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Visa requirements for Moldovan citizens

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Visa requirements for Moldovan citizens are administrative entry restrictions imposed on citizens of Moldova by the authorities of other states. As of 13 April 2021, Moldovan citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 121 countries and territories, ranking the Moldovan passport 46th in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index.[1]

On 28 April 2014 Moldovan citizens were granted visa-free entry to 26 Schengen Area countries as well as Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, countries that are applying the Schengen policy and also Monaco, San Marino, Andorra and Vatican City, countries that have no immigration control.[2] Visa waiver applies only to holders of biometric passports.[3]

Visa requirements map

Visa requirements for Moldovan .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Moldova  Visa free  Visa issued upon arrival  Electronic authorisation or eVisa  Visa available both on arrival or online  Visa required prior to arrival
Visa requirements for Moldovan citizens
  Visa free
  Visa issued upon arrival
  Electronic authorisation or eVisa
  Visa available both on arrival or online
  Visa required prior to arrival

Visa requirements

Country Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Afghanistan Visa required[4]
 Albania Visa not required[5] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 6 month period
 Algeria Visa required[6]
 Andorra Visa not required[7]
 Angola Visa required[8]
 Antigua and Barbuda Visa not required[9] 1 month
 Argentina Visa required[10]
 Armenia Visa not required[11]
 Australia Visa required[12]
  • May apply online (Online Visitor e600 visa).[13]
 Austria Visa not required[14] 90 days
 Azerbaijan Visa not required[17] 90 days
  • If staying more than 10 days passengers visiting relatives must register with local police. If staying in a hotel, this will be arranged by the hotel.
  • Azerbaijan bans the entry of people who are of Armenian descent.
 Bahamas Visa not required[18] 3 months
 Bahrain Visa required[19]
 Bangladesh Visa on arrival[20] 30 days
 Barbados Visa not required[21] 28 days
 Belarus Visa not required[22]
 Belgium Visa not required[23] 90 days
 Belize Visa required[24]
 Benin eVisa / Visa on arrival[25][26] 30 days / 8 days
  • Must have an international vaccination certificate.
 Bhutan Visa required[27]
 Bolivia Visa on arrival[28] 90 days
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa not required[29] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 6 month period
 Botswana Visa required[30]
 Brazil Visa required[31]
  • Visa waiver treaty signed but not yet ratified[32]
 Brunei Visa required[33]
 Bulgaria Visa not required[34] 90 days
 Burkina Faso Visa required[35]
 Burundi Visa required[36]
 Cambodia eVisa / Visa on arrival[37] 30 days
 Cameroon Visa required[38]
 Canada Visa required[39]
 Cape Verde Visa on arrival[40]
 Central African Republic Visa required[41]
 Chad Visa required[42]
 Chile Visa not required[43][44]
 China Visa required[45]
  • Visa not required for 30 days for travelling as part of an accredited tour group.
 Colombia Visa not required[46][47]
 Comoros Visa on arrival[48]
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[49]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[50]
 Costa Rica Visa required[51]
 Côte d'Ivoire eVisa[52] 3 months
 Croatia Visa not required[53] 90 days
 Cuba Tourist Card required[54] 30 days
 Cyprus Visa not required[Note 1][55] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period[15][16]
