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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vaporwave is a microgenre of electronic music and an Internet  meme that emerged in the early 2010s.[18] The style is defined by its appropriation of 1980s and 1990s mood music styles such as smooth jazz, elevator music, R&B, and lounge music, typically sampling or manipulating tracks via chopped and screwed techniques and other effects. Its surrounding subculture is sometimes associated with an ambiguous or satirical take on consumer capitalism and pop culture, and tends to be characterized by a nostalgic or surrealist engagement with the popular entertainment, technology and advertising of previous decades. It also incorporates early Internet imagery, late 1990s web design, glitch art, anime, 3D-rendered objects, and cyberpunk tropes in its cover artwork and music videos.

Originating as an ironic variant of chillwave,[19] vaporwave was loosely derived from the experimental tendencies of the mid-2000s hypnagogic pop scene. The style was pioneered by producers such as James Ferraro, Daniel Lopatin, and Ramona Xavier under various pseudonyms.[20] A circle of online producers were particularly inspired by Xavier's Floral Shoppe (2011), which established a blueprint for the genre. The movement subsequently built an audience on sites Last.fm, Reddit and 4chan while a flood of new acts, many operating under online pseudonyms, turned to Bandcamp for distribution. Following the wider exposure of vaporwave in 2012, a wealth of subgenres and offshoots emerged, such as future funk, mallsoft, and hardvapour.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ What is Vaporwave and A E S T H E T I C? The Music And Art Style Explained

Transcription

Hello Internet! And welcome to Behind the Meme! Where we take a look at the meaning and the origin of your favorite memes and trends! Today we have a look at - Vaporware & A E S T H E T I C. This video has been requested by a handful of my viewers but it's been a hot topic on Reddit lately with many people asking questions and discussing the topic. It's obvious that more people are becoming aware and interested in this unique topic and when I started to look into it it sparked my interest as well. So let's see what it's all about. Here. We. Go! So what exactly is Vaporwave and Aesthetic? Well first off, they are two separate things, but they are tied together. I know that sounds confusing, but let me explain. Let's talk about Vaporwave. What is it? Well to put it simply, it's a genre of music. A genre that doesn't involve Justin Bieber. Thank God. But it is a genre that first evolved and originated from modern-day Internet culture sometime during 2011. What defines the genre is a heavy emphasis on eighties and nineties music and sounds. Particularly smooth jazz and elevator type music. Two of the most exciting genres of music. Am I right? As well as various other samples from a variety of songs all having a retro fill, which are often cut up, slow down sped up and edited in a variety of ways essentially creating something brand-new in the process. But as always, the best way to understand something is to see an example or in this case, hear an example. *music playing* That song is often cited as being one of the first uses of the genre, and has inspired countless other pieces of work. The genre has been described as the degrading a commercial music in an attempt to reveal the false promises of capitalism. Damn that shit's pretty deep, and here I was just thinking it's a music genre. Boy, was I wrong. Rock (wrong) that is absolute (wrong) proved over and over again (wrong) we actually at... Since it's creation, the genre has spread online and become very popular amongst the listeners who are exposed to it's sound. Now earlier in the video if you remember which I hope you do because if not you might have Alzheimer's. I said that Vaporwave Anesthetics are different, yet tied together. So let me explain that. Generally Vaporwave is the genre of music and aesthetic's stylized with the spacing of it's letters, is the visuals that often accompany the music. The visuals are clearly influenced by the eighties and nineties and have a retro style that is defined by a handful of common characteristics. Such as Japanese lettering, retro computer and gaming elements, classic statues, soft pastel color schemes and an apparent low-quality. This style of art was soon adopted by Vaporwave enthusiasts and became very popular on Tumblr. Eventually both the music and art merge to make one. Together they have created a subculture on the Internet that many enjoy being a part of and sharing. In February of 2012 Vaporwave artist: Macintosh Plus released the album: Floral Shop, which perfectly blended the two worlds together *music playing* That album cover has helped make the aesthetic art style very popular spotting it's own series of memes where people remix and parody the original art. Sometimes in humorous and strange ways. So that's Vaporwave and Aesthetic, but it doesn't end there. These two worlds have spawned a completely different yet related genre video here on YouTube known as Simpson wave. Simpson wave is a video remix series that features clips from the animated television show The Simpsons. Which are edited to include Vaporwave music as well as aesthetic retro visual effects. It sounds kind of strange because it is. *talking* When you stumble upon one of these videos, you know you're on the weird side of YouTube and believe it or not this genre video is actually quite popular on YouTube with many of the videos getting hundreds of thousands of views. I'm not exactly sure why, but then again it is the Internet, the Internet is the place where things like this exist. Nothing to see here guys, just another asian kid having an orgasm over oranges, you know, Internet stuff. With the popularity of Vaporwave anesthetics growing, it has began to move from the underground Internet seen into the mainstream. So there you have it: Vaporwave anesthetics. Hopefully you understand it just a little bit better after this video. I'm not gonna lie, it's kind of confusing, but the best way to understand something is to be exposed to it. In my opinion it's not only unique and strange, but it's also pretty interesting. It's like people put a bunch of retro stuff in a blender, cut it all up and mix it together then put it in the oven and just saw what came out. Although you don't put a blender in an oven so that doesn't exactly make sense but you guys, you guys understand what i'm talking about. But HEY, that's the Internet for you and on the Internet: Memes are king. Thank you all so very much for watching, make sure to subscribe so you can catch my next video and stay up-to-date on all your favorite memes. Who knows? You may learn about a meme you never knew about before. I'll catch you guys next time. ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)

