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Uprising of Dervish Cara

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Albanian Revolt of 1843–1844
Part of the Albanian revolts against the Ottoman Empire
Date1843–1844
LocationOttoman Albania
Modern-day northern Albania, Kosovo, south-eastern Serbia, and western Macedonia
Result Suppression of the revolt by the Ottomans
Belligerents
Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire

Albanian Rebels
Commanders and leaders
Ottoman Empire Hayredin Pasha
Ottoman Empire Omar Pasha
Bib Doda Pasha, Kapedan of Mirdita[1]
Dervish Cara
Sheh Mustafa Zerqani
Cen Leka
Strength
30,000
Unknown number of irregulars
c. 10,000[2]
Casualties and losses
15,000 killed 9,000 killed

The Albanian Revolt of 1843–1844, variously also known as the Revolt of 1844[3] or the Uprising of Dervish Cara (Albanian: Kryengritja e Dervish Carës),[4] was a 19th-century uprising in northern Ottoman Albania directed against the Ottoman Tanzimat reforms which started in 1839 and were gradually being put in action in the regions of Albania. Some historians include the actions in Dibër of the same time under the same historical name, though the events in Dibër were independent and headed by other leaders.

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  • Visual Language Is Language: The Importance of Reading the Pictures in Visual Culture

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- Welcome. Really the first of our major lunch events, what we'll call the brown bag lunch. (Michael laughs) I'm saying that, I'm making a little pun on the old title of Michael's organization called BAGnews, which has now changed. This is the current Reading The Pictures and that will be it hence force. But I met him when he was BAGnews, so we call this our brown bag lunch, a series that will go on, we hope, indefinitely open to the public, but for students primarily. You're all welcome to bring food in the future. I believe that's our policy for these things if you wish. We have some guests here also from the outside. We have faculty here, a lot of mixed people. I want to thank Marvin Heiferman who introduced me to Michael Shaw. I give you our little history. Marvin and others on our faculty have been talking about the issue of visual literacy, of learning how to use the picture image as language, understanding it better than perhaps we presently do even though this group probably understands it better than most. I met Michael, what, two years ago and we were planning a series of symposiums, which because of this construction actually didn't occur. We hope to have him back repeatedly because I think that Michael, what he's doing with the image, with the news, with images that we consume every day and which inform us every day, or don't inform us, is very important to understanding our world. Many of you have heard me say I think that imagery, particularly photo lens based imagery is the ectoplasm of our being, and it's the stuff that we have to work with, make, conceive, and frankly interpret every day. We have very few tools to properly interpret it. I think the great role of this younger generation is to figure out how to be the creative interpreters of all that imagery that's out there. Michael comes to this out of great passion, a long term commitment, but he is by profession, a clinical psychologist, which means that he's gonna bring another depth to the understanding of the images. He's from California, educated in California, lives in Berkeley, and has lectured all over the country, I suppose the world as well on this subject. But he's kind of the center of this website, and he's been here in New York several times to speak. He will be speaking Saturday at Photoville. With no further ado I think it's up to Michael to give us the background that formulated this organization. Thank you, welcome. (audience applauds) - Thank you, Charles. Can everyone hear me alright in the back? Okay. As Charlie said, I'm Michael Shaw, the publisher of Reading The Pictures, a nonprofit visual and media literacy site. Launched in 2004, we're the only site analyzing news and documentary photography on a daily basis. We also host the Reading The Pictures Salon where we work with professionals from the photo world and visual educators to analyze visual coverage of the top stories of the day. We're closely followed by the news and visual media, the photojournalism community, photojournalism and communication programs, and citizens interested in social imagery and visual culture. If you're looking for us you can find us on multiple platforms, notably our own website, as well as Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, YouTube. A great way to follow us is to sign up for our Week in Re-View email. I'm here to talk about what we do but just as much I'm here to talk about what you do. To talk about how news imagery operates in the culture, and how to speak, read and use the language. Today I wanna do three things. I want to discuss trends in visual news, culture, and social media so you'll better appreciate how the craft is becoming more linguistic, more artistic, more experimental, more social, and more crossover, melding with other types of photography and photography markets. I wanna show you how social media has been shaking up news and information in a social sphere, allowing more opportunities for creation and expression. Then I wanna describe our site as an outgrowth of these developments. I wanna describe how we analyze news and media images for meaning, trends, context, and fairness, and how we've built a professional role, and now an evolving nonprofit business around these sets of skills. Let's talk about visual language and symbolism. I believe as the culture becomes more visual, we are able to read and communicate in an increasingly more sophistacted way strictly in images. This is an elegant example, a very simple one, where the imagery in this memoriam cover, the cover, along with the shapes, translates directly into words. I don't think I even have to translate it, right? This photo, by Landon Nordeman, a fashion photographer, covering this year's presidential campaign for TIME by the way, there's another crossover example right there, was one of the most interesting photos that came out of the Democratic convention. It's a brilliant illustration of exactly what we're talking about. Without using a word, it describes how conversant we are in images and symbols, and how much we express our preferences this way. That everything in the culture in fact is subject to visual inspection, election, and judgement, and that these are primary narrative tools of how you and I communicate now. Symbolism is nothing new to photojournalism. Still, it seems photography as social language seems to be more confidently and consistently taking advantage of visual metaphor. There is powerful symbolism here in the half naked demonstrator, protesting France's attempt to strip workers and the labor movement in Paris of rights and benefits. As President Hollande goes to war with the rank-and-file, how does the photo capture the essence of human labor? Think the importance of a strong back, or back breaking work, and in terms of a battle, think about the government wanting nothing less than the shirts off the worker's back, or the goal of breaking the back of the resistance. We might think of metaphors in terms of words, but metaphor, literally, is visual language. If you're familiar with Tomas van Houtryve's project, Blue Sky Days, he used a drone flying over specific locations or events in the US to mirror specific US drone strikes that took place overseas. You can see how he's making powerful use of visual analogy. We're all familiar with the reports of the US Military, if inadvertently, bombing wedding parties in Afghanistan or Pakistan. Here, van Houtryve brings it home in the most chilling and suggestible way, capturing this scene over a wedding in Central Philadelphia. Talk about visual language, the recent Edward Snowden cover for the New York Times magazine is all about the public image and how Snowden's been depicted in a new film by Oliver Stone. The fact that Snowden is in hiding, so technically invisible, except on screen, the way he's widely identified with covert surveillance, and the issue how of Stone is also engineering Snowden's story and image, all captured through the presentation of rolling screens and the suggestion of data interference in the photo illustration is pretty sophisticated. How many people have seen this by the way? Oh, fantastic. One of the most brilliant political statements I've ever seen is before you, and it's completely nonverbal. This is Michelle Obama's official portrait in 2009, in the Blue Room of the White House. I'm 100% sure that she chose the setting and the context, and since I don't think anyone's seen this picture, can you tell me what you make about it or where the statement is? - [Audience Member] Jefferson? - That's Jefferson in the background. She had been organizing a lot of tours right from the first day of the administration, them moving in, and a lot of school children from DC. One thing that she was promptly pointing out in the tour is that in the Blue Room this photo of Jefferson, he was not only a slave owner but he actually had slaves working for him in the White House when he was president. So pretty incredible symbolism. This White House photo comes from Michelle Obama's visit to the Brown versus Board of Education National Historic Site in Topeka, Kansas honoring the Supreme Court decision ending legal segregation in public schools. Challenging the post racial ideal they largely ran on in 2008, Michelle Obama, dressed in black as she stands under the colored sign, emphasizes in 2014 how labels, racial divisions, and the stigma of the other, exist today and in fact hang over her head. As society becomes more visually sophisticated, photos acquire more capacity and complexity by more commonly referencing well known photos and paintings. This photo by Michelle Frankfurter of a Guatemalan woman hoping to enter into the US by freight train, was published by Smithsonian magazine online. We labeled it Im-Migrant Mother. Later, we asked Michelle about it, and she said any comparison to Migrant Mother is completely intentional. This acclaimed photo of the migrant crisis by Sergey Ponomarev, who