 Czech Republic Visa not required[56] 90 days
 Denmark Visa not required[57] 90 days
 Djibouti eVisa[58] 31 days
 Dominica Visa not required[59] 21 days
 Dominican Republic Visa required[60]
 Ecuador Visa not required[61] 90 days
 Egypt eVisa[62][63]
  • eVisa cancelled during Covid19 pandemic
 El Salvador Visa required[64]
 Equatorial Guinea Visa required[65]
 Eritrea Visa required[66]
 Estonia Visa not required[67] 90 days
 Eswatini Visa required[68]
 Ethiopia eVisa[69] up to 90 days
 Fiji Visa not required[70] 4 months
 Finland Visa not required[71] 90 days
 France Visa not required[72] 90 days
 Gabon eVisa[73]
 Gambia Visa required[74][75]
  • In addition to a visa, an entry clearance must be obtained from the Gambian Immigration prior to travel.[76]
 Georgia Visa not required[77] 365 days[78]
 Germany Visa not required[79] 90 days
 Ghana Visa required[80]
 Greece Visa not required[81] 90 days
 Grenada Visa on arrival[82] 3 months
 Guatemala Visa required[83]
 Guinea eVisa[84] 90 days
 Guinea-Bissau eVisa / Visa on arrival[85] 90 days
 Guyana Visa required[86]
 Haiti Visa not required[87] 3 months
 Honduras Visa required[88]
 Hungary Visa not required[89] 90 days
 Iceland Visa not required[90] 90 days
 India e-Visa[91] 60 days
 Indonesia Visa not required[92][93] 30 days
 Iran Visa on arrival[94] 30 days[95]
 Iraq Visa required[96]
 Ireland Visa required[97]
 Israel Visa not required[98] 90 days
  • Biometric passports only.
 Italy Visa not required[99] 90 days
 Jamaica Visa on arrival[100]
 Japan Visa required[101]
 Jordan Visa required[102]
 Kazakhstan Visa not required[103] 90 days
 Kenya eVisa / Visa on arrival[104] 3 months
  • Can also be entered on an East Africa Tourist Visa issued by Rwanda or Uganda.[105]
 Kiribati Visa required[106]
 North Korea Visa required[107]
 South Korea Visa required[108]
 Kuwait Visa required[109]
 Kyrgyzstan Visa not required[110]
 Laos eVisa / Visa on arrival[111][112] 30 days
  • Visa on arrival is available at international airports Luangphabang, Pakse, Savannakhet and Vientiane, and at 4 land borders Friendship Bridge,[Note 2] and at 13 border crossings[Note 3] as well as Tanalaeng train station in Vientiane, which connects to the train station in Nongkai, Thailand.[113] Visa on arrival facility will be gradually phased out at various border crossings starting January 2020.[114]
  • eVisa may be used to enter Laos through the following entry points — Wattay International Airport and the First Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge
  • Entry points Lalai, Lantui, Meuang mom, Pakxan, and Phoudou are open only to visa holders.
  • Visa on arrival is extendable up to 60 days.
 Latvia Visa not required[115] 90 days
 Lebanon Free visa on arrival[116] 1 month
  • Extendable for 2 additional months
  • Granted free of charge at Beirut International Airport or any other port of entry if there is no Israeli visa or seal, holding a telephone number, an address in Lebanon, and a non refundable return or circle trip ticket.
 Lesotho eVisa[117][118]
 Liberia Visa required[119]
 Libya Visa required[120]
 Liechtenstein Visa not required[121] 90 days
 Lithuania Visa not required[122] 90 days
 Luxembourg Visa not required[123] 90 days
 Madagascar eVisa / Visa on arrival[124] 90 days
 Malawi eVisa / Visa on arrival[125][126] 90 days
 Malaysia Visa not required[127] 30 days
 Maldives Free visa on arrival[128] 30 days
 Mali Visa required[129]
 Malta Visa not required[130] 90 days
 Marshall Islands Visa required[131]
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[132]
 Mauritius Visa on arrival[133] 60 days
 Mexico Visa required[134]
 Micronesia Visa not required[135] 30 days