Contents

Characteristics

...imagine taking bits of 80's Muzak, late-night infomercials, smooth jazz, and that tinny tune receptionists play when they put you on hold, then chopping that up, pitching it down, and scrambling it to the point where you've got saxophone goo dripping out of a cheap plastic valve. That's vaporwave.

—Michelle Lhooq of Vice Media, 2014[11]

Vaporwave is an Internet-based microgenre that was built upon the experimental and ironic tendencies of genres such as chillwave and hypnagogic pop. It draws primarily on musical and cultural sources from the 1980s and early 1990s while also being associated with an ambiguous or satirical take on consumer capitalism and technoculture.[3] Early incarnations of vaporwave relied on the sampling of sources such as smooth jazz, retro elevator music, R&B, lounge music, and dance music from the 1980s and 1990s,[6] with the music made of "brief, cut-up sketches", cleanly produced, and composed almost entirely from samples,[3] along with the application of slowed-down chopped and screwed techniques, looping, and other effects.[5][3][12] Critic Adam Trainer notes the style's predilection for "music made less for enjoyment than for the regulation of mood," such as corporate stock music for infomercials and product demonstrations.[21] Musicologist Adam Harper described the typical vaporwave track as "a wholly synthesised or heavily processed chunk of corporate mood music, bright and earnest or slow and sultry, often beautiful, either looped out of sync and beyond the point of functionality."[3]

The style's visual aesthetic (often stylized as "AESTHETICS", with fullwidth characters)[22] incorporates early Internet imagery, late 1990s web design, glitch art, and cyberpunk tropes,[11] as well as anime, Greco-Roman statues, and 3D-rendered objects.[23] VHS degradation is another common effect seen in vaporwave art. Generally, artists limit their source material between Japan's economic flourishment in the 1980s and the September 11 attacks or dot-com bubble burst of 2001 (some albums, including Floral Shoppe, depict the intact Twin Towers on their covers).[24]

History

2009–2011: Origins and early scene

Vaporwave originated on the Internet as an ironic variant of chillwave,[19] drawing on the retro style's "analog nostalgia"[6] as well as the work of hypnagogic pop artists such as Ariel Pink and James Ferraro, who were also characterized by the invocation of retro popular culture.[25] "Hypnagogic pop" was coined by Wire journalist David Keenan in August 2009, only a few weeks after "chillwave", to describe a host of new underground acts who were inspired by the memories of their childhoods in the 1980s. The two terms were often used interchangeably with each other.[26] According to Vice, vaporwave was one of several short-lived internet genres to emerge during the era: "there was chillwave, witch house, seapunk, shitgaze, vaporwave, cloud rap, and countless other niche sounds with gimmicky names. As soon as one microgenre flamed out, another would take its place, and with it a whole new set of beats, buzz artists, and fashion trends."[27] Ash Becks of The Essential notes that sites like Pitchfork and Drowned in Sound "seemingly refused to touch vaporwave throughout the genre’s two-year 'peak'."[14]

