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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Urbano music (música urbana in Spanish) or Latin urban is a transnational genre.[1] As an umbrella term, it includes reggaeton, Latin hip hop, Latin trap, dancehall, dembow, and urban champeta. The commercial breakthrough of this music took place in 2017. Artists in the style collaborate transnationally, and may originate from the United States including Puerto Rico in particular, Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Panama, Venezuela or other Spanish-speaking nations, as well as Portuguese-speaking Brazil.[2]

As Vulture describes it, urbano "encapsulates Spanish-language 'urban' music with roots in the culture of descendants of enslaved peoples across North, South, and Central America." The magazine indicates that "at the core of pretty much every style are rhythms brought from Africa, fostered by enslaved people and blended with indigenous sounds and the language of Latin America's chief colonizer, Spain."[3]



In the late 1980s and early 1990s, most Latin rap came from the West Coast of the United States. Cuban-American artist Mellow Man Ace was the first Latino artist to have a major bilingual single attached to his 1989 debut. Mellow Man, referred to as the "Godfather of Latin rap" and a Hip Hop Hall of Fame inductee, brought mainstream attention to Spanglish rhyming with his 1989 platinum single "Mentirosa". In 1990, fellow West Coast artist Kid Frost further brought Latinos to the rap forefront with his single "La Raza." In 1991, Kid Frost, Mellow Man, A.L.T. and several other Latin rappers formed the rap super group Latin Alliance and released a self-titled album which featured the hit "Lowrider (On the Boulevard)". A.L.T. also scored a hit later that year with his remake of the song Tequila. Cypress Hill, of which Mellow Man Ace was a member before going solo, would become the first Latino rap group to reach platinum status in 1991. The group has since continued to release other Gold and Platinum albums. Ecuadorian born rapper Gerardo received heavy rotation on video and radio for his single "Rico, Suave". While commercially watered-down, his album enjoyed a status of being one of the first mainstream Spanglish CDs on the market. Johnny J was a multi-platinum songwriter, music producer, and rapper who was perhaps best known for his production on Tupac Shakur's albums All Eyez on Me and Me Against the World.[4] He also produced the 1990 single Knockin' Boots for his classmate Candyman's album Ain't No Shame in My Game, which eventually went platinum thanks to the single.[5]

Reggae as a musical genre has its origins in Jamaica, and it became popular throughout the 1970s in the black-immigrant communities of the other British West Indies, North America, and Great Britain. Jamaican reggae was embraced in the Spanish-speaking world first in Panama by the descendants of black workers that immigrated to the Isthmus during the construction of the Panama Railroad (mid-19th century), the railways for the banana companies (late 19th century), and the Panama Canal (early 20th century).[6] Prior to the period of construction of the Panama Canal (1904–1915), most of the Afro-Caribbean communities in Panama were of Jamaican descent, but with the construction of the canal these communities grew in diversity with immigrants from other parts of the Caribbean such as Jamaica, Barbados, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Trinidad, Dominica, French and British Guyana and other Caribbean Islands.[7]

In 1977, a Guyanese immigrant who went by the nickname "Guyana", along with a local DJ known as "Wassabanga" introduced for first time the reggae rhythms in Panama with lyrics in Spanish.[8] Wassabanga's music along with later interpreters such as Rastanini and Calito Soul, were perhaps the first remarkable cases of Reggae en Español, at a time when many Panamanians were already developing a musical and spiritual bond with the Mecca of reggae music (Kingston, Jamaica), a bond catalyzed mainly by the call to arms issued by the music of Bob Marley.[9]



Reggaetón is an urban form of music which has its roots in Latin and Caribbean music.[10] Its sound derives from the Reggae en Español from Panama.[11][12][13][14] The genre was invented, shaped and made known in Puerto Rico where it got its name;[15] most of its current artists are also from Puerto Rico.[16][17][18] After its mainstream exposure in 2004, it spread to North American, European, Asian and African audiences. Reggaeton blends Jamaican musical influences of dancehall, with those of Latin America, such as salsa, bomba, Latin hip hop, and electronica. Vocals include rapping and singing, typically in Spanish. Lyrics tend to be derived from hip hop rather than from dancehall. Like hip hop, reggaeton has caused some controversy, albeit less, due to alleged exploitation of women.[19] While it takes influences from hip hop and Jamaican dancehall, reggaeton is not precisely the Hispanic or Latin American version of either of these genres; reggaeton has its own specific beat and rhythm,[20] whereas Latin hip hop is simply hip hop recorded by artists of Latino descent. The specific "riddim" that characterizes reggaeton is referred to as "Dem Bow".[21][22] The name is taken from the dancehall song by Shabba Ranks that first popularized the beat in the early 1990s which appears on his album Just Reality.

