (1 December 1990). "How Large Can a Receptive Vocabulary Be?" (PDF). Applied Linguistics. 11 (4): 341–363. doi:10.1093/applin/11.4.341.
  13. ^ a b D'Anna, Catherine; Zechmeister, Eugene; Hall, James (1 March 1991). "Toward a meaningful definition of vocabulary size". Journal of Literacy Research. 23 (1): 109–122. doi:10.1080/10862969109547729.
  14. ^ Nation, I. S. P. (1993). "Using dictionaries to estimate vocabulary size: essential, but rarely followed, procedures" (PDF). Language Testing. 10 (1): 27–40.
  15. ^ Milton, James; Treffers-Daller, Jeanine (29 January 2013). "Vocabulary size revisited: the link between vocabulary size and academic achievement". Applied Linguistics Review. 4 (1): 151–172. doi:10.1515/applirev-2013-0007.
  16. ^ Zechmeister, Eugene; Chronis, Andrea; Cull, William; D'Anna, Catherine; Healy, Noreen (1 June 1995). "Growth of a functionally important lexicon". Journal of Literacy Research. 27 (2): 201–212. doi:10.1080/10862969509547878.
  17. ^ Segbers, J.; Schroeder, S. (28 April 2016). "How many words do children know? A corpus-based estimation of childrens total vocabulary size". Language Testing. doi:10.1177/0265532216641152.
  18. ^ Adolphs, Svenja; Schmitt, Norbert (2003). "Lexical Coverage of Spoken Discourse" (PDF). Applied Linguistics. 24 (4): 425–438.
  19. ^ Laufer, Batia (1992). "How Much Lexis is Necessary for Reading Comprehension?". In Bejoint, H.; Arnaud, P. Vocabulary and Applied Linguistics. Macmillan. pp. 126–132.
  20. ^ a b Laufer, Batia; Ravenhorst-Kalovski, Geke C. (April 2010). "Lexical threshold revisited: Lexical text coverage, learners' vocabulary size and reading comprehension" (PDF). Reading in a Foreign Language. 22 (1): 15–30.
  21. ^ Hirsh, D.; Nation, I.S.P. (1992). "What vocabulary size is needed to read unsimplified texts for pleasure?" (PDF). Reading in a Foreign Language. 8 (2): 689–696.
  22. ^ a b c Sagarra, Nuria and Alba, Matthew. (2006). "The Key Is in the Keyword: L2 Vocabulary Learning Methods With Beginning Learners of Spanish". The Modern Language Journal, 90, ii. pp. 228–243.
  23. ^ Hadzibeganovic Tarik and Cannas, Sergio A. (2009). "A Tsallis' statistics-based neural network model for novel word learning". Physica A, 388, pp. 732–746.
  24. ^ Paivio, A. (1986). Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. New York: Oxford University Press.
  25. ^ Bogaards, Paul (July 2010). "The evolution of learners' dictionaries and Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary" (PDF). Kernerman Dictionary News (18): 6–15.
  26. ^ Oxford 3000
  27. ^ The Macmillan Defining Vocabulary
  28. ^ Routledge Frequency Dictionaries
  29. ^ (in German) Langenscheidt Grundwortschatz
  30. ^ (in German) Langenscheidt Grund- und Aufbauwortschatz
  31. ^ (in German) Hueber Grundwortschatz

References

  • Barnhart, Clarence Lewis (ed.) (1968). The World Book Dictionary. Chicago: Thorndike-Barnhart, OCLC 437494
  • Brysbaert M, Stevens M, Mandera P and Keuleers E (2016) How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant’s Age. Front. Psychol. 7:1116. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01116.
  • Flynn, James Robert (2008). Where have all the liberals gone? : race, class, and ideals in America. Cambridge University Press; 1st edition. ISBN 978-0-521-49431-1 OCLC 231580885
  • Lenkeit, Roberta Edwards (2007) Introducing cultural anthropology Boston: McGraw-Hill (3rd. ed.) OCLC 64230435
  • Liu, Na and I. S. P. Nation. "Factors affecting guessing vocabulary in context", RELC Journal, 1985,16 1, pp. 33–42. doi:10.1177/003368828501600103
  • Miller, Barbara D. (1999). Cultural Anthropology(4th ed.) Boston: Allyn and Bacon, p. 315 OCLC 39101950
  • Schonell, Sir Fred Joyce, Ivor G. Meddleton and B. A. Shaw, A study of the oral vocabulary of adults : an investigation into the spoken vocabulary of the Australian worker, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane, 1956. OCLC 606593777
  • West, Michael (1953). A general service list of English words, with semantic frequencies and a supplementary word-list for the writing of popular science and technology London, New York: Longman, Green OCLC 318957

External links

  • Open Dictionary of English (ODE) Multi-media dictionary developed for learning vocabulary. Offers audio from around the world, images, video clips, usage samples, multiple definitions, correlations, idioms and much more. ODE is also part of LearnThatWord's vocabulary quizzes.
  • Bibliography on vocabulary I.S.P. Nation's extensive collection of research on vocabulary.
  • Vocabulary Acquisition Research Group Archive An extensive bibliographic database on vocabulary acquisition maintained by Paul Meara and the Vocabulary Acquisition Research Group at Swansea University.
  • VocabularySize.com – a free web-based service that implements the I.S.P. Nation's English Vocabulary Size Test in an online format.
  • Vocabulary test – a free four-minute English vocabulary size test, accurate within 10%, on which Brysbaert et al.'s (2016) estimates of vocabulary size are based.
  • Vocabulary test – in 30+ languages.
  • TestYourVocab.com – a free five-minute English vocabulary size test, accurate within 10%
  • WordsinaSentence.com – a free online dictionary that defines vocabulary words with contextual sentences.
This page was last edited on 22 October 2018, at 11:50
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