shoots for the New York Times, seems to derive some power from the likeness to a famous painting. Do you know which one I'm talking about? (audience members chattering) What? That wasn't the one I was thinking, it's probably a better example than mine, but. In recent years, news photography has become more artful, vivid, more colorful, and is making more use of emotional language. To put it in a larger perspective in helping you see the trend, we did a post titled 20 Years of Ebola and how photography has changed. In the instance above, we compared a photo by Jodi Bieber, published in the New York Times magazine from the outbreak in the year 2000, oh, and by the way, this is a picture that won a World Press award, with an image from the 2014 crisis. I'll show you that in a second. Keep in mind though that World Press winning photos are judged the best, the most powerful images of the year, and the most vivid. So this is how that designation in the year 2000. But you can compare this shot with this one by John Moore, taken in Monrovia, in 2014. That's much more dramatic, more vivid, more colorful, in the illustration of death. Here we see a shot of a medical worker from Zaire. This is May 1995, this is 20 years ago. Compare that to another shot by John Moore of a US Navy microbiologist in a Navy lab in Liberia. It's a photo that's dramatic, even cinematic, in both a heroic and a sci-fi way, it's a wonderful statement of precaution, commitment, technological acumen, and also delivery of care. Compare also this photo of aid workers in Rwanda that's back in 2005. Compare it to Glenna Gordon's photo from Monrovia in the Wall Street Journal, September 2014. Not only does it have a lot to say about the fraternity of aid workers, but it also shows how much a very simple visual detail, and a large dose of emotion, can carry a news photo now. Let's look at how news photography has been melding with art, documentary, and commercial photography. This Reuters photo was taken during the synchronized diving event at the Rio Olympics. The games, their own mash of cultural politics, advertising sports and entertainment, offers a dazzling array of amazing photo effects. To me they look like whirling dervishes. This Wire photo of a photograph leaning against a headstone at Arlington Cemetery was taken on the 10th anniversary of the start of the Iraq war. What Getty's Chip Somodevilla captures in the most liminal way, no retouching, no filters, is that Iraq was a ghost war, and now, so many of its vets are too. The Echosight Project uses an overlay technique to present more complicated narratives in a more literal way. If news photography is not given nuance and too often minimizes the complexity of like everything, in this case urban communities, this overlay, which was published by Al Jazeera, appeared after the civil rights protest and unrest in Ferguson and Baltimore. What it does is balances the opening of a Boys and Girls Club in Ferguson with a member of a dirt bike gang tooling down the street in Baltimore during a march protesting the death of Freddie Gray. Looks really good up there. This animated GIF was created by artist, Nancy Burson, for a liberal magazine. All these examples of artists who are now moving into the editorial sphere. Burson pioneered the use of digital morphing technologies in a collaboration with researchers at MIT in the mid 70s. The title is What If He Were Black, Asian, Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Indian. Again, it's saying a lot about Trump, race, racism, and multiculturalism with no words. How do you represent people who have been made invisible in a media photo? How do you illustrate a news event like the mass kidnapping of 276 girls from their school in Northern Nigeria by Boko Haram? As a documentary approach, borrowing the school's uniforms from the students' parents and photographing them together, was powerful but not unique. What was more unique, and this is becoming a much wider practice, is that Glenna Gordan's photos were commissioned by news publishers, the Wall Street Journal and TIME specifically for a news audience. The next point I wanna make about today's news photo has to do with storytelling. Also borrowing from documentary photography, news images, even within the single frame, are becoming larger containers of information. Let me show you in a short case study. Last year we saw an interesting project TIME published about the police in Philadelphia and it got us thinking about the history of police ride-along photos. Shot by permission under protection and effectively over the shoulder of officers, the police embed in photo stories in major publications by prominent photographers goes back decades. The difficulty though is how stereotypical they can be, and have been by race, by location, by situation, and by partiality to the police, or sometimes, antagonistic to the police. The story narratives are typified by the police force in a primal battle with Black or Latino youth. Major stories have been uniformly photographed in notoriously dangerous inner-city, low income, African American or Latino communities, and they are largely captured in the dark or in black and white against housing or stores that are impoverished or decrepit. Typically featuring the chase, violent confrontation, and suspects detained and subdued, often still invoking deadliness or menace. This photo was taken by James Nachtwey in Los Angeles, 2004, and these are all very major photo stories over that period of time. This photo was taken by Joe Rodriguez in Los Angeles in 1995, published in New York Times magazine. This was taken by Paolo Pellegrin in 2012, in Rochester, published in Die Zeit. This was taken by Antonio Bolfo, photographer and former policeman, 2008 in the Bronx. This photo was taken by Bruce Davidson in 1985 in the New York City Subway for New York magazine. These are undercover policemen. Ultimately, the real challenge for the ride-along has to do with context and what happens beyond the drama and the polarization. What is lacking, then, is the fabric, or the chemistry, the more daily dynamics. For that reason, I'd like to contrast these images I've shown you with several by Natalie Keyssar taken in July 2015 in Philadelphia. What is Keyssar doing with her ride-along images that previous stories have largely been missing? Above all, they tell stories. The photos are also dramatically routine. In contrast to other ride-along stories, the shoe never drops. If the driver may get stopped, perhaps for a nuisance reason, he doesn't shot or arrested. In this photo, the police search this man's car and then let him go, and the photos are complex, layered, filled with concurrent action and layers of meaning. All in one picture, the mothers and families have their take on the cops and they also have their take on the kid, and very uniquely, they hold the higher ground. Another accomplishment of the photo is that the realm of the street and the realm of the home are not separated at all. The photos are dynamic. Instead of fixed expressions and gestures, you see people looking, surmising, summing, calculating. They convey true interaction, observation, learning, or imprinting. You can imagine the kid on the car remembering this moment, while the kids down the street have seen this all before, while a girl elects not to engage. Even the incongruity is powerful, the affection for the dog balancing out the other stresses. The photos are ambiguous in the best way. They are not prejudicial, and they are not presenting evidence. They not only defy moral judgement, but the depictions of the roles actually challenge the stereotypes. In this case, shifting from antagonist to advocates, the police respond to a call about a threatening ex-boyfriend, and end up filing a report. Notice by the way how the point of view swivels around. As much as we see the situation from the cops' vantage, we also see it from the ground up, through the eyes of a toddler, and through the perceiving eyes of the teenage girl in blue. Keyssar then also levels out the power by framing out the police men's heads. The tension portrayed in these photos don't come from violence or the exercise of power, but the day to day tension, the day to day tension of the police and the community having to deal with each other, while negotiating the same space. Most clearly, the community space. Here, a captain shouts with a woman in her kitchen who called him to discuss routine problems from the abandoned house next door. The caption notes, "This woman has lived "in the precinct since the 50s, "and was one of the first Black residents." If the photos are stylish, as in the officer's pose, and this is a big consideration these days, style, it's also in the service of more information. Perhaps Keyssar hinting at self-reflection or second thoughts on the policeman's part. The first year cop isolating and ostracizing the older kid on the bike because for the moment he fit the description of a shooting suspect. Also, keying off the invitation of the kid in the foreground they urge us to read the photos for ourselves. An important element in storytelling is the ability to use time as a narrative device. Consider this horrible scene from an attack on a foreigner in Johannesburg. The fact the rock is frozen before it hits the man's face prompts us to stop time and consider what has precipitated such an act, and what the consequences should be, or shall be. If you've been concerned how much media images have made refugees and the massive migrant crisis look helpless and pitiful, AFP did a smart and effective thing. Taking the top picture of a Myanmar refugee on a boat off Thailand, the photographer went to Indonesia a week later to identify the refugees and photograph them again to flesh out the story and reinforce their dignity. This is actually a very unique photo whereas political factions rail against illegal immigrants as a security threat and for taking jobs away from European or American citizens, photographer, Mark Abramson, embedded himself with an undocumented Hispanic gardener to demonstrate how thoroughly Americans depend on and rely on so-called illegals. What's even more wonderful about this photo of the homeowner lying in his pool while he employs the immigrant, mostly living in legal limbo, to pick up his trash, is that the Bakersfield homeowner also happens