In 2004, reggaeton became popular in the United States and Europe. Tego Calderón was receiving airplay in the U.S., and the music was popular among youth. Daddy Yankee's El became popular that year in the country, as did Héctor & Tito. Luny Tunes and Noriega's Mas Flow, Yaga & Mackie's Sonando Diferente, Tego Calderón's El Abayarde, Ivy Queen's Diva, Zion & Lennox's Motivando a la Yal and the Desafío compilation were also well-received. Rapper N.O.R.E. released a hit single, "Oye Mi Canto". Daddy Yankee released Barrio Fino and a hit single, "Gasolina". Tego Calderón recorded the singles "Pa' Que Retozen" and "Guasa Guasa". Don Omar was popular, particularly in Europe, with "Pobre Diabla" and "Dale Don Dale".[23] Other popular reggaeton artists include Tony Dize, Angel & Khriz, Nina Sky, Dyland & Lenny, RKM & Ken-Y, Julio Voltio, Calle 13, Héctor Delgado, Wisin & Yandel and Tito El Bambino. In late 2004 and early 2005 Shakira recorded "La Tortura" and "La Tortura – Shaketon Remix" for her album, Fijación Oral Vol. 1 (Oral Fixation Vol. 1), popularizing reggaeton in North America, Europe and Asia. Musicians began to incorporate bachata into reggaeton,[24] with Ivy Queen releasing singles ("Te He Querido, Te He Llorado" and "La Mala") featuring bachata's signature guitar sound, slower, romantic rhythms and emotive singing style.[24] Daddy Yankee's "Lo Que Paso, Paso" and Don Omar's "Dile" are also bachata-influenced. In 2005 producers began to remix existing reggaeton music with bachata, marketing it as bachaton: "bachata, Puerto Rican style".[24]


Colombia's Reglobalization

Colombian artists like Maluma or J Balvin put out hits every two or three months, and the South American country pays tribute to this genre in all its cities. If Medellin concentrates the most successful artists and producers, Bogota has specialized itself in theme parties around this rhythm. One of the keys to the success of this music is its ability to eliminate the existing social gaps in Colombian society, since this genre triumphs both in the humble neighborhoods of southern Bogota and in the most exclusive clubs in Zona T or the Parque de la 93.[25]

Karol G is a Colombian reggaetón singer who has done collaborations with other reggaetón singers, such as J Balvin, Bad Bunny, and Maluma.[26] Throughout her career, Karol G has had troubles in the industry because reggaetón is a genre that is dominated by male artists. She recounts how when starting her career she noticed that there weren't many opportunities for her in the genre because reggaeton was dominated by male artists. In 2018, Karol G’s single Mi Cama became very popular and she made a remix with J Balvin and Nicky Jam. The Mi cama remix appeared in the top 10 Hot Latin Songs and number 1 in Latin Airplay charts.[27] This year she has collaborated with Maluma called Creeme and with Anuel AA in Culpables. The single, Culpables has been in the top 10 Hot Latin Songs for 2 consecutive weeks.[28]