 Monaco Visa not required[136]
 Mongolia Visa required[137]
 Montenegro Visa not required[138][139] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Morocco Visa required[140]
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[141] 30 days
 Myanmar Visa required[142]
 Namibia Visa not required[143] 3 months
 Nauru Visa required[144]
   Nepal Visa on arrival[145] 90 days
 Netherlands Visa not required[146] 90 days
 New Zealand Visa required[147]
 Nicaragua Visa on arrival[150] 90 days
 Niger Visa required[151]
 Nigeria Visa required[152]
 North Macedonia Visa not required[153][154] 90 days
 Norway Visa not required[155] 90 days
 Oman eVisa[156] 30 days
 Pakistan Online Visa[157]
 Palau Free visa on arrival[158] 30 days
 Panama Visa not required[159] 180 days
 Papua New Guinea Visa required[160]
 Paraguay Visa required[161]
 Peru Visa not required[162] 183 days
 Philippines Visa required[163]
 Poland Visa not required[164] 90 days
 Portugal Visa not required[165] 90 days
 Qatar Visa not required[166] 30 days
 Romania Visa not required[167] 90 days
 Russia Visa not required[168] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Rwanda eVisa / Visa on arrival[169] 30 days
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Visa not required[170] 90 days
 Saint Lucia Visa required[171]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa not required[172] 1 month
 Samoa Visa not required[173] 60 days
 San Marino Visa not required[174]
 São Tomé and Príncipe eVisa[175]
 Saudi Arabia Visa required[176]
 Senegal Visa required[177]
 Serbia Visa not required[178] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 6 month period
 Seychelles Free Visitor's Permit on arrival[179] 3 months
 Sierra Leone Visa required[180]
 Singapore eVisa[181]
 Slovakia Visa not required[180] 90 days
 Slovenia Visa not required[182] 90 days
 Solomon Islands Visa required[183]
  • Visa on arrival if having pre-arranged visa
 Somalia Visa on arrival[184] 30 days
 South Africa Visa required[185]
 South Sudan Electronic Visa[186]
  • Obtainable online[187]
  • Printed visa authorization must be presented at the time of travel[187]
 Spain Visa not required[188] 90 days
 Sri Lanka eVisa / Visa on arrival[189] 30 days
 Sudan Visa required[190]
 Suriname eVisa[191]
 Sweden Visa not required[182] 90 days
  Switzerland Visa not required[192] 90 days
 Syria Visa required
  • According to the Law No. 2 of 2014 all visitors require visas prior to arrival.[193][194][195] According to the IATA database, visa may be obtained on arrival and is valid for 15 days.[196]
 Tajikistan Visa not required[197]
 Tanzania eVisa / Visa on arrival[198][199] 3 months
 Thailand Visa required[200]
 Timor-Leste Visa on arrival[201] 30 days
 Tonga Visa required[202]
 Togo Visa on arrival[203] 7 days
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa required[204]
 Tunisia Visa not required[205][206] 3 months
 Turkey Visa not required[207] 90 days
 Turkmenistan Visa required[210]
 Tuvalu Visa on arrival[211] 1 month
 Uganda eVisa / Visa on arrival[212] 3 months
  • May apply online.[213]
  • Can also be entered on an East Africa Tourist Visa issued by Kenya or Rwanda.[105]
 Ukraine Visa not required[214] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period
 United Arab Emirates Visa required[215]
 United Kingdom Visa required[216]
 United States Visa required[217]
 Uruguay Visa required[218]
 Uzbekistan Visa not required[219]
 Vanuatu Visa required[220]
  Vatican City Visa not required[221]
 Venezuela Visa required[222]
 Vietnam eVisa[223] 30 days
 Yemen Visa required[224]
 Zambia eVisa / Visa on arrival[225] 90 days
 Zimbabwe eVisa / Visa on arrival[226] 3 months