to be a policeman. Nothing has changed news, culture, politics, and photojournalism more than the impact of social media. I wanna show you some examples how it has not only transformed news and cultural information in a social sphere, but has created, and this is for amateurs and freelancers just as much as news agencies, new opportunities for creation and expression, and for bringing concern, photography, and visual activism to the social, web, and into public space. Yes, nobody has used it better than the White House, as the Obamas, as visually savvy as they were already came into the office as platforms like Twitter and Instagram were just achieving critical mass. First let's consider the viral image where photo editors at Newswires and major news organizations used to choose and prioritize what we see. Today social media, in other words you and I, have taken over the curation role by recirculating, well, anything that strikes us. In this case, the world wide power and attention of the Alan Kurdi photo demonstrated the urgency of the migrant crisis. Viral photographs also have been the conduit for new social rituals, behaviors, and what we call memes. In response to the Michael Brown killing, citizen-police violence and incessant racial profiling, the hands up, don't shoot gesture, the sign that signifies passive cooperation surrender, and sometimes fruitless surrender, become a physical, then a combined physical and visual protest and empowerment response. It took off immediately as you can see in this scene outside the Ferguson police department the very next day after Michael Brown was killed. Then it becomes art and cultural iconography from there. I could've said the exact same thing but showed in an earlier loop where we were looking at Trayvon Martin and the hoodie, and how fast that became a signature. Now, sadly, we have these events in Charlotte and Tulsa the last few days, you wonder how that loops gonna work also in terms of how we make meaning and iconography out of the current events. This photo went viral two years later. In this case, the image of Ieshia Evans protesting the killing of Alton Sterling in Baton Rouge is a lot more poetic. Reuters certainly had no idea this photo would explode over social media the way it did. The reasons are a little more mysterious. I think it has a lot to do with empowerment in the face of so much anger and rage over the killings of the armed but not threatening Sterling, as well as Philando Castile in Minnesota within days of the other event, this scene has an almost supernatural quality. It appears like Evans, in the most dignified state, somehow turns the armed Russian kinetic riot cops into stone. Think of the phrase I am a man, or in this incarnation, I am a woman. Call it a remarkable vision of poise and rootedness. Evans is as rooted as that tree. Thinking again about Tomas van Houtryve's drone project, the artist JR, now well known for his massive outdoor humanitarian photo displays, created this giant earth portrait in a heavily bombed region of Pakistan where drone attacks regularly occur. It's specifically designed to be seen by Western drone pilots. Here, portraiture, installation art, and visual activism literally reframe and reface a war zone. Another photo-activist organization to keep your eye on is Dysturb, a coop of top-flight photojournalists. They have been posting conflict photography in well trafficked spots, mostly safe and often well off ones, in cities all around the world. This picture brought the Syrian army's use of chemical weapons in Damascus to the streets of Paris. With social media, also comes growing visual independence and people taking back their own image. That's a massive challenge though when Western media still controls so much web share and mind share in shaping our political and cultural perception of things. But there's hope there, for example, tens of thousands of refugees coming to Europe have cell phones with cameras on them. So why is their plight filtered and narrated to us by Western photojournalists in such gorgeous scenes of weakness and helplessness? The journalists clustered in packs on the shores of coasts of Lesbos. To understand what I mean, compare these photos. These are from Lesbos by the acclaimed Western photographer, James Machchtwey. Another. And this one. Contrast those with this photo being offered like a specimen here, right? This photo, published by TIME, was taken by photographer Eyad Abou Kasem, himself a Syrian refugee, photographer and refugee, who escaped from Damascus to Europe in the summer of 2015 crossing to Greece by boat. It's a wonderful commentary on the Western photographers though lying in wait to photograph all these incoming migrants and how they're used as media fodder is not lost in the so-called anonymous. As Eyad wrote, "The scene on the beach "was my first welcome to Europe. "I framed the shot to look like "the behind the scenes of a film, "or even a cheesy advertising of us. "Even before starting my journey, "I knew was going to take this picture. "It seems so obvious to me." Given the number of artful boat landing pics I've seen just this week, more obvious to him than to us, for sure. Now let's turn to Reading The Pictures to better understand how we analyze news and media images for meaning, trends, context, and fairness. While I'm doing that I hope you also consider what we're about in terms of the opportunity out there for all of you to build a role and a niche in the information landscape around your own vision and craft with pixels. Simply put, our goal is visual and media literacy, to help people see and read cultural, media, and political images focusing on headlines, major social and political events, or important social issues. We spend a lot of time looking at the media depiction of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, class, for better and for worse. In this instance we did a post back about the media photos depicting New York's preparation for Hurricane Sandy. While it's easy to find shots of preparations in front of Saks, or corporate headquarters like Goldman Sachs, or the New York Stock Exchange, we couldn't find one image, and believe me, we look hard, from the traditional media picturing storm preparations for the homeless. This photo from Vanity Fair, a profile of MSNBC Morning's Joe hosts, Mika Brzezinski and Joe Scarborough, it's a classic example of sexism. Ostensibly an equal team, Scarborough is first among equals and Brzezinski looks like a stripper doing a table dance. (audience laughs) But Atlantic's Liz Mundy by the way notes the importance of erotic capital for women in broadcasting journalism. So I imagine she accrued quite a lot of capital from this photo. This recent news photo of Black female West Point cadets raising their fists parallels the famous cadet image known as the Old Corps photo. It created a storm of social media, many including the New York Times, equating the gesture with Black Lives Matter. In the article though, a West Point graduate and mentor to many of the women in the photo, said it was more a statement of unity, pride, and sisterhood. But all of us know that cadets are not robots and the beauty of photography is that it can mean both and neither at the same time. I'd call this a mirror of the times. Critique aside, we're constantly recognizing images that create a more balanced depiction and goes against type or stereotype. Taken for Nat Geo, National Geographic, this photo from Flint by photography Wayne Lawrence depicts three kids picking up clean drinking water. Kids who, have not for their skin color, could be seen as kids from elite private schools returning home to Park Avenue. Here we see a married couple, the photo also referencing the American flag, enjoying a moment of bliss at an international gay rodeo association event in Little Rock. Earlier I talked about visual democracy and the importance of people, especially outside the West, taking back their images. That's why a feed of Everyday Africa, an Instagram site, and the related visual sites are so vital. Given the number of photos we see in American news photo galleries equating the African continent with poverty and primitivism. Here we see a family shopping at a supermarket in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. This photo by the photographer Ruddy Roy, and I highly recommend you follow him if you do not already on Instagram, was published by the TIME Instagram site following the police shooting of Alton Sterling in Baton Rouge. The photo counter programs so many media pictures of protest vandalism and violence. The man is cooking food for people who congregated every day at the Triple S Food Mart where the shooting took place. What's particularly interesting is how fire, a notorious symbol of social unrest, here instead stands for support and care taking. Again, conditioned as we are to think of the Syrian refugee camp in Jordan in terms of misery and squalor, this is an extraordinary photograph by Alixandra Fazzina from NOOR. It depicts an 18 year old Syrian bride in the Zaatari camp's hair salon preparing to be we'd that day as a refugee. We're also concerned with context, and particularly the balance between information and drama in a news photo. You'll hear us, if you follow the site, use the term infotainment a lot. To often what we see in a news photo is the sensationalism, the spectacle, shock, horror, overwhelming the actual news. What makes a great news image today as we see it, and any strong social image actually, is that the picture lends all its muscle to the informational value. Did that happen in the incredible photos coming out of the Ukraine uprising in Kiev Square in January 2014 that lead to the overthrow of the pro Russian government? In a situation that might not be that politically relevant or familiar to American news consumers it seemed like these photos were more about the spectacle, evoking medieval times, or in this photo, Middle-earth, science fiction, or even the famous Apple 1984 commercial. But what about this one? The question for us is how much does this photo shock and intrigue in a little bit of a freaky way, the Vatican being a huge and highly skilled PR machine, as opposed to how much does the impact lend itself to the appreciation that this more humble and socially minded Jesuit pope is that comfortable and determined to