Latin trap

In 2015, a new movement of trap music referred to as "Latin trap" began to emerge.[29] Also known as Spanish-language trap, Latin trap similar to mainstream trap which details "'la calle,' or the streets—hustling, sex, and drugs".[30] Prominent artists of Latin trap include Fuego, Anuel AA, La Zowi, and Bad Bunny.[31] In July 2017, The Fader wrote "Rappers and reggaetoneros from Puerto Rico to Colombia have taken elements of trap—the lurching bass lines, jittering 808s and the eyes-half-closed vibe—and infused them into banger after banger."[31] In an August 2017 article for Billboard's series, "A Brief History Of," they enlisted some of the key artists of Latin trap—including Ozuna, De La Ghetto, Bad Bunny, Farruko and Messiah—to narrate a brief history on the genre.[29][32] Elias Leight of Rolling Stone noted "[Jorge] Fonseca featured Puerto Rican artists like Anuel AA, Bryant Myers and Noriel on the compilation Trap Capos: Season 1, which became the first "Latin trap" LP to reach number one on Billboard's Latin Rhythm Albums chart."[33] A remixed version of Cardi B's single "Bodak Yellow" (which had previously reached number one on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart), dubbed the "Latin Trap Remix", was officially released on August 18, 2017 and features Cardi B rapping in Spanish with Dominican hip hop recording artist Messiah contributing a guest verse.[34][35][36] In November 2017, Rolling Stone wrote that "a surging Latin trap sound is responding to more recent developments in American rap, embracing the slow-rolling rhythms and gooey vocal delivery popularized by Southern hip-hop."[33]

The 'Despacito' effect

In 2017, the music video for "Despacito" by Luis Fonsi featuring Daddy Yankee reached over a billion views in under 3 months. As of January 2018, the music video is the most viewed YouTube video of all-time. With its 3.3 million certified sales plus track-equivalent streams, "Despacito" became one of the best-selling Latin singles in the United States.

The success of the song and its remix version led Daddy Yankee to become the most listened-to artist worldwide on the streaming service Spotify on July 9, 2017, being the first Latin artist to do so.[37][38][39] He later became the fifth most listened-to male artist and the sixth overall of 2017 on Spotify.[40] In June 2017, "Despacito" was cited by Billboard's Leila Cobo as the song that renewed interest in the Latin music market from recording labels in the United States.[41] Julyssa Lopez of The Washington Post stated that the successes of "Despacito" and J Balvin's "Mi Gente" is "the beginning of a new Latin crossover era."[42] Stephanie Ho of Genius website wrote that "the successes of 'Despacito' and 'Mi Gente' could point to the beginning of a successful wave for Spanish-language music in the US."[43] Ho also stated that "as 'Despacito' proves, fans don't need to understand the language in order to enjoy the music", referring to the worldwide success of the song, including various non-Spanish-speaking countries.[43]

'Te Bote' Spawning Imitators

In April 2018, Te Boté, released by Nio Garcia, Casper Magico, Darell, Ozuna, Bad Bunny, and Nicky Jam. It became the first song with Latin trap elements in it to have reached number one on the Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart. It currently has over 1.8 billion viewers in YouTube.[44] But Te Boté not only achieved that. Many artists began to mark strong commercial trends in a market dominated by mixing Latin trap and reggaeton followed by a dancehall rhythm. Songs for example, Adictiva by Daddy Yankee and Anuel AA, Asesina by Brytiago and Darell, Cuando Te Besé by Becky G and Paulo Londra, No Te Veo by Casper Magico, and many other songs have influence on the style.[45]

