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Visa requirements for Egyptian citizens

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Visa requirements for Egyptian citizens are administrative entry restrictions imposed on citizens of Egypt by the authorities of other states.

As of 13 April 2020, Egyptian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 50 countries and territories, ranking the Egyptian passport 93rd in terms of travel freedom (tied with the passports from Angola,Burundi, and Laos) according to the Henley Passport Index.[1]

Visa requirements map

Visa requirements for Egyptian citizens.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Egypt  Visa free access  Visa on arrival  eVisa  Visa available both on arrival or online  Visa required
Visa requirements for Egyptian citizens
  Egypt
  Visa free access
  Visa on arrival
  eVisa
  Visa available both on arrival or online
  Visa required

Visa requirements

Country Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Afghanistan Visa required[2]
 Albania Visa required[3]
  • Visa free for a maximum stay of 90 days within 180 days for valid visa holders or residents of the Schengen Area member states, the United Kingdom and the United States.
 Algeria Visa required[4]
 Andorra Visa required[5]
 Angola Visa required[6]
 Antigua and Barbuda Electronic Entry Visa[7] 1 month
 Argentina Visa required[8]
 Armenia Visa required[9]
 Australia and territories Visa required[10]
  • May apply online (Online Visitor e600 visa).
 Austria Visa required[11]
 Azerbaijan Visa required[12]
 Bahamas Visa required[13]
  • Visa free for valid visa holders or residents of the United States.
 Bahrain eVisa[14] 14 days
 Bangladesh Visa required[15]
 Barbados Visa required[16]
 Belarus Visa required[17]
 Belgium Visa required[18]
 Belize Visa required[19]
  • Visa not required for holders of U.S. permanent resident card.
 Benin Visa not required[20] 90 days[21][22]
 Bhutan Visa required[23]
 Bolivia Visa on arrival[24] 90 days
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa required[25]
 Botswana Visa required[26]
 Brazil Visa required[27]
 Brunei Visa required[28]
 Bulgaria Visa required[29]
 Burkina Faso Visa on arrival[30] 1 month
 Burundi Visa not required[31]
 Cambodia eVisa / Visa on arrival[32] 30 days
 Cameroon Visa required[33]
 Canada Visa required[34]
 Cape Verde Visa on arrival[35] 3 months
 Central African Republic Visa required[36]
 Chad Visa required[37]
 Chile Visa required[38]
 China Visa required[39]
 Colombia Visa required[40]
  • May apply online.[41]
 Comoros Visa on arrival[42] 45 days
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[43]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[44]
 Costa Rica Visa required[45]
  • Visa not required for holders of U.S. permanent resident card.
 Côte d'Ivoire eVisa[46]
 Croatia Visa required[47]
 Cuba Tourist Card required[48]
 Cyprus Visa required[49]
 Czech Republic Visa required[50]
 Denmark Visa required[51]
 Djibouti eVisa[52] 31 days
 Dominica Visa not required[53] 21 days
 Dominican Republic Visa required[54]
  • Visa not required for holders of U.S. permanent resident card but visitors must buy tourist card for $10 at the airport.
 Ecuador Visa required[55][56]
 El Salvador Visa required[57]
 Equatorial Guinea Visa required[58]
 Eritrea Visa required[59]
 Estonia Visa required[60]
 Eswatini Visa required[61]
 Ethiopia eVisa / Visa on arrival up to 90 days
 Fiji Visa required[64]
 Finland Visa required[65]
 France Visa required[66]
 Gabon eVisa[67]
 Gambia Visa required[68][69]
 Georgia eVisa[70]
  • Visa not required for holders of U.S. permanent resident card up to 90 days eVisa must be obtained online or at arrival.
  • Visa not required for holders of GGC permanent resident (Iqama) up to 90 days from arrival.
 Germany Visa required[71]
 Ghana Visa on arrival[72] 30 days
 Greece Visa required[73]
 Grenada Visa required[74]
 Guatemala Visa required[75]
  • Visa not required for holders of U.S. visa, for stay of up to 90 days, within 180 days.
 Guinea Visa not required[76]
 Guinea-Bissau eVisa / Visa on arrival[77] 90 days
 Guyana eVisa[78]
 Haiti Visa not required[79] 3 months
 Honduras Visa required[80]
 Hungary Visa required[81]
 Iceland Visa required[82]
 India Visa required[83]
 Indonesia Visa not required[84] 30 days
  • Select ports of entry.
 Iran Visa not required[85][86] 20 days
 Iraq Visa required[87]
 Ireland Visa required[88]
 Israel Visa required[89]
  • Visa not required for up to 14 days if entering through Taba and visiting up to Beersheba only.[90]
  • Otherwise, a confirmation from Israeli government is required before a visa is issued.[91]
 Italy Visa required[92]
 Jamaica Visa required[93]
  • Visa not required for holders of U.S. permanent resident card.
 Japan Visa required[94]
 Jordan Visa not required[95] 1 month
 Kazakhstan Visa required[96]
 Kenya Electronic Visa[97]
 Kiribati Visa required[98]
 North Korea Visa required[99]
 South Korea Visa required[100]
 Kuwait Visa required[101]
 Kyrgyzstan eVisa[102]
 Laos eVisa / Visa on arrival[104] 30 days