engage the most inflicted? We're interested in a photo as propaganda, PR, political spin, and how news and social images can become overtly commercial. This screenshot is from a series of Vice videos in which they embedded with ISIS. Refusing to disclose the terms of the arrangement, the question about the imagery is the documentary value versus the promotion of Vice and the ISIS brand, the terror organization being extremely media savvy or at least they were at that time. Starting from the first days of the administration, using its own photographers and its own social media, the administration has been able to control access, photo access, while providing entrancing, profound, and supposedly candid photos to an appreciative media to such an extent that today the public hardly distinguishes between photos taken of the President by professional independent journalists, and photos 100% produced by the White House. In publishing this photo of Obama mirroring Rosa Parks on that same bus at the Henry Ford Museum, that's the context for the photo, sorry, what most of the media let slip by though when this photo circulated everywhere, was the fact that, in this not even candid moment captured that there's press involved, there's no independent media. In fact it was a White House photo completely formulated and composed during an Obama campaign fundraiser, while, you'll see, members of the photo press were having to stand over on the side. This photo was very hard to find by the way. The other one wasn't. This photo by Annie Leibovitz for Vogue using the Hurricane Sandy disaster and a celebration of New York's finest first responders to also promote New York's other finest, its fashion designers and fashion week. In our minds, anyway, we saw this turning editorial photography into commercial art, we called it the commodification of disaster. We're also interested in how and how much people have become public brands, and how the role of public service, politicians are just public servants, they're in our employment, has been overshadowed by political and cultural celebrity. What bigger and better case study could you have than you know who, that right now, politically anyway, he's bigger than Elvis. It's common these days for famous people, especially politicians and heads of state to employ personal photographers or seek out the most highly crafted publicity. In this case you can see the Queen and the royal family have been also embraced by Annie Leibovitz and vice versa. To me, the most interesting element of the picture is actually the handbag. Yes, the portrait of the great grandchildren ooze adorability, ever mindful of the royal franchise however, and I think the Queen is all the time, the hand off of the bag also stakes out the mandate for generations. Trump's secret cousin. (audience laughs) The boogeyman, a supporting actor in the 2016 campaign reality show, and giving a talk tomorrow night that's just on the campaign photo. So I'll be back here and there won't be any duplication at all by the way, none. People got really bent out of shape that Rolling Stone used this photo of the cute Boston marathon bomber on their cover, pulling this photo from his Facebook page. But that was the whole point. Far from glorifying him, the question was what happens when the terrorists look like us? What happens when media source images also from Facebook and Instagram? So the cute Boston marathon bomber. As I mentioned, we are also interested in aesthetics, or the growing artistry of news photos as the trade continues to borrow from fashion, art, and the full range of commercial photography. Again in each case our question is how much is the artistry of the image complimenting as opposed to fighting with or even overwhelming the actual news value? This photo led off a Reuters slideshow, isn't that great? Isn't that amazing? I love this. The photo led off a Reuters slideshow last November set in Belgium. From the tone of the photo, would you imagine it's about the security response following the coordinated terror attacks by ISIS in Paris that killed 130 people? It's actually a soldier on a shopping street on high alert. Would you say the journalism holds its own compared to the pull of fashion and street photography? As a beautiful and in fact placid image that appeared in various news slideshows, what this depicts, as you can see from the caption, and you actually can't see the caption here, that's great, are pre-bombing warning fliers over Ghaza city during the Israel Hamas missile war in late 2014. Not so placid. More so than ever, international tragedies provide the opportunity for leading photojournalists to create interesting work. This photo, from the Malaysia Airlines crash in Ukriane in which government rebels shot down a passenger plane with a surface-to-air missile feels like it is crossing the boundary into art. On the other hand, Taslima Akhter's photo, how many people have seen this before? Oh, that's good, that's encouraging. Taslima Akhter's photo is one of the most powerful to emerge from the devastating collapse of an unsafe garment factory in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this case, far from gratuitous, the colorful fabrics and the sense of an embrace for all eternity succeeded in bringing wide attention, condemnation, and calls for action, for the factory owners who had put thousands of workers at dire risk. Other things we do at our site, we address ethics and best practices. We've uncovered misrepresentation in a major photo contest, and the staging of photographs in war zones. We'll also do photo forensic and investigative analysis. In this case we showed how a guitar had been placed in multiple photos in multiple locations over a span of four days by a Reuters freelancer working for the Syrian resistance. That's like an absolute no-go thing to do. It was used as a prop, it was not even playable. The guitar only has three strings, and you can see that here. Here it's handed off. I don't know, what the hell, the mask impacts his singing ability but it was handed off to another fighter. It's odd that the man's left hand on the fret board is positioned to hold down the strings that aren't there. Here's the guitar in still another Reuters news photo placed in a portrait of a rebel in a Aleppo just two days before, taken by the same photographer. To verify it was the same instrument, we identified the same pit marks on its side across several of the photos. Now that these photos are being published much larger it makes our jobs a lot easier. Those like 400 by 600s were tricky to work with. Here on the photographer's Facebook page, kind of audacious, we see him walking down the street carrying the same guitar with the same missing strings and the same pattern of detail. This is one of the most important posts we've ever done. It's actually here but I'll come to it in a second. The Mylai Massacre attracted mass public awareness largely due to the 1969 public release of graphic photographs taken by army photographer, Ron Haeberle, published in LIFE magazine. According to LIFE's caption of this iconic American photo, these villagers were huddled in terror moments before being killed by American troops at Mylai. While the massacre is widely recognized as a military atrocity and an act of mass murder committed on citizens and noncombatants, appreciation of the event as an act of mass rape and sexual abuse as well has never materialized in the American consciousness. In spite of a luminous testimony shortly and then for quite a while after the massacre happened. Based on research by Valerie Wieskamp, a PhD candidate in Rhetoric and Public Culture at Indiana U, we link the testimony to the famous photo in order to ask the question how come everybody knows about the napalm girl but no one knows or speaks of the black blouse girl. In the post we detail how the woman buttoning her blouse had just been sexually assaulted by US officers before she and these villagers were killed. This is all documented in these congressional hearings. As Valerie wrote, "When it comes to the US Military, "acknowledgement of mass murder is more tolerable "than sex, sexual assault, and rape even to this day." In terms of carving out new opportunities and creating new methods and models for analyzing news images, our biggest contribution at our site to visual and media literacy is our unique offering the Reading The Pictures Salon. We're actually working with one now for the University of Maryland with Marvin. The Salon brings together the world's leading photographers, photo editors, and visual academics, and other subject matter experts, to analyze how the visual media frames to key social and political events of the day. Typically held online using webinar software and Google Hangout, it's a two hour panel discussion in which a 10 image edit completely drives the discussion. So we're talking to the photos. We've done 24 of these programs including our first one in 2008 on the photo coverage of the Afghan war. Back then our panelists by the way actually used a group chat room to discuss the photos via text. Since then we've done programs on the presidential campaign, the migrant crisis, how surveillance is pictured in the media, we looked at the visual framing of Kiev and the battle for Independence Square. You'll see our old name on a lot of these slides by the way. The Debate Over White House Photo Access. The photo coverage from the Syrian civil war when there was still coverage to speak of. The legislative battle over reproductive rights. The visual politics of Occupy Wall Street, and the visual framing of the Great Recession, and many others. Here we see photographer Dennis Brack as part of our Salon and White House photo access participating from the White House media room in our Hangout. By the way that is not a very fancy setup they've got there, you should know. I guess it's taxpayer paid. To get a sense of what our Hangout looks like from a panel's perspective, here on the bottom, you'll see Mike Davis, a professor at Syracuse News House School, and former White House photo editor under George Bush. RIT photograph professor, Loret Steinberg. New York Times photographer, Stephen Crowley. The other two people on the panel represent the first time that two women, White House photographers ever appeared in a public forum together before. So below you'll