See also


  1. ^ "Urbano Reached Critical Mass in 2017. Now Can It Be Normalized?".
  2. ^
  3. ^ Ruiz, Matthew Ismael (3 July 2019). "Your Guide to Urbano's Power Players: The New Stars, OGs, and Next Class". Vulture. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  4. ^ allmusic Credits
  5. ^ "RIAA Database". Archived from the original on September 24, 2015.
  6. ^ Before the Reggaeton History – REGGAE.COM.PA Archived 2009-06-03 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ The Roots of Reggaeton called "Reggae en español" Archived 2010-02-17 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Manuel, Peter. Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae, 2 edition. March 28, 2006. Temple University Press. Retrieved on 2009-02-10.
  10. ^ [2] Archived 2009-05-19 at the Wayback Machine. Raquel Z. Rivera. 2009. Reggaeton. "Part I. Mapping Reggaeton". From Música Negra to Reggaeton Latino: Wayne Marshall. "Part II. The Panamanian Connection". Placing Panama in the Reggaeton Narrative: Editor's Notes / Wayne Marshall. Duke University Press, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
  11. ^ Franco, Edgardo A. "Muévelo (move it!): from Panama to New York and back again, the story of El General". Interview by Christoph Twickel. Reggaeton. Eds. Raquel Z. Rivera, Wayne Marshall, and Deborah Pacini Hernandez. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. 99–108.
  12. ^ Buckley "Bush", Francisco. La música salsa en Panamá. Panama: EUPAN, 2004.
  13. ^ Aulder, Leonardo Renato. "The Panamanian Origins of Reggae en Español: Seeing History through 'los ojos café' of Renato". Interview by Ifeoma C. K. Nwankwo. Reggaeton. Eds. Raquel Z. Rivera, Wayne Marshall, and Deborah Pacini Hernandez. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. 89–98.
  14. ^ Andrews, George Reid. Afro-Latin America, 1800–2000. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  15. ^ – "5 Things You Didn't Know About Reggaeton"
  16. ^ Phoenix New Times – "Phoenix sizzles with the latest dance music from Puerto Rico"
  17. ^ – "a new genre of Caribbean dance music"
  18. ^ Mundo Reggaeton – "Reggaeton History"
  19. ^ BBC News – "Puerto Rico shakes to a new beat"
  20. ^ Pistas de Reggaeton Famosas / Official Reggaeton Beats
  21. ^ Wayne Marshall (2006-01-19). "Rise of Reggaetón". The Phoenix. Retrieved 2006-07-24.
  22. ^ "Grow Dem Bow". Village Voice. Retrieved 2006-07-24.
  23. ^ "El Reggaeton". 8 February 2007. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  24. ^ a b c Raquel Z. Rivera, Wayne Marshall and Deborah Pacini Hernandez. "Reggaeton". Duke University Press. 2009. pg. 143-144
  25. ^ "Why is Colombia the main international representative of Reggaeton?".
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ a b "Ozuna, Bad Bunny, De La Ghetto, Farruko & Messiah Narrate a Brief History of Latin Trap". Archived from the original on 2017-09-21.
  30. ^ Portilla, Christina (August 23, 2017). "Latin Trap Brings New Music to Miami". Miami New Times. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017.
  31. ^ a b "Trap's Latin American Takeover". Archived from the original on 2017-09-15.
  32. ^ "Rappers Discuss Brief History Of Latin Trap". 21 August 2017. Archived from the original on 18 September 2017.
  33. ^ a b "Inside Latin Trap, the Viral Sound Too Hot for American Radio". Archived from the original on 2017-09-17.
  34. ^ "Bodak Yellow (feat. Messiah) [Latin Trap Remix] – Single by Cardi B on Apple Music". 18 August 2017. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017.
  35. ^ "Cardi B Drops Spanish Remix of 'Bodak Yellow' With Messiah – XXL". XXL Mag. Archived from the original on 2017-09-15.
  36. ^ "Cardi B Premieres "Bodak Yellow" Spanish Remix With Messiah". 18 August 2017. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017.
  37. ^ Ratner-Arias, Sigal (July 9, 2017). "Daddy Yankee is #1 on Spotify; 1st Latin artist to do so". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 9, 2017. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  38. ^ Calle, Tommy (July 9, 2017). "Hace historia Daddy Yankee y es ahora oficialmente el primer latino número uno del mundo en Spotify" (in Spanish). Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  39. ^ Pickens, Ashley (July 10, 2017). "Daddy Yankee Breaks Barriers Becoming Top Streamed Artist On Spotify". Vibe. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  40. ^ Wang, Evelyn (December 5, 2017). "Rihanna and Ed Sheeran Were the Most-Streamed Artists on Spotify in 2017". W. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  41. ^ Cobo, Leila (June 15, 2017). "The Success of 'Despacito' Has Labels Looking to Latin". Billboard. Retrieved June 21, 2017.
  42. ^ Lopez, Julyssa (August 24, 2017). "What's next for Latin music after the summer of 'Despacito'?". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  43. ^ a b Ho, Stephanie (September 12, 2017). "No Translation Necessary: Beyond "Despacito," The Latin Music Scene Is Booming". Genius. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
  44. ^ Leight, Elias (January 26, 2019). "'Te Boté' Was a Massive Hit — Now It's Spawned Imitators". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  45. ^ Leight, Elias (January 8, 2019). "Las 4 mejores canciones influenciadas por "Te Boté"". Heabbi.
This page was last edited on 9 May 2020, at 01:06
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