Territories and disputed areas

Visa requirements for Moldovan citizens for visits to various territories, disputed areas, partially recognized countries and restricted zones:

Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Abkhazia Visa not required[227]
Flag of the Greek Orthodox Church.svg
Mount Athos
Special permit required Special permit required (4 days: 25 euro for Orthodox visitors, 35 euro for non-Orthodox visitors, 18 euro for students). There is a visitors' quota: maximum 100 Orthodox and 10 non-Orthodox per day and women are not allowed.[228][229]
 Republic of Crimea Visa not required De facto visa policy of Russia is applied.[230]
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Visa not required 3 months[231][232]
United Nations UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus Access Permit required[233] Access Permit is required for travelling inside the zone, except Civil Use Areas.
 Faroe Islands Visa not required[234]
 Gibraltar Visa required[235]
 Guernsey Visa required[236]
 Isle of Man Visa required[237]
Norway Jan Mayen Permit required Permit issued by the local police required for staying for less than 24 hours[238] and permit issued by the Norwegian police for staying for more than 24 hours.[239]
 Jersey Visa required[240]
 Kosovo Visa required[241]
 Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Visa not required[242][243]
 Russia Special authorization required Several closed cities and regions in Russia require special authorization.[244]
 South Ossetia Visa not required Multiple entry visa to Russia and three-day prior notification are required to enter South Ossetia.[245][246]
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 British Indian Ocean Territory Special permit required Special permit required.[247]
 Eritrea outside Asmara Travel permit required To travel in the rest of the country, a Travel Permit for Foreigners is required (20 Eritrean nakfa).[248]
 Mayotte Visa not required[249] 90 days within 180 days
 Réunion Visa not required[249] 90 days within 180 days
 Ascension Island eVisa[250][251]
  • 3 months within any year period
 Saint Helena eVisa[252][253]
 Tristan da Cunha Permission required Permission to land required for 15/30 pounds sterling (yacht/ship passenger) for Tristan da Cunha Island or 20 pounds sterling for Gough Island, Inaccessible Island or Nightingale Islands.[254]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Undefined visa regime in the Western Sahara controlled territory.
 Somaliland Visa on arrival 30 days for 30 US dollars, payable on arrival.[255][256]
 Sudan Travel permit required All foreigners traveling more than 25 kilometers outside of Khartoum must obtain a travel permit.
Sudan Darfur Travel permit required Separate travel permit is required.[257]
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Hong Kong Visa required[258]
 India PAP/RAP PAP/RAP required Protected Area Permit (PAP) required for whole states of Nagaland and Sikkim and parts of states Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh. Restricted Area Permit (RAP) required for all of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and parts of Sikkim. Some of these requirements are occasionally lifted for a year.[259][260][261][262][263][264]
 Kazakhstan Special permission required Special permission required for the town of Baikonur and surrounding areas in Kyzylorda Oblast, and the town of Gvardeyskiy near Almaty.[265]
Iran Kish Island Visa not required Visitors to Kish Island do not require a visa.[266]
 Macao Visa not required[267] 90 days
Maldives Maldives Permission required With the exception of the capital Malé, tourists are generally prohibited from visiting non-resort islands without the express permission of the Government of Maldives.[268]
 North Korea outside Pyongyang Special permit required People are not allowed to leave the capital city, tourists can only leave the capital with a governmental tourist guide (no independent moving)
 Palestine Visa not required[269] Arrival by sea to Gaza Strip not allowed.[270]
 Taiwan Visa required[271]
Tajikistan Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province OIVR permit required OIVR permit required (15+5 Tajikistani Somoni) and another special permit (free of charge) is required for Lake Sarez.[272][273][274]
China Tibet Autonomous Region TTP required Tibet Travel Permit required (10 US Dollars).[275][276][277]
 Turkmenistan Special permit required A special permit, issued prior to arrival by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is required if visiting the following places: Atamurat, Cheleken, Dashoguz, Serakhs and Serhetabat.[278]
United Nations Korean Demilitarized Zone Restricted zone.
United Nations UNDOF Zone and Ghajar Restricted zone.
 Yemen Special permission required Special permission needed for travel outside Sana’a or Aden.[279]
Caribbean and North Atlantic
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)f
 Anguilla Visa required[280]
 Aruba Visa not required[281][282] 30 days
 Bermuda Visa required[283]
Netherlands Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba Visa not required[284][285] 90 days
 British Virgin Islands Visa required[286]
 Cayman Islands Visa required[287]
 Curacao Visa not required[288] 90 days
France French Guiana Visa not required[249] 90 days within 180 days
France French West Indies Visa not required[249] French West Indies refers to Martinique, Guadeloupe, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy.
 Greenland Visa not required[234]
 Montserrat Electronic visa[289]
 Puerto Rico Visa required[290]
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Visa not required[249] 90 days within 180 days
 Sint Maarten Visa not required[291][292] 90 days
 Turks and Caicos Islands Visa required[293]
 U.S. Virgin Islands Visa required[294]
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 American Samoa Entry permit required[295]
Australia Ashmore and Cartier Islands Special authorisation required Special authorisation required.[296]
 Cook Islands Visa not required[297] 31 days
Fiji Lau Province Special permission required Special permission required.[298]
 French Polynesia Visa not required[249] 90 days within 180 days
 Guam Visa required[299]
 New Caledonia Visa required[300]
 Niue Visa on arrival[301] 30 days
 Northern Mariana Islands Visa required[302]
 Pitcairn Islands Visa not required 14 days visa free and landing fee 35 USD or tax of 5 USD if not going ashore.[303][304][305]
 Tokelau Entry permit required[306]
United States United States Minor Outlying Islands Special permits required Special permits required for Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll and Wake Island.[307][308][309][310][311][312][313]
 Wallis and Futuna Visa required[314]
South Atlantic
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Falkland Islands Visa required[315]
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Permit required Pre-arrival permit from the Commissioner required (72 hours/1 month for 110/160 pounds sterling).[316][317]
Antarctica Special permits required for  British Antarctic Territory,  French Southern and Antarctic Lands,  Argentine Antarctica, Australia Australian Antarctic Territory, Antártica Chilena Province Chilean Antarctic Territory, Australia Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norway Peter I Island, Norway Queen Maud Land, New Zealand Ross Dependency.[318][319][320][321][322][323][324][325][326][327][328][329]