see Samantha Appleton, the second slot there who was the Obamas' photographer for I think two years, and then here's Barbara Kinney and she was a photographer in the Clinton White House, and in fact she's now Hillary Clinton's campaign photographer now. I should add we've done these live also, not just online, and we've collaborated with many academic and institutional partners including Photoville, and I'm gonna be doing a panel on Saturday night at Photoville, little plug. Here we are at Columbia talking Obama showing he's just a regular Joe. In discussing a representative edited media images we bring a process and a value to the exercises that actually surprisingly rare, and that is reading the photograph. You might think it's a natural thing, especially among photo professionals, to talk about the content of the photo, especially after people risk their lives to make them, and then they give an enormous amount of time to frame and compose them, and then artfully process them. The standard though even at photo conferences full of professionals is to take a quick look at a photo, then talk about, jump to the politics of the image, or what it was like to be there, or what camera gear was used. In our Salon on the other hand, we wanna think about why that Black males are only represented by their sneakers, or talking about White House security. What actually did happen the night two gate crashers actually photographed here going through the presidential receiving line actually attended a White House state dinner for the prime minister of India on the other side of Obama there. Or how much the Western coverage of the Syrian war preferences images of destruction and injury over scenes of humanity, commerce, self-reliance. If you check out the Salon section on our website or our YouTube channel, you'll see we not only post the full replay, but we also produce crafted highlight clips that capture the most insightful commentary while zooming in on and moving around key images of the site, another way of reading. I have a short clip to illustrate what I mean. - [Cara] This is a news service photo from Reuters made last September, and this was in the context of Hungary and border issues. - [Glenn] Well I'm chomping at the bit to get into it because it's just so loaded in so many ways. For one I think it's an extraordinary picture, just the way space is being used and how much information is here, clearly with the reporters in the background just covering this one very nonchalantly, one on the run. The man on the left, a refugee shouting, the surgical mask of one of the authorities, and then the background, at how draconian the Hungarians have approached the migration crisis. Of all the countries they have certainly been the worst in their treatment. This young boy, how he's clutching this baby as if it's like a doll, it's an extraordinary picture. - [Shani] There's a sense of everybody on the move doing their duty, and the outcome of doing your duty in this way I think is quite clear. To me it's very much a story or a photo of lack of care, of two children in the focus of the photograph being surrounded by adults, not seeming to offer them any type of support. All in some ways are attacking, from the guy on the right hand side over the surgical mask, but also the photographers quite aggressively and instrumentally focused on the child. - [Cara] Also the kind of structure of the image is really kind of circling. So if you insert yourself in the photographer's position as being part of the circle, there's kind of no way out for that child in the middle. - [Anne] I'm struck by the photographers, but I'm also struck by the kind of different lines of the arms that are kind of reaching out or grabbing the boy. The person with the blue hand pointing at the child, the arms kind of reaching out. - [Michelle] The confrontation between the guy with the mask and the man on the left, it's kind of like quantum physics. What impact did the price of so many media have on his intense stopping of these people? Was he acting for the camera as well? It wasn't set up as a photo op. When you're surrounded by that many media how does it change the reaction of the guard or whoever this man is in the mask and the glove? - That's reading a picture, isn't it? Our latest field of play endeavour, experimentation, it's Instagram. What's a lot of fun about Instagram for us is it's allowing us to branch out beyond photojournalism. It's again another way that I feel like I'm closer to what you do, what you're about, what you're studying, what you're interested in, than I was a week ago, a month ago, certainly a year ago. We are interested in bringing more commentary to this space with our relatively new feed. 500 million users on Instagram and how many are reading those pictures? Is it possible that we're the only ones? What we're doing there we call microanalysis, responding to photos that we find and repost along with a sentence to a paragraph of response, no more than that. In the photo from a famous wax museum we were wondering if these two figures are indeed equally tooled. We even did a takeover. In this case on photographer, Mark Peterson's feed. Peterson is a popular Redux photographer. He's been shooting the campaign for MSNBC. His site has 90,000 followers. In our case though the takeover was all about the commentary. Mark provided us unedited photos to choose from, then we picked what we liked, and we added the words. With this photo of Mark Phelps, at the end of the Rio Olympics, these are some examples of the riffing we've done. We wrote, "Not your typical reaching the pinnacle portrait. "Seems to speak to how much he "had to go through to get there." Talking about analogies again, along with this photo from the Washington Post, we wrote, "Relax, it's just a weather photo. "Not that it escaped the editors, though, "that there's more than a hint "of apocalypse in these uncertain times." (sighs) The original photo by photographer Matt Black from his ongoing project, the Geography of Poverty, and if you're not familiar with his work, I recommend that very highly also. This picture was taken at a homeless camp in Fresno. He's been going around the country shooting in towns where very, very high percentage of the population is under the poverty line. We wrote, "This is a wonderful "example of Matt Black's gift. "The only thing that exceeds the uniqueness "of the scene or the depth of respect "is the intelligence of the symbolism. "Counterprogramming the stereotype "of the homeless as damned and aimless, "Black presents them as sentinels." Finally in response to Patrick Fallon's exquisite King's River photo for Reuters, we wrote, "Beauty is the inextinguishable problem "with fire and news photography." These are all the different ways to find us. We look forward to hearing from you. We're very democratic, very open access. So if you have images, thoughts, takes, especially on Instagram imagery, we're just a tweet or a email away. Thank you for your time. I'm sure that we'll have some questions. (audience applauds) - [Audience Member] You said at one point that the readings that you're doing are fairly common, and you would expect them to be common. So my question is why now would common be so radical? - So radical? - [Audience Member] Yeah. If, as you say, your readings are common. In other words, you would expect people, intelligent people, to look at, spend time with, analyze the iconography and the various stylistic devices. But it doesn't happen. So what you're doing is relatively radical. So my question becomes why would that now become radical? What's happened to us? - Why are the readings common but uncommon? Why are they common or why would I expect them to be common but also then put them out as radical also? I think that one explanation is that the deconstruction of images, the reading of social and cultural images, or it's easier to understand when you're talking about the reading of advertising images, is really threatening to people, and can cost people a lot of money. If they spend five, six, seven million dollars for one Super Bowl ad, and in the ad a woman is beating up her husband or hitting him over the head with a bag of Doritos, the last thing that the advertising industry wants is for us to say oh, well I understand what's going on there, you know. They're exploiting this because of that. I think that's one reason we don't have visual literacy taught in schools. Images are, well I sometimes talk about we live in a persuasion society. To the extent that powers that be whether it's the advertising industry or whether it's the White House or the military can entrance us with images that are layered with all kinds of symbolism and meaning that reinforce a lot of behavior, you know. I don't think that people want that deconstructed. That's one way to answer the question. I don't know. In a way too it's hard to answer your question. You guys, and coming here and talking in an environment like this is really exciting, 'cause you know, I can say here's the image, and did you see that or notice the handbag? You guys are trained to see that. You may be looking at so many images or you've got like 19 things on your mind so it's not like when you're looking at all this cultural imagery, you're deconstructing it. But you're at least trained to do it. Other people just kind of sort of do it intuitively. If they read one of our posts, we're trying to effect these aha moments where people are like, oh, yeah, of course, or yeah, or I don't think you're fishing on that, that seems to really like connect, resonate with my experience when we look at a lot of the civil rights images. I don't know, I think it's not necessarily an acquired skill, it's a skill that can be cultivate and deepened, or it's just like to reminder yourself to read. So it's a big question. - [Audience Member] I was struck by you sort of slipped in there that perhaps the reason we don't have visual literacy taught which is something I've always felt should be taught that there was a sort of nefarious reason for that. I'm wondering if you could expand a little bit on how articulated you think that reason is. I mean, is it something that is actually fought against or is it just sort of circumstantial there isn't that because it goes against cultural codes? Does that make sense? - Yeah, it's a great question. I guess