  • Visa on arrival is available at international airports Luangphabang, Pakse, Savannakhet and Vientiane, and at 4 land borders Friendship Bridge,[Note 1] and at 13 border crossings[Note 2] as well as Tanalaeng train station in Vientiane, which connects to the train station in Nongkai, Thailand.[105] Visa on arrival facility will be gradually phased out at various border crossings starting January 2020.[106]
  • eVisa may be used to enter Laos through the following entry points — Wattay International Airport and the First Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge
  • Entry points Lalai, Lantui, Meuang mom, Pakxan, and Phoudou are open only to visa holders.
  • Visa on arrival is extendable up to 60 days.
 Latvia Visa required[107]
 Lebanon Conditional Visa on arrival[108] 30 days
  • Visa on arrival at Beirut International Airport or any other port of entry only if they are holding a copy of a reservation in a 3 to 5 star hotel or private residential address with telephone number in the Republic of Lebanon, at least US$2,000 in cash, a non-refundable return or circle trip ticket, and there are no Israeli stamps, visas, or seals on their passport.[109]
 Lesotho eVisa[110][111]
 Liberia Visa required[112]
 Libya Visa required[113]
 Liechtenstein Visa required[114]
 Lithuania Visa required[115]
 Luxembourg Visa required[116]
 Madagascar eVisa / Visa on arrival[117] 90 days
 Malawi eVisa[118]
 Malaysia Visa not required[119] 90 days
 Maldives Visa on arrival[120] 30 days
 Mali Visa required[121]
 Malta Visa required[122]
 Marshall Islands Visa on arrival[123] 90 days
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[124]
 Mauritius Visa not required[125] 90 days
 Mexico Visa required[126]
  • Visa free for valid visa holders or residents of the United States.
 Micronesia Visa not required[127] 30 days
 Moldova Visa required[128]
 Monaco Visa required[129]
 Mongolia Visa required[130]
 Montenegro Visa required[131]
 Morocco Visa required[132]
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[133] 30 days[134]
 Myanmar eVisa[135] 28 days
 Namibia Visa required[136]
 Nauru Visa required[137]
   Nepal Visa on arrival[138] 90 days
 Netherlands Visa required[139]
 New Zealand Visa required[140]
 Nicaragua Visa on arrival[142] 90 days
 Niger Visa required[143]
 Nigeria Visa required[144]
 North Macedonia Visa required[145]
 Norway Visa required[146]
 Oman Visa required[147]
 Pakistan Online Visa[148]
  • Online Visa eligible.[149]
  • Electronic Travel Authorization to obtain a visa on arrival for business purposes.[150]
 Palau Visa on arrival[151] 30 days
 Panama Visa required[152]
 Papua New Guinea Visa required[153]
 Paraguay Visa required[154]
 Peru Visa required[155]
 Philippines Visa required[156]
 Poland Visa required[157]
 Portugal Visa required[158]
 Qatar Visa required[159][160]
 Romania Visa required[161]
 Russia Visa required[162]
 Rwanda eVisa / Visa on arrival[163] 30 days
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Visa not required[164] 3 months
 Saint Lucia Visa required[165]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa not required[166] 1 month
 Samoa Entry Permit on arrival[167] 60 days
 San Marino Visa required[168]
 São Tomé and Príncipe eVisa[169]
  • Visa is obtained online.[170]
 Saudi Arabia Visa required[171]
 Senegal Visa on arrival[172] 90 days
 Serbia Visa required[173]
 Seychelles Visitor's Permit on arrival[174] 3 months
 Sierra Leone Visa required[175]
 Singapore Visa required[176]
 Slovakia Visa required[177]
 Slovenia Visa required[178]
 Solomon Islands Visa required[179]
 Somalia Visa on arrival[180] 30 days
 South Africa Visa required[181]
  • Visa Free Access announced. Dates to be confirmed. [182]
 South Sudan Visa not required[183]
 Spain Visa required[184]
 Sri Lanka Visa required[185]
 Sudan Visa not required[186]
  • Visa required for male from 18 to 49 years of age.
 Suriname eVisa[187]
 Sweden Visa required[188]
  Switzerland Visa required[189]
 Syria Visa required[190]
  • According to the Law No. 2 of 2014 all visitors require visas prior to arrival.[191][192][193]
 Tajikistan eVisa[194] 45 days
  • E-visa holders can enter through all border points.[195]
 Tanzania eVisa / Visa on arrival[196] 3 months
 Thailand Visa required[197]
 Timor-Leste Visa on arrival[198] 30 days
 Togo Visa on arrival[199] 7 days
 Tonga Visa required[200]
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa required[201]
 Tunisia Visa required[202]
  • Not required for tours organised by a travel agency.
 Turkey Visa required[203]
  • Passengers younger than 45 years or older than 20 years must obtain a visa in advance. They can obtain a visa on arrival only if holding a valid visa or residence permit from Schengen Area countries, Ireland, the United Kingdom or the United States.
 Turkmenistan Visa required[204]
 Tuvalu Visa on arrival[205] 1 month
 Uganda eVisa / Visa on arrival[206] 3 months
 Ukraine Visa required[208]
 United Arab Emirates Visa required[209]
 United Kingdom and Crown dependencies Visa required[210]
 United States Visa required[211]
 Uruguay Visa required[212]
 Uzbekistan eVisa[213] 30 days
 Vanuatu Visa required[214]
  Vatican City Visa required[215]
 Venezuela Visa required[216]
 Vietnam Visa required[217]
 Yemen Visa on arrival[218] 3 months
 Zambia eVisa[219][220]
 Zimbabwe eVisa / Visa on arrival[221] 3 months