The template for vaporwave came from the albums Chuck Person's Eccojams Vol. 1 (Daniel Lopatin as "Chuck Person", August 2010) and Far Side Virtual (Ferraro, October 2011).[24][14][29] Eccojams featured chopped and screwed variations on popular 1980s pop songs with album artwork that resembled the packaging of the 1992 video game Ecco the Dolphin,[5] while Far Side Virtual drew primarily on "the grainy and bombastic beeps" of 2000s media such as Skype and the Nintendo Wii.[24] According to Stereogum's Miles Bowe, vaporwave was a fusion between Lopatin's "chopped and screwed plunderphonics" and the "nihilistic easy-listening of James Ferraro’s Muzak-hellscapes".[10] A 2013 post on a music blog presented those albums, along with Skeleton's Holograms (November 2010), as "proto vaporwave".[30]

The cover artwork for Floral Shoppe (2011) by Macintosh Plus features elements that would come to exemplify the vaporwave aesthetic, including retro computer imagery, Japanese lettering, and pixelated graphics.[17]
The cover artwork for Floral Shoppe (2011) by Macintosh Plus features elements that would come to exemplify the vaporwave aesthetic, including retro computer imagery, Japanese lettering, and pixelated graphics.[17]

Inspired by Lopatin's ideas, suburban teens and young adults used Eccojams as a starting point for what would become vaporwave[5] while drawing on the postmodern, surreal themes explored by Far Side Virtual and Eccojams.[31] Vaporwave artists were "mysterious and often nameless entities that lurk the internet," academic Adam Harper noted, "often behind a pseudo-corporate name or web façade, and whose music is typically free to download through Mediafire, Last FM, Soundcloud or Bandcamp."[3] According to Metallic Ghosts (Chaz Allen), the original vaporwave scene came out of an online circle formulated on the site Turntable.fm. This circle included individuals known as Internet Club (Robin Burnett), Veracom, Luxury Elite, Infinity Frequencies, Transmuteo (Jonathan Dean), Coolmemoryz, and Prismcorp. Following the release of Ramona Xavier's New Dreams Ltd. (credited to "Laserdisc Visions", July 2011), a number of producers took inspiration from the style, and Burnett used "vaporwave" to tie the disparate group together.[32] Xavier's Floral Shoppe (credited to "Macintosh Plus", December 2011) was the first album to be properly considered of the genre, containing all of the style's core elements.[17]

2010s: Popularity

Vaporwave found wider appeal over the middle of 2012, building an audience on sites like Last.fm, Reddit and 4chan.[32] After a flood of new acts turned to Bandcamp for distribution, various online music publications such as Tiny Mix Tapes, Dummy and Sputnikmusic began covering the movement.[14] In September 2012, Blank Banshee released his debut album, Blank Banshee 0, which reflected a trend of vaporwave producers who were more influenced by trap music and less concerned with conveying political undertones.[17] Bandwagon called it a "progressive record" that, along with Floral Shoppe, "signaled the end of the first wave of sample-heavy music, and ... reconfigured what it means to make vaporwave music."[5]

Following the initial wave, new terms for offshoot genres were invented, some of which indicate the non-seriousness of vaporwave, such as "vaportrap" and "vaporgoth".[15] In 2015, Rolling Stone published a list that included vaporwave act 2814 as one of "10 artists you need to know", citing their album Birth of a New Day (新しい日の誕生, Atarashī Ni~Tsu no Tanjō).[33] That same year, the album I'll Try Living Like This by Death's Dynamic Shroud.wmv was featured at number fifteen on the Fact list "The 50 Best Albums of 2015",[34] and on the same day MTV International introduced a rebrand heavily inspired by vaporwave and seapunk,[35] Tumblr launched a GIF viewer named Tumblr TV, with an explicitly MTV-styled visual spin.[36] Hip-hop artist Drake's single "Hotline Bling", released on July 31, also became popular with vaporwave producers, inspiring both humorous and serious remixes of the tune.[5]

Critical interpretations

It initiates a lot of important conversations about power and money in the industry. Or... everything just sounds good slowed down with reverb?

—Aaran David Ross of Gatekeeper[37]

Vaporwave was one of several microgenres spawned in the early 2010s that were the brief focus of media attention.[27] Pitchfork contributor Jonny Coleman defines vaporwave as residing in "the uncanny genre valley" that lies "between a real genre that sounds fake and a fake genre that could be real."[19] Also from Pitchfork, Patrick St. Michel calls vaporwave a "niche corner of Internet music populated by Westerners goofing around with Japanese music, samples, and language".[38] Michelle Lhooq of Vice wrote that "according to commenters in various music forums, it's 'chillwave for Marxists,' 'post-elevator music,' "corporate smooth jazz Windows 95 pop". She explained that "parodying commercial taste isn't exactly the goal. Vaporwave doesn't just recreate corporate lounge music – it plumps it up into something sexier and more synthetic."[11]

Hypnagogic pop and vaporwave both like to manipulate their material to defamiliarise it and give it a sense of the uncanny [...and...] have an eerie tendency now and again to turn trash, something shallow and determinedly throw away, into something sacred or mystical.