it's a long list and we start to say here are things that are like really important that are not cultural values and are not taught. Teaching children to read emotional language, teaching parenting, teaching people basic nutrition. Once you start talking about visual literacy on a list like that, I'm not sure where it falls or how much to say it's nefarious as opposed to that these are our cultural values. Why are we all sitting here in a culture where, whatever, it's 50% of the dollars we pay in taxes go to military. I don't know, these are questions that are bigger than me but just because, but my interest is in visual literacy, in media literacy, and speaking truth to visual power, and just being more conscious in that way. So that's just my end of it. But wow, you know, you start pulling the thread on that suit, it's like, uh. (laughs) - [Audience Member] Who funds you? - We actually just became a 501(c)(3), so we're pursuing grant money. We have some advertising revenue from our website. We have some generous donors that have been backing us from day one. We're like the little engine that could. But we hope with the 501(c)(3) and all the work that we've done that we'll be able to start really developing some grant funding. Also the Salons, we're starting to work with larger partners and getting more, and those projects are becoming more elaborate. So that's part of it all. I did wanna say that just being here, I actually gave a lecture at SCAD three of four weeks ago, and I would've given a different presentation today if I hadn't been there. But I really could sense, and we talked about the hunger that these photo students had in terms of really bringing their work, not just to the culture, but also finding opportunities in terms of jobs, and careers, and projects that are more applicable. I really felt, especially with Instagram, I see you guys really focused when I started showing those images. But I think that whether we're talking about Matt Black is doing or what we're doing using the platform that it really is this space that's a creative space, and a commercial space, and expressive space, and that there really is a lot of opportunity. More opportunity than ever, I think, with the skills you have than there have been in the past. I've actually worked in art schools and design schools and I just think, that especially you look at the every day sites and there's a lot of opportunity out there to take your project into a dialogue, and then have it build into something that really becomes a business, and creates real opportunity. So I wanted to say that, you know, all us here. - [Charles] What you just said is very much the mission of this department, that indeed there are all kinds of new platforms, opportunities, businesses, entrepreneurial enterprises to deal with the making, the parsing, the understanding, the delivery of the image and of the lens image in all kinds of new spaces. This is a person who did this out of passion who's got a day job by the way. All of you saying what am I gonna do with my thing? Well you all have to invent these platforms. You have to invent these iterations. There's so much imagery out there that needs to be understood, needs to be used, needs to be repurposed, needs to be made. Just making pictures to hang on a wall in a gallery in Chelsea isn't the only opportunity. That's why we're doing this series the way we're doing it. I wanna encourage everybody that tomorrow night there's another presentation about the subject that's most on the minds of probably everybody, at least in the back of our mind, our election, and how we deal with it. You can bring your guests as well if you just let us know ahead of time that you're bringing your guest. I'm sure there are more questions, don't hesitate. Somebody back there had one. - [Audience Member] I'm not so sure if this is strictly a question, but it's a feeling that I've had. I feel is more, the biggest challenge about understanding imagery, are you able to hear me? - Yes, yes. - [Audience Member] I think one of the biggest challenge for this generation is the apathy. I feel that compared to words, imagery has this certain amount of seductive hope to it that satisfies us enough that doesn't require us to kind of go beyond that seduction, 'cause I'm looking at this picture, it looks nice and I have maybe five seconds of attention span. It satisfies that five seconds, I'm ready to move on. Whereas prior to this, let's say 20, 25 years ago, where I had to read a whole article in the New York Times or the Post or something like that, I'm forced to read it for like 20 minutes before coming to a conclusion. But now with imagery increasingly replacing words as communication, part of me had been trained to look at it fast, to be satisfied faster, and then not be required to kind of look deeper into it. I'm at that age where I see that transition. I didn't grow up texting. It took me three years before texting. That was a big thing for me. I couldn't figure out why people liked to text. So what I see now with Instagram and things like that, I mean my eyes are totally fulfilled. But yet now I have no more energy left to parse anything else. I'm ready to see the next picture. So part of is that we're retraining ourselves as producers of images to have less and less attention span. So to me the biggest challenge now is apathy. As creatives, how do we break that apathy? How do we create this experience as image, visual creatives to factor that in into the things that we make? So I'm not sure if this is a question or statement but feel free to kinda talk about that. - No, I think it's a really interesting question. I guess I'm gonna date myself a little bit in the answer not just because of my age but also the fact that I've been looking at hundreds of pictures a day for the last 12 years, and also watching how the environment has changed and these platforms have come into existence to see how the information moves around. I actually completely disagree with this idea of apathy. I think what's amazing to me, and also again, using what we've done as an example, eight years ago, five years ago, you know, things were very serial. We're dealing with news photos, the ability to meet people and communicate these ideas was done at these serial events that would happen over at these different intervals of time. The fact that now you can have these things happen in a matter of eight hours, and this happens at the end of the week, it may not be that efficient, and where you're coming at the world and your practice let's say, might not be clarified enough at this point in terms of how you're putting things together and then having interchange, and dialogue, and feedback. But I think that the way things are working now have an efficiency that are extraordinary. We can now put something out, get reply, the way that you see the culture replying to things, doing that on a purely visual level. It is actually stunning to me that I didn't have to say the term Purple Rain when I put that picture up there. Of course you're art students so you know, and again that's like a very simple example, but still I think things are getting really efficient and really robust in terms of visual life out there, and cultural life, and political life. But you do have to find your way to enter and process it. You had a question. - [Audience Member] It might be a little bit too big but I was just wondering if you could expand on that idea you mentioned of persuasion, if you could expand, I forget the exact term you had used, culture of persuasion, I think it was. Is there any chance you could expand on that or is that too big of an idea for like a 45 second Q and A. - Well maybe there's a better example. - [Audience Member] Repeat the question. - Oh yeah, he was asking if I could expand on the idea of persuasion, persuasion society. What's really funny is that the word propaganda seemed to have disappeared. Now it's all about, you know, we live in a marketing culture and there's a whole lot of things I can't lecture on anymore because what struck me as being offensive where you had this kind of crossover between, or this co-option of something in the culture and something that was commercial is now like, you know, everybody buys it. I just saw that movie Sully and there's the guy doing the little riff on the Snickers bar. It was like eight years ago, five years ago where I was like if I saw that kind of product placement, I would like, this is bullshit, you know. So the way that now commercialism has ingrained itself into the cultural narrative and all these other kinda, you know, whether it's politics, or gender, and health, and education, everything's sponsored by this person and that person. You were talking about Photoville earlier, actually we were talking before. What's great about Photoville is that Sam and Laura will not take corporate money to make that thing huge. It's already the biggest photo festival in the United States, but they like beg, borrow, and steal to put it on because they're not gonna be sponsored by Nikon, Canon, this one and that. Because what happens? Then those guys wanna have their photographers in, and then we start talking about they're choosing their photographers that are doing the consciousness work. Okay, so that's good, but that's also then already you've got a compromise where these strands are pulled together commercially as opposed to having this more real autonomy. I don't think real autonomy exists anymore. That's why I think Instagram on the one hand is very cool and potentially powerful. You have the every day sites and all of that. But at the same time four months ago Instagram sponsored and took five of their leading photographers who have hundreds of thousands of followers, very highly respected photojournalists, and they have them all shoot Fleet Week. So there they are basically creating a commercial for the US Military being on the USS Baton, creating this extraordinarily amazing, gorgeous photo that their hundreds and thousands of followers are digesting and don't understand that this was something that was brokered. Nobody paid any money, that's what was really amazing. That just blew my mind. So I guess that is an example of how we don't even talk about, we don't even use the term commercialism let alone propaganda. It's just marketing. It's Trump, Trump's the perfect, you know, he's the embodiment of this. - [Audience Member] All the free coverage just from his behaviors and his comments, and those things. - But he says his credential is that he's really good at that. That's like terrifying. But we value that, people value that, 'cause you know that's kinda how the culture is operating. - [Audience Member] Touching on some of the images you were talking about, like the less expected images such as the embed with the police or the images that Ruddy Roy does. I follow Ruddy Roy and initially when I was first told about him and I glanced on Instagram, and at first it wasn't those images that you typically see on the front page of newspapers. It took me a second to investigate a little bit further, and I'm glad that I did because now I enjoy his work a whole lot more. But talking about the future of photographers that wanna capture images like that of the real behind the scenes things, not just what's expected. Who is the audience that we're trying to get with that, 'cause right now I feel like it's smaller circles of people that are more invested in photography. But how do we, in the future, expand on that more to like build that audience? 