Dependent, disputed, or restricted territories

Unrecognized or partially recognized countries
Territory Conditions of access Notes
 Abkhazia Visa required[222]
 Kosovo Visa required[223]
  • Do not need a visa a holder of a valid biometric residence permit issued by one of the Schengen member states or a valid multi-entry Schengen Visa, a holder of a valid Laissez-Passer issued by United Nations Organizations, NATO, OSCE, Council of Europe or European Union a holder of a valid travel documents issued by EU Member and Schengen States, United States of America, Canada, Australia and Japan based on the 1951 Convention on Refugee Status or the 1954 Convention on the Status of Stateless Persons, as well as holders of valid travel documents for foreigners (max. 15 days stay)[224]
 Northern Cyprus Visa not required[225]
 Artsakh Visa required[226] Travellers with Artsakh visa (expired or valid) or evidence of travel to Artsakh (stamps) will be permanently denied entry to Azerbaijan.[227]
 Palestine Visa not required[228] Arrival by sea to Gaza Strip not allowed.[229]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Undefined visa regime in the Western Sahara controlled territory.
 Somaliland Visa on arrival 30 days for 30 US dollars, payable on arrival.[230][231]
 South Ossetia Visa not required[232] Multiple entry visa to Russia and three day prior notification are required to enter South Ossetia.[233][234]
 Taiwan Visa required[235][236]
 Transnistria Visa not required[237] Registration required after 24h.[238][239]
Dependent and autonomous territories
Territory Conditions of access Notes
China
 Hong Kong Visa not required[240] 90 days
 Macau Visa not required[241] 90 days
Denmark
 Faroe Islands Visa required[242]
 Greenland Visa required[243]
France
 French Guiana Visa required[244]
 French Polynesia Visa required[245]
France French West Indies Visa required Includes overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique and overseas collectivities of Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin.
 Mayotte Visa required[246]
 New Caledonia Visa required[247]
 Réunion Visa required[248]
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Visa required[249]
 Wallis and Futuna Visa required[250]
Netherlands
 Aruba Visa required[251]
Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands Visa required[252] Includes Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba.
 Curaçao Visa required[253]
 Sint Maarten Visa required[254]
New Zealand
 Cook Islands Visa not required[255] 31 days
 Niue Visa not required[256] 30 days
 Tokelau Visa required[257]
United Kingdom
 Akrotiri and Dhekelia Visa required[258]
 Anguilla Visa required[259] Holders of a valid visa issued by the United Kingdom do not require a visa.[260]
 Bermuda Visa required[261]
 British Indian Ocean Territory Special permit required Special permit required.[262]
 British Virgin Islands Visa required[263]
 Cayman Islands Visa required[264]
 Falkland Islands Visa required[265]
 Gibraltar Visa required[266]
 Montserrat eVisa[267]
 Pitcairn Islands Visa not required 14 days visa-free and landing fee US$35 or tax of US$5 if not going ashore.[268][269][270]
 Ascension Island Admission refused[271][272] From May 2015, the Ascension Island Government does not issue entry visas including eVisas to nationals of Egypt.[273]
 Saint Helena eVisa[274][275]
 Tristan da Cunha Permission required Permission to land required for 15/30 pounds sterling (yacht/ship passenger) for Tristan da Cunha Island or 20 pounds sterling for Gough Island, Inaccessible Island or Nightingale Islands.[276]
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Permit required Pre-arrival permit from the Commissioner required (72 hours/1 month for 110/160 pounds sterling).[277][278]
 Turks and Caicos Islands Visa required[279] Holders of a valid visa issued by Canada, United Kingdom or the USA do not required a visa for a maximum stay of 90 days.
United States
 American Samoa Visa required[280]
 Guam Visa required[281]
 Northern Mariana Islands Visa required[282]
 Puerto Rico Visa required[283]
 U.S. Virgin Islands Visa required[284]
Antarctica and adjacent islands
Special permits required for  Bouvet Island,  British Antarctic Territory,  French Southern and Antarctic Lands,  Argentine Antarctica, Australia Australian Antarctic Territory, Antártica Chilena Province Chilean Antarctic Territory, Australia Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norway Peter I Island, Norway Queen Maud Land, New Zealand Ross Dependency.[285][286][287][288][289][290][291][292][293][294][295][296]