—Adam Harper[3]

Music writer Adam Harper of Dummy Mag describes vaporwave as having an ambiguous or accelerationist relationship to consumer capitalism, writing that "these musicians can be read as sarcastic anti-capitalists revealing the lies and slippages of modern techno-culture and its representations, or as its willing facilitators, shivering with delight upon each new wave of delicious sound." He noted that the name itself was both a nod to vaporware, a name for products that are introduced but never released, and the idea of libidinal energy being subjected to relentless sublimation under capitalism.[3] Music educator Grafton Tanner wrote, "vaporwave is one artistic style that seeks to rearrange our relationship with electronic media by forcing us to recognize the unfamiliarity of ubiquitous technology ... vaporwave is the music of 'non-times' and 'non-places' because it is sceptical of what consumer culture has done to time and space".[39]

Speaking on the adoption of a vaporwave- and seapunk-inspired rebrand by MTV International, Jordan Pearson of Motherboard, Vice's technology website, noted how "the cynical impulse that animated vaporwave and its associated Tumblr-based aesthetics is co-opted and erased on both sides—where its source material originates and where it lives".[36] Xavier described her 2012 album Contemporary Sapporo (札幌コンテンポラリー) as "a brief glimpse into the new possibilities of international communication" and "a parody of American hypercontextualization of e-Asia circa 1995".[40] Critic Simon Reynolds characterized Daniel Lopatin's Chuck Person project as "relat[ing] to cultural memory and the buried utopianism within capitalist commodities, especially those related to consumer technology in the computing and audio/video entertainment area".[41] Speaking about the "supposedly subversive or parodic elements" of vaporwave in 2018, Reynolds said that the genre had become redundant, in some respects, to modern trap music and mainstream hip hop: "What could be more insane or morbid than the subjectivity in a Drake record or a Kanye song? The black Rap n B mainstream is further out sonically and attitudinally than anything the white Internet-Bohemia has come up with. Their role is redundant. Rap and R&B ... is already the Simulacrum, is already decadence."[42]

The Brooklyn Rail's Scott Beauchamp proposes a parallel between punk's "No Future" stance and its active "raw energy of dissatisfaction" deriving from the historical lineage of Dada dystopia, and vaporwave's preoccupation with "political failure and social anomie".[43] Vaporwave's stance is more focused on loss, the notion of lassitude, and passive acquiescence.[43] Beauchamp writes that "vaporwave was the first musical genre to live its entire life from birth to death completely online".[43] Cultural theorist Dominic Pettman, professor of Culture and Media at the New School for Social Research, notes that the internet causes users to have micro-experiences of "hypermodulation".[44] Beauchamp suggests that expressions of hypermodulation inspired both the development and downfall of vaporwave.[43]

Offshoots and subgenres

Subgenres with names like "vaportrap," "vaporgoth," and "vapornoise" have soared to subcultural popularity, only to rapidly twist into new forms that are further removed from the style's original features. This rapid proliferation of subgenres has itself become part of the "vaporwave" punchline, gesturing at the absurdity of the genre itself even as it sees artists using it as a springboard for innovation.

—Rob Arcand, Vice[15]

  • Vaportrap integrates trap beats. It was popularized by Blank Banshee 0.[45]
  • Mallsoft magnifies vaporwave's lounge influences.[15] It may be viewed in connection to "the concept of malls as large, soulless spaces of consumerism ... exploring the social ramifications of capitalism and globalization".[46]
  • Future funk expands upon the disco/house elements of vaporwave.[15] It takes a more energetic approach than vaporwave. It incorporates elements of French house, albeit produced in the same sample based manner as vaporwave.[47] Most of these samples are drawn from Japanese city pop records from the 1980s.[7][8]
  • Simpsonwave was a YouTube phenomenon made popular by the user Lucien Hughes.[22][48][49][50] It mainly consists of videos with scenes from the American animated television series The Simpsons set to various vaporwave tracks. Clips are often put together out of context and edited with VHS-esque distortion effects and surreal visuals, giving them a "hallucinatory and transportive" feel.[51]
  • Fashwave (a portmanteau of "fascist" and "synthwave"[52]), is a largely instrumental subgenre of vaporwave and synthwave[16] that originated on YouTube circa 2015.[53] With political track titles and occasional soundbites,[16] the genre combines Nazi symbolism with the visuals associated with vaporwave and synthwave.[43] The offshoot Trumpwave focuses on Donald Trump.[16][nb 1]
  • Hardvapour emerged in late 2015[54] as a reimagination of vaporwave with darker themes, faster tempos, and heavier sounds.[15] It is influenced by speedcore and gabber, and is viewed as oppositional to the vaporwave aesthetic.[54] According to Vice's Rob Arcand, the genre lies somewhere between vaporwave and distroid, writing that hardvapour uses similar music software tools "not out of any special fixation with them, but simply because they're now the cheapest and most accessible tools around."[15]
  • According to Bandcamp Daily's Simon Chandler, as of 2016, there also existed "broken transmission" (or "signalwave"), "utopian virtual", "post-Internet", "late-night lo-fi", and "vapornoise".[45]