'Cause with my own work I'm trying to be more well rounded in the images that I make. I'm not trying to just get those, oh, this is the action shot, or oh, this is, you know. But at the same time I want that work to be seen and appreciated, and not just like, what's happening in this one? - So you're asking that doing something that's unique, something that maybe isn't too like kind of identify with style and form. Doing something really, having a unique vision, how do you find an audience for it? - [Audience Member] I guess, well let me put it this way. Making those kinds of images and I like to, and hopefully I'll get better at it, and I have like an Instagram feed, and some people follow. But who's gonna want those images? 'Cause the newspaper's not gonna want them 'cause they can't throw them on the front page. Photojournalism, in traditional print form, is on the decline. I'm just wondering, you know, it's an uneasy feeling going into this and what the future's gonna be with just like the instant gratification that we have. I mean, I love Instagram, but at the same time, it's kinda like a double edged sword. - Yeah, an analogy might be the political campaign too. I think what happened was four years ago, or I guess eight years ago, there was an unknown guy running for the presidency, wasn't really known. There was so much dirt out there in terms of him not being American, and he was running against John McCain, I think what happens is the American people got the sense of this guy's character. They felt like one guy's really erratic and the other guy, there was a vibe that came through, family man, steady, stable. The country was in a complete free fall. I think that I trust the audience and the visual consumer to that kind of degree also. So I don't know, when you're talking about finding an audience, I think that's less important a concern, and that may sound insane, you sitting there and being where you are, and me standing here, but at the same time, I think that in terms of the visual economy and in terms of the compassion spectrum, I think if you're creating something that is, 'cause that's what you guys do, that's what we're all about is how's like one different way or another way to say the same thing that's been said a trillion times. This is really incredible, it's taking these tropes and flipping it completely. I think if you can do that, and develop the ability to do that, and start to do it more consistently, and of course you do have to network 'cause we are in this persuasion thing and the marketing. You have to do that, but if you've got the vision then I think it's gonna find an audience, and I think that audience is gonna grow. I just completely believe that 100%. - [Charles] If I could just add to that, that photography, probably video too, (mumbles) has always been about this kind of search. If you go back to Gustave Le Gray and the photographers of the 19th century who first photographed war, or Brady for that matter. He set up a studio around the corner here and Le Gray did one in London. There weren't studios and there weren't galleries for these things in those days. The whole history of photography from Stieglitz forward is about the image maker also being the curator, the entrepreneur, the interlocutor, the editor, the so on and so forth, to create the audience for something that that person believed in as a means of communication, and a means of creative position. So I don't think it's really that different today for many of you. I think you have, in fact, perhaps the ability to reach bigger and at the same time more select audiences of your choice than any group of people in history. I think you just have to decide you have to be your own curator, maker, deliverer, blah, blah, blah, and do it groups as well, and collaborative. Frankly, Michael is a perfect example of it. So do it! Take advantage of it, we have faculty members here who are doing it all the time. - Yeah, I think that one point you made there is really important. There is no mass market anymore. There's also I think this idea that we're gonna reach the masses, but even with the media, it's been so segmented and partitioned. So Matt Black's, I don't know what he has, a hundred thousand, a 120 thousand people on Instagram, that's a huge audience. The other thing that's really important to remember, if there's one thing I said today, but it's hard to believe, is that like when you think about a picture like this. Okay, it was taken by a news photographer, but the thing is that ten years ago, qfive years ago, the photo editors at the New York Times and TIME and all of these different media organizations, they were the arbiters of what we saw. They controlled what we saw. At this point they have lost almost complete control of what becomes, you know, prioritizing what imagery we see. They are now choosing stuff from Newswire, they're putting stuff on their websites, but where it goes or how something gets voted up, and what takes off. This picture was like the number eight in a Reuters slideshow from these protests in Baton Rouge out of like a 35 picture edit and they had no idea. This thing just went (mimics engine revving). What captures the imagination, and what has power, and what has currency is like, that is up to us. It's really important to appreciate that, and the way that you know that's true is start watching the media and start looking at where the pictures came from that these editors are putting in the publication. Half of them are pictures that either came from a non-professional, or a freelancer, or what's really interesting is that something that came out of a middle of an edit that they didn't run the first time around, but when (mimics engine revving) like that. Now they're using it or they're writing articles about it. Even five years ago you were not seeing photo stories about this picture that went viral, this picture that went viral, that picture went viral. Viral didn't even exist. So in terms of how the lifespan of images and what captures the imagination, this is like wide open. Not wide open of talking about how much we're seeing all these pictures of coming off the boat, but still there's a lot of opportunity and maybe more opportunity because so much of it is just like click, click, click, you know. - [Audience Member] Could you maybe talk a little bit about your feelings about sort of that democratic impulse, and the upside of that, and if there's a downside to the sort of diminishing of the professional firewall or gatekeepers as something that exists. I mean with this image for instance, to me it's a powerful image, I saw it all over. But it also is a really simple image. It's a very simple juxtaposition between good and evil, and I'm not sure that it's a great photograph. I think it's a really simple photograph and I understand why it would be elevated to that status. So maybe there is a downside. - Yeah, I was just gonna grab that one. It's a good point and it's something I worry about a lot because you know, and it ties back into Trump also. I think it was Matt Taibbi was writing the other day and he's saying like you kinda get what you ask for. As much as we're gonna write articles about the candidates position on the economy and this and that, and healthcare and everything, people just like run to the latest, what did he say now. I think that's really tricky when it comes to photography, and especially like you guys, when you're talking about a very serious body of work, then you start to look at things that are like a lot flashier, and sexier, and this is a problem. We do live not just in this commercial culture and marketing culture, but we also live in this kind of flash, celebrity culture. Again, over my pay grade to understand how to fix that, but I do think that what makes amazing photographs, and the thing like the Ruddy Roy photograph, and actually the photograph from Ferguson too with Ieshia, is that a lot of the really good work right now is going both high and low. I read a lot of critique about that photograph. A lot of people said that this is an easy photograph to make, it's really, in a way, it doesn't run that deep. Yes, that's partly why it was so amazing. But at the same time, and especially if we're reading and intuiting the communication, the visual communication, her stature, the fact that she's not getting caught up in the hysteria, the dignity. Especially, another layer on that photo is that you remember the man who was killed in Minneapolis, St. Paul, remember we saw the almost hour Facebook live stream of Diamond, I forget her last name, the girlfriend. If she hadn't done that, I'm not sure we would've seen that picture go viral. Because in some way she was channeling something that we just had experienced, it was this extraordinary poise and dignity while her boyfriend's being killed. So I think amazing photography is both going high and low today, and I don't think we should apologize for either end. - [Charles] I think we have (mumbles) but this has been terrific, what we continue to get. I wanna respect Michael for the work on his site and inspiration, and we all appreciate that. Thanks a lot. (audience applauds) - Thank you.