Non-visa restrictions

Many countries have entry restrictions on foreigners that go beyond the common requirement of having either a valid visa or a visa exemption. Such restrictions may be health related or impose additional documentation requirements on certain classes of people for diplomatic or political purposes.

Blank passport pages

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages to be available in the passport being presented, typically one or two pages.[297] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being available.

Vaccination

An International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever
An International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever

Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Uganda, and Zambia, require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis, as does the South American territory of French Guiana.[298]

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently.[299]

An increasing number of countries have been imposing additional COVID-19 related health restrictions such as quarantine measures and testing requirements. Many countries will increasingly consider the vaccination status of travellers when deciding to allow them entry or not or require them to quarantine since recently published research shows that the Pfizer vaccine effect lasts for six months or so.[300]

Passport validity length

In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[301] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[302] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Peru.[303] Philippines,[304] Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[305]

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova and New Zealand. Similarly, the EEA countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, all European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland) together with Switzerland also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure unless the bearer is an EEA or Swiss national.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months on arrival include Albania, Honduras, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, the Maldives[306] and South Africa.

Other countries, such as Japan,[307] Ireland and the United Kingdom,[308] require a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay.

A very few countries, such as Paraguay, just require a passport valid on arrival.

Some countries have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[309][310] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[311]

Criminal record

Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[312] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record while others impose restrictions depending on the type of conviction and the length of the sentence.

Persona non grata

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning their entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.[313]

Israeli stamps

Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)
Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)

Kuwait,[314] Lebanon,[315] Libya,[316] Sudan,[317] Syria,[318] and Yemen[319] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel (unless the entry is for some work-related purposes). Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport. Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when passing into and out of Gaza.[citation needed]

The Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage claims that having an Israeli stamp does not disqualify someone from visiting Saudi Arabia.[320]

Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Armenian ethnicity

Entry Permit to Nagorno-Karabakh issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport
Entry Permit to Nagorno-Karabakh issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport

Due to a state of war existing between Armenia and Azerbaijan,[321][322][323] it is not only[324][325] Armenian citizens that encounter difficulties upon entry into the Republic of Azerbaijan, but also all citizens and nationals of any other country who are of Armenian descent.[326][327]

Azerbaijan also strictly bans any visit by foreign citizens to the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[326] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under the control of Armenia, without the prior consent of the government of Azerbaijan. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[328] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[329] As of 2 September 2019, the list mentioned 852 people.