Notable artists

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ In 2017, Vice's Penn Bullock and Eli Penn reported on the phenomenon of self-identified fascists and alt-right members appropriating vaporwave music and aesthetics, describing fashwave as "the first fascist music that is easy enough on the ears to have mainstream appeal".[16] Vice writes that Trumpwave exploits vaporwave's perceived ambivalence towards the corporate culture it engages with, allowing it to recast Trump as "the modern-day inheritor of the mythologized 80s, a decade that is taken to stand for racial purity and unleashed capitalism".[16] The Guardian's Michael Hann notes that the movement is not unprecedented; similar offshoots occurred in punk rock in the 1980s and black metal in the 1990s. Like those genres, Hann believes there is little chance fashwave will ever "impinge on the mainstream".[52]

Citations

  1. ^ Ward, Christian (January 29, 2014). "Vaporwave: Soundtrack to Austerity". Stylus.com. Archived from the original on June 2, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
  2. ^ Tanner 2016, p. 3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Harper, Adam (December 7, 2012). "Comment: Vaporwave and the pop-art of the virtual plaza". Dummy. Archived from the original on April 1, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
  4. ^ a b c Harper, Adam (December 5, 2013). "Pattern Recognition Vol. 8.5: The Year in Vaporwave". Electronic Beats. Archived from the original on Feb 23, 2014. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Han, Sean Francis; Peters, Daniel (May 18, 2016). "Vaporwave: subversive dream music for the post-Internet age". Bandwagon.asia. Archived from the original on December 30, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Schilling, Dave (September 18, 2015). "Songs of the Week: Skylar Spence, Vampire Weekend's Chris Baio, and the Return of Chillwave". Grantland. Archived from the original on November 19, 2015.
  7. ^ a b Markowitz, Douglas (October 10, 2018). "5 Vaporwave and Future Funk Tracks to Get You Ready for YUNG BAE". Phoenix New Times. Finally, we truly come full circle with the oldest and, oddly, the most recently popular entry on our list. Indeed, the prevalence of music made with samples of Japanese city pop has led to a reappraisal of the genre by modern listeners. In other words, fans of future funk got sick of cut product and went straight to the source.
  8. ^ a b "La City Pop, bande-son de vos apéros estivaux". Slate (in French). July 11, 2018. Tout a commencé sur Tumblr, avec le vaporwave, un genre de funk rétrofuturiste, qui est allé puiser dans la City Pop une esthétique liée à la culture pop japonaise des années 1980.
  9. ^ Aux, Staff. "AUX". Aux. Aux Music Network. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
  10. ^ a b Bowe, Miles. "Band To Watch: Saint Pepsi". Stereogum. Archived from the original on July 21, 2016. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Lhooq, Michelle (December 27, 2013). "Is Vaporwave The Next Seapunk?". Vice. Archived from the original on April 26, 2014. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
  12. ^ a b Gahil, Leor. "Infinity Frequencies: Computer Death". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on April 6, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
  13. ^ Trainer 2016, p. 419.
  14. ^ a b c d Beks, Ash. "Vaporwave is not dead". The Essential. The Essential. Archived from the original on December 10, 2015. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Arcand, Rob (July 12, 2016). "Inside Hardvapour, an Aggressive, Wry Rebellion Against Vaporwave". Thump. Vice Media. Archived from the original on December 31, 2016. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Bullock, Penn; Kerry, Eli (January 30, 2017). "Trumpwave and Fashwave Are Just the Latest Disturbing Examples of the Far-Right Appropriating Electronic Music". Vice. Archived from the original on February 6, 2017. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
  17. ^ a b c d Beauchamp, Scott (August 18, 2016). "How Vaporwave Was Created Then Destroyed by the Internet". Esquire. Archived from the original on April 3, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
  18. ^ For early 2010s microgenre of electronic music, see Tanner 2016, p. 3. For Internet meme, see:
  19. ^ a b c Coleman, Jonny (May 1, 2015). "Quiz: Is This A Real Genre". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017.
  20. ^ Britton, Luke Morgan (September 26, 2016). "Music Genres Are A Joke That You're Not In On". Vice. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017.
  21. ^ Trainer, Adam (2016). "From Hypnagogia to Distroid: Postironic Musical Renderings of Personal Memory". The Oxford Handbook of Music and Virtuality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-932128-5. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017.
  22. ^ a b Minor, Jordan (June 3, 2016). "Drown yourself beneath the vaporwave". Geek.com. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  23. ^ Jurgens, Genista (July 29, 2016). "Why Won't Vaporwave Die?". Format. Archived from the original on January 3, 2018.
  24. ^ a b c Colton, Stefan (April 15, 2017). "Love in the Time of VHS: Making Sense of Vaporwave". The Poltiic.
  25. ^ Trainer 2016, p. 416.
  26. ^ Trainer 2016, p. 409.
  27. ^ a b Marcus, Ezra (May 12, 2017). "Wave Music Is a Marketing Tactic, Not a Microgenre". Vice. Archived from the original on August 4, 2017.
  28. ^ "Chuck Person: Chuck Person's Eccojams Vol. 1 - Spectrum Culture". Spectrum Culture. 2016-12-04. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
  29. ^ Bowe, Miles (October 13, 2013). "Q&A: James Ferraro On NYC's Hidden Darkness, Musical Sincerity, And Being Called "The God Of Vaporwave"". Stereogum. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
  30. ^ Trainer 2016, p. 420.
  31. ^ Simpson, Paul. "Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  32. ^ a b Galil, Leor (February 19, 2013). "Vaporwave and the Observer Effect". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on January 25, 2014.
  33. ^ a b "2814". Rolling Stone. 10 New Artists You Need to Know. November 25, 2015. Archived from the original on July 3, 2016. Retrieved June 27, 2016. The next-level gambit paid off with second album 新しい日の誕生, an unparalleled success within a small, passionate pocket of the internet.
  34. ^ "The 50 Best Albums of 2015". Fact. The Vinyl Factory. December 9, 2015. Archived from the original on January 30, 2016. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  35. ^ Lange, Maggie (August 29, 2015). "The Crowd-Sourced Chaos of MTV's Vaporwave VMAs". GQ. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on December 10, 2015. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
  36. ^ a b Pearson, Jordan (June 26, 2015). "How Tumblr and MTV Killed the Neon Anti-Corporate Aesthetic of Vaporwave". Motherboard (Vice). Vice Media, Inc. Archived from the original on December 6, 2015. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
  37. ^ Friedlander, Emilie; McDermott, Patrick D. "A Recent History of Microgenres". The Fader. Archived from the original on April 4, 2017.
  38. ^ St. Michel, Patrick (December 3, 2014). "10 Essential Japanese Netlabels". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016.
  39. ^ Tanner 2016, p. 10.
  40. ^ 情報デスクVIRTUAL - 幌コンテンポラリー. Tiny Mix Tapes. Archived from the original on December 25, 2013. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
  41. ^ Reynolds 2011.
  42. ^ Reynolds, Simon; Finauro, Beatrice (December 10, 2018). "A fantasy of a life without constraints". Collectible Dry. Archived from the original on January 8, 2019. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  43. ^ a b c d e Beauchamp, Scott (April 2017). "Attention Online Shoppers..." The Brooklyn Rail: 23–24. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
  44. ^ Denton, Shane (May 29, 2016). "Hyperdistractions". Los Angeles Review of Books. Archived from the original on April 3, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
  45. ^ a b "Genre As Method: The Vaporwave Family Tree, From Eccojams to Hardvapour". Bandcamp Daily. November 21, 2016.
  46. ^ Kilby, Dylan (August 7, 2016). "Disconscious - Hologram Plaza - Sunbleach". Sunbleach Media. Archived from the original on September 1, 2016. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
  47. ^ Victoria, Elisa (August 16, 2017). "Future funk, el género musical que te va a alegrar la vida" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on January 15, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
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Bibliography

External links

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