Non-visa restrictions

Moldovan passports are recognized by all countries of the world. However, in some rare cases, Moldovan citizens may be refused entry.

Blank passport pages

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages to be available in the passport being presented, typically one or two pages.[338] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being available.


An International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever
An International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever

Many African countries, including Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Niger, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Togo, require all incoming passengers older than nine months to one year[339] to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis, as does the South American territory of French Guiana.[340]

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently or has transited for 12 hours in those countries: Algeria, Botswana, Cabo Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Libya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.[341][342]

An increasing number of countries have been imposing additional COVID-19 related health restrictions such as quarantine measures and testing requirements. Many countries increasingly consider the vaccination status of travellers with regard to quarantine requirements or when deciding to allow them entry at all.[343] This is justified by research that shows that the efficacy of the Pfizer vaccine lasts for six months or so.[344]

Passport validity length

In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[345] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[346] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Peru.[347] Philippines,[348] Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[349]

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova and New Zealand. Similarly, the EEA countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, all European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland) together with Switzerland also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure unless the bearer is an EEA or Swiss national.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months on arrival include Albania, Honduras, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, the Maldives[350] and South Africa.

Other countries, such as Japan,[351] Ireland and the United Kingdom,[352] require a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay.

A very few countries, such as Paraguay, just require a passport valid on arrival.

Some countries have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[353][354] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[355]

Criminal record

Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[356] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record while others impose restrictions depending on the type of conviction and the length of the sentence.

Persona non grata

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning their entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.[357]

Israeli stamps

Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)
Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)

Kuwait,[358] Lebanon,[359] Libya,[360] Syria,[361] and Yemen[362] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel (unless the entry is for some work-related purposes). Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport. Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when passing into and out of Gaza.[citation needed]

The Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage claims that having an Israeli stamp does not disqualify someone from visiting Saudi Arabia.[363]

Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Armenian ethnicity

Entry Permit to Nagorno-Karabakh issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport
Entry Permit to Nagorno-Karabakh issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport

Due to a state of war existing between Armenia and Azerbaijan,[364][365][366] Armenian citizens and other foreign nationals of Armenian descent are likely to encounter difficulties when attempting to enter the Republic of Azerbaijan.[367][368][369]

Azerbaijan bans visits by foreign citizens to the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[369] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under the control of Armenia, without the prior consent of the government of Azerbaijan. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[370] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[371] As of 2 September 2019, the list mentioned 852 people.


A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.
A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest travellers who refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to quickly change planes rather than go landside.[372]

Fingerprinting countries include Afghanistan,[373][374] Argentina,[375] Brunei, Cambodia,[376] China,[377] Ethiopia,[378] Ghana, Guinea,[379] India, Japan,[380][381] Kenya (both fingerprints and a photo are taken),[382] Malaysia upon entry and departure,[383] Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[384] Singapore, South Korea,[385] Taiwan, Thailand,[386] Uganda[387] and the United States.

Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by domestic legislation),[388][389][390] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[391]

Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[392] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[393][394] The United States Department of Homeland Security has announced plans to greatly increase the biometric data it collects at US borders.[395] In 2018, Singapore began trials of iris scanning at three land and maritime immigration checkpoints.[396][397]


Several countries including Argentina, Cambodia, Japan, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea and the United States demand all passengers to be fingerprinted on arrival.[398][399][400][401][402][403][404]

See also

References and Notes

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  342. ^ Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation; and other vaccination requirement
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  349. ^ Timatic
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  356. ^ Government of Canada -- Overcome criminal convictions
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  360. ^ "Travel Advice for Libya - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Archived from the original on 2013-06-22. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  361. ^ Travel Advice for Syria - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Archived 2008-12-19 at the Wayback Machine and Syrian Ministry of Tourism
  362. ^ "Travel Advice for Yemen - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Archived from the original on 2011-08-20. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  363. ^ "It is possible to visit KSA with an Israeli stamp on the passport?". Visit Saudi. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
  364. ^ "2020 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Azerbaijan". U.S. Department of State. Office of the Inspector General. 30 March 2021. Retrieved 2 May 2021. Significant human rights issues included: unlawful or arbitrary killing; torture; arbitrary detention; harsh and sometimes life-threatening prison conditions; political prisoners; arbitrary interference with privacy; politically motivated reprisal against individuals outside the country; pervasive problems with the independence of the judiciary; heavy restrictions on free expression, the press, and the internet, including violence against journalists, the criminalization of libel and slander, harassment and incarceration of journalists on questionable charges, and blocking of websites; substantial interference with the rights of peaceful assembly and freedom of association; restrictions on freedom of movement; severe restrictions on political participation; systemic government corruption; police brutality against individuals based on sexual orientation; and existence of the worst forms of child labour. Significant human rights issues connected with the Nagorno-Karabakh armed conflict included unlawful killings, civilian casualties, and inhuman treatment. The government did not prosecute or punish the majority of officials who committed human rights abuses; impunity remained a problem.
  365. ^ "ECRI REPORT ON AZERBAIJAN (fifth monitoring cycle)" (PDF). European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI). Council of Europe. Retrieved 3 May 2021. there is a conflict-ridden domestic political discourse and Azerbaijan’s leadership, education system and media are very prolific in their denigration of Armenians. Political opponents are accused of having Armenian roots or of receiving funds from Armenian sources. An entire generation of Azerbaijanis has now grown up listening to constant rhetoric of Armenian aggression. According to a 2012 survey, 91% perceived Armenia as Azerbaijan’s greatest enemy. As a result, the Armenians living in the country need to hide their ethnic affiliation and there is no organisation of the Armenian minority in the country with which ECRI’s delegation could have met. The human rights activists Leyla and Arif Yunus, who worked inter alia towards reconciliation with Armenia, have been arrested and sentenced under controversial accusations to heavy prison terms.
  366. ^ The Caucasus: Frozen Conflicts and Closed Borders: Hearing Before The Committee On Foreign Affairs House Of Representatives One Hundred Tenth Congress Second Session (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2021. Our goal is the complete elimination of Armenians. You, Nazis, already eliminated the Jews in the 1930s and 40s, right? You should be able to understand us.