Upon request, the authorities of the largely unrecognised Republic of Artsakh may attach their visa and/or stamps to a separate piece of paper in order to avoid detection of travel to their territory.[citation needed]

Biometrics

A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.
A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest travellers who refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to quickly change planes rather than go landside.[330]

Fingerprinting countries include Afghanistan,[331][332] Argentina,[333] Brunei, Cambodia,[334] China,[335] Ethiopia,[336] Ghana, Guinea,[337] India, Japan,[338][339] Kenya (both fingerprints and a photo are taken),[340] Malaysia upon entry and departure,[341] Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[342] Singapore, South Korea,[343] Taiwan, Thailand,[344] Uganda[345] and the United States.

Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by its legislature),[346] [347] [348] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[349]

Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[350] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[351][352]

See also

References and Notes

References
  1. ^ "Global Ranking - Passport Index 2019" (PDF). Henley & Partners. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  2. ^ Visa information, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan.
  3. ^ Visa regime for foreign citizens, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs of Albania.
  4. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  5. ^ Travel to Andorra, Ministry of External Affairs of Andorra.
  6. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  7. ^ Countries exempt from visa, Department of Immigration of Antigua and Barbuda.
  8. ^ Visa regime, National Directorate of Migrations of Argentina (in Spanish).
  9. ^ Visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Armenia.
  10. ^ Visitor visa options, Department of Home Affairs of Australia.
  11. ^ Schengen visa, Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs of Austria.
  12. ^ Countries with visa-free travel regime, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan (in Azerbaijani).
  13. ^ Visa requirements for foreigners travelling to the Bahamas, Government of the Bahamas, 18 February 2014.
  14. ^ Bahrain eVisas, Ministry of Interior of Bahrain.
  15. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  16. ^ Visa requirements for foreign nationals entering Barbados, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Barbados, 3 June 2009.
  17. ^ Visa-free travel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belarus.
  18. ^ Visa for Belgium, Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs of Belgium.
  19. ^ Countries not requiring an entry visa, Department of Immigration and Nationality Services of Belize, September 2016.
  20. ^ Visa, Emigration and Immigration Directorate of Benin.
  21. ^ "Bénin: Les ressortissants de 40 pays africains bientôt exemptés de visas - RFI".
  22. ^ "Benin abolishes short-stay visa for nationals of 31 African countries". 2017-02-15.
  23. ^ Visa, Tourism Council of Bhutan.
  24. ^ Requirements to enter Bolivia, General Directorate of Migration of Bolivia (in Spanish).
  25. ^ Visas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  26. ^ Requirements for visa application, Government of Botswana.
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  352. ^ "Iris Scanner Could Replace Emirates ID In UAE". SimplyDXB. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2018. The breach of privacy is probably the biggest threat to the biometric technique of iris recognition. Secondly, a device error can false reject or false accept the identity which can also have some heinous consequences. Lastly, the method isn’t the most cost-effective one. It is complex and therefore expensive. Furthermore, the maintenance of devices and data can also be relatively burdensome. However, thanks to the oil money and spending ability of Dubai, they are economically equipped to effectively embrace this system.
Notes
  1. ^
    • Vientiane
    • Savannakhet
    • Khammuan
    • Bokeo
  2. ^
    • Panghok - Taichang (Vietnam)
    • Samliemkham - (Thailand and Myanmar)
    • Nonghaed - Nam kanh (Vietnam)
    • Nam phao - Cau treo (Vietnam)
    • Na pao - Cha lo (Vietnam)
    • Daensavan - Lao bao (Vietnam)
    • Veunkham - Nong nok khian (Cambodia)
    • Vang tao - Chongmek (Thailand)
    • Boten - Bo han (China)
    • Nam ngeun - Huay konl (Thailand)
    • Namheuang - Nakaseng (Thailand)
    • Nam soy - Na meo (Vietnam)
    • Phoukeua - Kontoum (Vietnam)
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