Contents

Background

The Tanzimat reforms began in 1839, and aimed to modernize the Ottoman Empire by introducing European-inspired reforms. Most importantly, it involved a centralization and streamlining of the administration and military. This hurt the old-established feudal order (cf. timariots and sipahis) among the Empire's Muslim communities, and especially the various local leaders who had exercised considerable regional authority and often enjoyed wide-ranging autonomy from the imperial government. The Albanians had long been a source of manpower for the Ottomans, providing both soldiers and statesmen such as the Köprülü family. The Tanzimat reforms however; in particular the replacement of influential local leaders by Ottoman functionaries, the imposition of new taxes, the compulsory recruitment into the regular army, and the attempt to disarm the general population; caused much resentment, and led to a series of disorders throughout the western Balkan provinces in 1840–43.[5]

In the summer of 1843, the inhabitants of Prizren attacked and routed the new officials of the city and their example was followed by the inhabitants of Priştine (now Pristina) and Yakova (now Gjakova).[6] These local insurrections in the cities were immediately suppressed by Ottoman authorities.

The uprising

The direct cause of the uprising was the arresting and liquidation of the local Albanophone pashas, most notably that of Abdurrahman Pasha of Kalkandelen (now Tetovo) and his two brothers, Havzi Pasha of Üsküb (now Skopje) and Hussein Pasha of Kustendil. The rebels, who were led by Dervish Cara, also had the support of the Christian population and were assisted by other Albanophone pashas.[7] The revolt began in Üsküb in July 1843 and grew strongly when an Ottoman army under Hajredin Pasha, in the process of opposing it, tried to recruit local Albanians into the regular army. In November the rebels liberated Gostivar and in January 1844, after bitter fights with the Ottoman army, they captured Kalkandelen. The leader of the rebels was Dervish Cara, who was assisted by various local leaders. In February 1844 the rebels attacked and captured Üsküb. They created a Great Council led by Dervish Cara which was the supreme body of the newly created administration in the liberated territories. In February 1844 the rebels took Kumanova (now Kumanovo). After Kumanova the rebels captured Preševo, Bujanovac, Vranje, Leskovac and other territories now in Serbia. The rebellion was spread to İpek, Yakova, Prizren and İşkodra (now Shkodër), while in the spring of 1844 the rebellion reached Ohri (now Ohrid) and Manastiri in the south, İşkodra in the west, Vranje and Leskovac in the north and Kumanova in the east.[4] The rebels sent a letter to the Albanians of the Sanjak of Ioannina, recalling them as brothers and asking them not to fight for the Ottoman army.[8]

Fearing a further extension of the rebellion, the Ottoman government tried to gain some time through negotiations. The requests of the rebels were:

  1. Abolish the military levy for Albanian recruitments
  2. Replacement of Ottoman functionaries who didn't know the Albanian language with local Albanians.
  3. Recognition of the autonomy of Albania, just like the Ottoman government did with the Serbians in 1830.

The requests of the rebels were not accepted. In a move to disunite the rebels, the Ottoman government declared an amnesty, the abolishment of the new taxes and the postponement of the recruitment process, which would become voluntary in the future. A promise was made by the Ottoman commander in chief Omer Pasha to the Albanians that if they handed over their arms, they would receive the same rights as the Serbs in 1830, which meant autonomy.[8] At the same time an Ottoman army of 30,000 men, led by Omer Pasha, was sent to Monastir. Bib Doda, Kepadan of Mirdita tribe in northern Albania, came with his men to aid to the Ottomans as a sign of loyalty to the Porte, playing an important role in the fights.[1] In May 1844 the Ottoman army attacked the rebels, forcing them to retreat to the areas of Kalkandelen, Üsküb and Kumanova. Heavy fighting took place from 13–17 May 1844 in Katlanovo Pass, and on 18 May in Katlanovo thermals. Given the disparity of numbers and their lack of artillery, the rebels could no longer resist the superior Ottoman army. On 21 May 1844 the Ottoman army entered Üsküb, where many reprisals took place. During May–June, after bitter struggle with the rebels the Ottoman army retook Kumanova, Preševo, Bujanovac, Vranje, Kalkandelen and Gostivar whilst in July the Ottoman army captured all areas ranging from Kačanik to Pristina. Dervish Cara was captured by Ottoman forces in summer 1844.

Actions in Dibër

The capture of Dervish Cara didn't put an end to the rebellion, which continued in the areas of Dibër and İşkodra. The resistance was very strong especially in Dibër under its local leaders. In the fall of 1844, the Ottoman army was concentrated against the rebels in the Sanjak of Dibra. Ottoman forces led by Rexhep Pasha were defeated by the rebels in the field of Mavrova. The rebels in the Sanjak of Dibër were led from Sheh Mustafa Zerqani, a Bektashi priest.[9] In a meeting in November 1844 they declared that the old autonomy of Dibër was not to be changed. The rebel army led by Cen Leka tried to stop the advancing Ottoman army led by Hayredin Pasha. The Ottoman commander declared again an amnesty, the abolishment of the new taxes and the postponement of the recruitment process which would become voluntary in the future. The greatest resistance happened during the Battle of Gjuricë, which lasted for five days. According to the report of a French diplomat in Ioannina, even women and children participated in the battle.[10] The Ottoman army suffered a great number of losses but due to their great superiority in numbers and armaments, they succeeded in forcing the rebels to retreat from the battle. The reprisals from the Ottoman army forced a large number of people to leave their homes. Although the rebellion was crushed, the Ottoman government postponed the application of Tanzimat for the Sanjak of Dibër and Shkodër. Dervish Cara together with other local leaders was sentenced to death, but this punishment was later transformed into a lifetime sentence.

As a sign of appreciation for his support, Bid Doda of Mirdita was decorated and awarded an honorary sabre and pistols.[1] He was given the title "Pasha" and allowed to maintain an army up to 10,000 people.[11]

Legacy

The song on Hayredin Pasha remembering the Battle of Gjuricë is famous among Albanians and continues to be sung even nowadays.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Theodor Ippen (1916), Robert Elsie, ed., Nineteenth-Century Albanian History, translated by Robert Elsie, archived from the original on 8 January 2013, retrieved 29 December 2012, In his fight against the rebels, the Kapedan of Mirdita, Bib Doda, fulfilled his obligations to the Sultan by providing a contingent of men who played an important role in putting down the uprising. He was decorated on several occasions by the Serasker and awarded an honorary sabre and pistols.
  2. ^ Theodor Ippen (1916), Robert Elsie, ed., Nineteenth-Century Albanian History, translated by Robert Elsie, archived from the original on 8 January 2013, retrieved 29 December 2012, An Albanian army of about 10,000 men was formed between Skopje and Veles (Köprülü) under the command of Dervish Aga Zara.
  3. ^ The Albanians: a modern history Author Miranda Vickers Edition 3, revised, illustrated, reprint Publisher I.B.Tauris, 1999 ISBN 1-86064-541-0, ISBN 978-1-86064-541-9 p.25
  4. ^ a b Albanische Geschichte: Stand und Perspektiven der Forschung Volume 140 of Südosteuropäische Arbeiten Authors Oliver Jens Schmitt, Eva Anne Frantz Editors Oliver Jens Schmitt, Eva Anne Frantz Publisher Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2009 ISBN 3-486-58980-6, ISBN 978-3-486-58980-1 p. 168
  5. ^ La Question Nationale En Europe Du Sud-Est: Genese, Emergence Et Développement de L'Identite Nationale Albanaise Au Kosovo Et En Macedoine Author Bashkim Iseni Publisher Peter Lang, 2008 ISBN 3-03911-320-8, ISBN 978-3-03911-320-0 pp.169-174
  6. ^ Historia e Shqipërisë. Vëllim i dytë / Instituti i historisë Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë Published: Tiranë, Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, 1984 p. 127
  7. ^ La Question Nationale En Europe Du Sud-Est: Genese, Emergence Et Développement de L'Identite Nationale Albanaise Au Kosovo Et En Macedoine Author Bashkim Iseni Publisher Peter Lang, 2008 ISBN 3-03911-320-8, ISBN 978-3-03911-320-0 p.174
  8. ^ a b La Question Nationale En Europe Du Sud-Est: Genese, Emergence Et Développement de L'Identite Nationale Albanaise Au Kosovo Et En Macedoine Author Bashkim Iseni Publisher Peter Lang, 2008 ISBN 3-03911-320-8, ISBN 978-3-03911-320-0 p.176
  9. ^ Thierry Zarcone; Ekrem Isin; Arthur Buehler, eds. (2000), Journal D'histoire Du Soufisme, 1–2 (1st ed.), Paris, Istambul: Simurg, p. 226, ISSN 1302-6852, OCLC 611947677
  10. ^ Historia e Shqipërisë. Vëllim i dytë / Instituti i historisë Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Published: Tiranë, Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, 1984 p. 129
  11. ^ Stefanaq Pollo; Kristo Frasheri (1983), Historia e Shqipërisë: Vitet 30 të shek. XIX-1912 (in Albanian), Tirana, Albania: Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Historisë, p. 146, OCLC 255273594, retrieved 2013-12-14
  12. ^ "Song of Hayredin Pasha on youtube". Retrieved 22 September 2010.

Further reading

  • Nedeljković, Slaviša (2016). "Устанак Арбанаса против турских власти у Скопском и Косовском пашалуку 1844. године (побуна Дервиш цара)" [The uprising of the Arnauts against the Turkish authorities in Pashalik of Skopje and Kosovo in 1844 (Rebellion of the Dervish Emperor)]. Истраживања. 25: 249–260.

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