  367. ^ Kucera, Joshua (5 July 2017). "Russia Complains To Azerbaijan About Discrimination Against Armenians". Eurasianet, an independent news organization. Retrieved 2 May 2021. Russia has formally complained to Azerbaijan about "ethnic discrimination" against Russian citizens of Armenian origin, saying that 25 Russians so far this year have been denied entry to Azerbaijan because they had Armenian names. #"Russian citizens arriving in Azerbaijan are truly discriminated against on ethnic grounds," the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs said in a statement on July 5. "We demand the cessation of this outrageous practice, inconsistent with the friendly relations between our two countries." Azerbaijan has long denied entry to citizens of all countries, not just Russians, whose names end in the standard Armenian surname suffixes -ian or -yan.
  368. ^ "Citing ethnicity, Azerbaijan bars photojournalist". Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved 2 May 2021. Diana Markosian, a freelance photographer for Bloomberg Markets magazine was denied entry to Azerbaijan last week by authorities who cited her ethnicity as a reason, international news reports said. On June 27, border guards at the Heydar Aliyev International Airport in Baku detained Markosian on arrival from the Latvian capital, Riga, then expelled her the next day, according to press reports and CPJ interviews. Markosian told CPJ that the border guards took her passport, saying that she had an Armenian last name and that they "needed to clarify something." Then they put her in the airport's transit zone where she spent 16 hours until she was put on a flight to Tbilisi, Georgia. Markosian holds both U.S. and Russian citizenship, she told CPJ. A government spokesman told the Baku-based news agency APA that Markosian was deported because authorities would be unable to provide her with "security" since she is an ethnic Armenian.
  369. ^ a b "Azerbaijan Country Page of the NCSJ (advocates on behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia) accessed 23 May 2010". Archived from the original on 8 March 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  370. ^ "Warning for the foreign nationals wishing to travel to the occupied territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  371. ^ "List of foreign citizens illegally visited occupied territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  372. ^ Calder, Simon (24 April 2017). "Airline lobbying for a relaxation of draconian rules for London-Auckland travellers". The Independent. Retrieved 7 July 2018. Travellers heading west from the UK to New Zealand may soon be able to avoid the onerous requirement to clear US border control during the refuelling stop at Los Angeles airport (LAX). Unlike almost every other country in the world, the US insists on a full immigration check even for passengers who simply intend to re-board their plane to continue onwards to a foreign destination. Air New Zealand, which flies daily from Heathrow via Los Angeles to Auckland, says there are currently “strict requirements for travellers” in transit at LAX. Through passengers to Auckland on flight NZ1 or Heathrow on NZ2 must apply in advance for an ESTA (online visa) even though they have no intention of staying in the US. They also have to undergo screening by the Transportation Security Administration.
  373. ^ "How to enter Afghanistan. The Entry Requirements for Afghanistan - CountryReports".
  374. ^ Nordland, Rod (19 November 2011). "In Afghanistan, Big Plans to Gather Biometric Data".
  375. ^ "Argentina strengthens migratory control". Archived from the original on 2 December 2013.
  376. ^ "Cambodia Foreign Entry Requirements".
  377. ^ "China to Start Fingerprinting Foreign Visitors". Air Canada. 31 Jan 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2018. Effective April 27, 2018, border control authorities at all of China’s ports of entry, including its airports, will start collecting the fingerprints of all foreign visitors aged between 14 and 70. Diplomatic passport holders and beneficiaries of reciprocal agreements are exempted..
  378. ^ "Äthiopien: Reise- und Sicherheitshinweise".
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  381. ^ "Anger as Japan moves to fingerprint foreigners - World". 2007-10-26.
  382. ^ "Immigration & Visas FAQs". Kenya Airports Authority. Retrieved 6 May 2019. Will visitors still have their digital photo and fingerprints taken at the immigration desk on arrival? Yes, the need to have photos and fingerprints taken upon arrival is to authenticate that the person who applied for the Visa is the same person at the port of entry
  383. ^ "Malaysia". CountryReports. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  384. ^ "Saudi Arabia mandates fingerprints and biometrics for foreigners - SecureIDNews". Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  385. ^ F_161. "S Korea to scan fingerprints of suspicious foreign visitors - People's Daily Online". Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  386. ^ "National News Bureau of Thailand".
  387. ^ AfricaNews (2019-01-14). "Gemalto awarded Uganda's new e-Immigration solution with fast-track border crossing eKiosks at Entebbe Airport". Africanews. Retrieved 2019-04-24.
  388. ^ Brown, Theresa Cardinal (9 May 2016). "Biometric Entry-Exit Update: CBP Developing Land Border Process". Bipartisan Policy Center. Retrieved 25 April 2019. While a requirement for a biometric entry-exit system has been in law for over a decade, it is not yet a reality. Many reasons for the long gestating development have been documented in BPC’s 2014 report Entry-Exit System: Progress, Challenges, and Outlook, including the technological, operational, and cost challenges of creating exit systems and infrastructure where none exist today. However, many critics, especially in Congress, simply accused the Department of Homeland security of dragging its feet... the major operational, logistical, and technical challenge in implementing exit capability at our ports has been the land borders. Unlike airports and seaports, the land border environment is not physically controlled, there is no means to get advance information on who is arriving, and the sheer volume of travel—both vehicular and pedestrian—creates challenges in any system to not further exacerbate delays. While biometric exit for land vehicular traffic is still in the “what if” stage, CBP is moving ahead and piloting systems and technology to use with the large population of pedestrian crossers at the U.S.-Mexico border.
  389. ^ Lipton, Eric (21 May 2013). "U.S. Quietly Monitors Foreigners' Departures at the Canadian Border". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Long demanded by lawmakers in Congress, it is considered a critical step to developing a coherent program to curb illegal immigration, as historically about 30 percent to 40 percent of illegal immigrants in the United States arrived on tourist visas or other legal means and then never left, according to estimates by Homeland Security officials.
  390. ^ LIPTON, Eric (15 December 2006). "Administration to Drop Effort to Track if Visitors Leave". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Efforts to determine whether visitors actually leave have faltered. Departure monitoring would help officials hunt for foreigners who have not left, if necessary. Domestic security officials say, however, it would be too expensive to conduct fingerprint or facial recognition scans for land departures.
  391. ^ Campoy, Ana. "The US wants to scan the faces of all air passengers leaving the country". Quartz. Retrieved 2019-04-24.
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  393. ^ "Iris Scan Implemented at Doha International Airport". Archived from the original on 8 January 2012.
  394. ^ "Iris Scanner Could Replace Emirates ID In UAE". SimplyDXB. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2018. The breach of privacy is probably the biggest threat to the biometric technique of iris recognition. Secondly, a device error can false reject or false accept the identity which can also have some heinous consequences. Lastly, the method isn’t the most cost-effective one. It is complex and therefore expensive. Furthermore, the maintenance of devices and data can also be relatively burdensome. However, thanks to the oil money and spending ability of Dubai, they are economically equipped to effectively embrace this system.
  395. ^ Roberts, Jeff John (12 September 2016). "Homeland Security Plans to Expand Fingerprint and Eye Scanning at Borders". Fortune. Fortune Media IP Limited. Retrieved 24 April 2019. Unlike with documents, it’s very hard for a traveler to present a forged copy of a fingerprint or iris. That’s why the U.S. Department of Homeland Security plans to vastly expand the amount of biometric data it collects at the borders. According to Passcode, a new program will ramp up a process to scan fingers and eyes in order to stop people entering and exiting the country on someone else’s passport.
  396. ^ "Singapore tests eye scans at immigration checkpoints". Reuters. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2019. Singapore has started scanning travellers’ eyes at some of its border checkpoints, its immigration authority said on Monday, in a trial of expensive technology that could one day replace fingerprint verification.
  397. ^ Lee, Vivien (6 August 2018). "5 Reasons We Prefer Iris Scans To Fingerprint Checks At Our Borders In Singapore". Retrieved 24 April 2019. The iris technology could potentially scan irises covertly, as opposed to the scanning of thumbprints which necessitates active participation.
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  399. ^ Reuters
  400. ^
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  403. ^
  404. ^
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Holders of biometric passports only.
  2. ^
    • Vientiane
    • Savannakhet
    • Khammuan
    • Bokeo
  3. ^
    • Panghok - Taichang (Vietnam)
    • Samliemkham - (Thailand and Myanmar)
    • Nonghaed - Nam kanh (Vietnam)
    • Nam phao - Cau treo (Vietnam)
    • Na pao - Cha lo (Vietnam)
    • Daensavan - Lao bao (Vietnam)
    • Veunkham - Nong nok khian (Cambodia)
    • Vang tao - Chongmek (Thailand)
    • Boten - Bo han (China)
    • Nam ngeun - Huay konl (Thailand)
    • Namheuang - Nakaseng (Thailand)
    • Nam soy - Na meo (Vietnam)
    • Phoukeua - Kontoum (Vietnam)
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