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University of Pennsylvania Law School

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School
Penn Law Logo
Parent schoolUniversity of Pennsylvania
Established1850; 171 years ago (1850)
School typePrivate Law School
Parent endowment$13.8 billion (June 30, 2018)[1]
DeanTheodore Ruger
Location3501 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US
39°57′14″N 75°11′32″W / 39.953938°N 75.192085°W / 39.953938; -75.192085
USNWR ranking6[4]
Bar pass rate97% (2019)[5][6]
ABA profile"Penn Law Profile"

The University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School' (formerly the University of Pennsylvania Law School, sometimes shortened to Penn Law, UPenn Law, or Penn Carey Law) is the law school of the University of Pennsylvania, an Ivy League university located in Philadelphia.[7] It is among the most selective and oldest law schools in the United States,[8] and is currently ranked sixth overall by U.S. News & World Report.[9] It offers the degrees of Juris Doctor (J.D.), Master of Laws (LL.M.), Master of Comparative Laws (LL.C.M.), Master in Law (M.L.), and Doctor of the Science of Law (S.J.D.).

The entering class typically consists of approximately 250 students, and admission is highly competitive.[10] Penn Law's July 2018 weighted first-time bar passage rate was 92.09 percent.[6] In the class entering in 2018, over half of students were women, over a third identified as persons of color, and 10 percent of students enrolled with an advanced degree.[10] The school has consistently ranked among top 14 (T14) law schools identified by U.S. News & World Report, since it began publishing its rankings.[11]

The law school offers an extensive curriculum and hosts various student groups, research centers, and activities. Students publish the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, the oldest law journal in the country.[12] Students also publish The Regulatory Review, a regulatory news, analysis, and commentary that publishes daily.[13] Among the school's alumni are a US Supreme Court Justice, several state Supreme Court Justices and supreme court justices of foreign countries, as well as several founders of law firms, university presidents and deans, business entrepreneurs, and politicians.

Based on student survey responses, ABA and NALP data; 99.2 percent of the Class of 2018 obtained full-time employment after graduation, with a median salary of $180,000, as 76 percent of students joined law firms and 11 percent obtained a judicial clerkship.[14] The law school was ranked second of all law schools nationwide by the National Law Journal, for having the most 2018 graduates to join the 100 largest law firms in the U.S., in 2018, comprising 60 percent.[15]


The University of Pennsylvania Law School traces its origins to a series of Lectures on Law delivered in 1790 through 1792 by James Wilson,[16] one of only six signers of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. Wilson is credited with being one of the two primary authors (the other being James Madison) of the first draft of such constitution[17] due to his membership on the Committee of Detail[18] established by the United States Constitutional Convention on July 24, 1787 to draft a text reflecting the agreements made by the Convention up to that point.[19]:page 264

Photograph of Mural (by Allyn Cox, Oil on Canvas, 1973-1974) on display on the first floor of the United States House of Representatives wing of United States Capitol of four primary framers of United States Constitution meeting in garden of Benjamin Franklin (from left to right): Alexander Hamilton, James Wilson, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin.
Photograph of Mural (by Allyn Cox, Oil on Canvas, 1973-1974) on display on the first floor of the United States House of Representatives wing of United States Capitol of four primary framers of United States Constitution meeting in garden of Benjamin Franklin (from left to right): Alexander Hamilton, James Wilson, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin.

Wilson gave these "lectures on law" to President George Washington and Vice President John Adams and rest of the cabinet including Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson as a Penn Professor[20] and during Wilson's time as one of the original five Associate Justices nominated by George Washington (and approved by United States Senate via unanimous voice vote on September 26, 1789[21], with Wilson's term commencing October 5, 1789 and the terms of the other four at various dates in 1790) to the initial panel of United States Supreme Court.[22] In 1792, Associate Justice of United States Supreme Court of the United States, James Wilson, was appointed as Penn's first "full professor of law".[23][24]

Penn began offering a full-time program in law in 1850, under the leadership of George Sharswood.[24] In 1852, Penn was the first law school in the nation to publish a law journal still in existence, then called The American Law Register, which was later renamed the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, one of the most-cited law journals in the world.[25]

In 1881 the first woman was admitted to Penn Law, Carrie Burnham Kilgore, and in 1888 the first African American man graduated from the school, Aaron Albert Mossell.[26]

William Draper Lewis was named dean in 1896 [12] and by 1900, the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania approved his and others' request to move the law school to the core of campus and to its current location at the intersection of 34th and Chestnut Streets.[27] Under Lewis' deanship, the law school was one of the first schools to emphasize legal teaching by full-time professors instead of practitioners, a system that is still followed today.[27]

William Draper Lewis, Penn Law Dean, and founder of the American Law Institute
William Draper Lewis, Penn Law Dean, and founder of the American Law Institute

As legal education became more formalized, the school initiated a three-year curriculum and instituted stringent admissions requirements. While the School continued to accept students who did not hold a bachelor's degree, it warned applicants that "[a] large number of those who study law are college graduates; and those who are not cannot hope, except in rare instances, to compete successfully with the college man."[28]

After 30 years with the law school, Lewis founded the American Law Institute (ALI) in 1925, which was seated in the law school and was chaired by Lewis himself. The ALI was later chaired by another Penn Law Dean, Herbert Funk Goodrich and Penn Law Professors George Wharton Pepper and Geoffrey C. Hazard Jr.

Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander, daughter of first African American graduate of Penn Law, Aaron Albert Mossell, was the first African-American woman to (1) graduate Penn Law (in 1927), and (2) be admitted to practice law in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (in 1929).[29] In 1921, after being awarded the Francis Sergeant Pepper fellowship, she became the second African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. in the United States (also from the University of Pennsylvania, in economics).[12][30]

Portrait Painting of Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander, Esquire, Ph.D., (Penn Law Class of 1927) on display at Penn Law.
Portrait Painting of Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander, Esquire, Ph.D., (Penn Law Class of 1927) on display at Penn Law.

The first woman to join the faculty was Martha Field in 1969; she is now a professor at Harvard Law School.[12] Other woman of note who have been or are presently professors at Penn include Lani Guinier, Elizabeth Warren, and Anita L. Allen

From 1974 to 1978 the Dean of the law school was Louis Pollak, who later became a federal judge.

Since Judge Pollak ascended to the bench, Penn has attracted a noteworthy number of deans including James O. Freedman, former President of Dartmouth College, Colin Diver, former President of Reed College, and Michael Fitts, present President of Tulane University.

In November 2019, Penn Law received a $125 million donation from the W.P. Carey Foundation, the largest single donation to any law school to date; the school was renamed University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School, in honor of the foundation's first president, Penn Law alumnus Francis J. Carey (1926-2014), who was the brother of William Polk Carey (1930 - 2012), founder of the W. P. Carey Inc. REIT, and of the charitable foundation.[31][32] The change was met by some controversy, and a petition to quash the abbreviated "Carey Law", in favor of the traditional "Penn Law", was circulated and it was agreed that the official short form name for next few years could remain "Penn Law" and/or "Penn Carey Law". [33][34]

Osagie O. Imasogie, a 1985 graduate of Penn Law, as of January 1, 2021, is Chair of the University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School Board of Overseers, replacing Perry Golkin. Imasogie has been a member of Penn Law School Board of Overseers since 2006 and more recently a Trustee on the Board of Trustees of University of Pennsylvania. Imasogie, a graduate of two law schools in Nigeria and London School of Economics and Political Science, has held senior positions within a diverse group of professional services and bio-tech companies such as GSK, DuPont, Merck, Price Waterhouse Schnader Harrison Segal & Lewis and is presently an Adjunct Professor at Penn Law where he teaches a seminar on “Intellectual Property and National Economic Value Creation”. He is the first African born chair of an American law school.[35]


Silverman Hall
Silverman Hall

The University of Pennsylvania campus covers over 269 acres (~1 km²) in a contiguous area of West Philadelphia's University City district. All of Penn's schools, including the law school, and most of its research institutes are located on this campus. Much of Penn's architecture was designed by the architecture firm of Cope & Stewardson, whose principal architects combined the Gothic architecture of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge with the local landscape to establish the Collegiate Gothic style.

The law school consists of four interconnecting buildings around a central courtyard. At the east end of the courtyard is Silverman Hall, built in 1900, housing the Levy Conference Center, classrooms, faculty offices, the Gittis Center for Clinical Legal Studies, and administrative and student offices. Directly opposite is Tanenbaum Hall, home to the Biddle Law Library several law journals, administrative offices, and student spaces. The law library houses 1,053,824 volumes and volume equivalents making it the 4th-largest law library in the country.[36] Gittis Hall sits on the north side and has new classrooms (renovated in 2006) and new and expanded faculty offices. Opposite is Golkin Hall, which contains 40,000 square feet (3,700 m2) and includes a state-of-the-art court room, 350-seat auditorium, seminar rooms, faculty and administrative offices, a two-story entry hall, and a roof-top garden.

A small row of restaurants and shops faces the law school on Sansom Street. Nearby are the Penn Bookstore, the Pottruck Center (a 115,000-square-foot (10,700 m2) multi-purpose sports activity area), the Institute of Contemporary Art, a performing arts center, and area shops.


Student Demographics

For the class entering in the fall of 2018, 14.6 percent out of 6,483 applicants were offered admission, with 249 matriculating. For the class entering in 2018 the 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the entering class were 164 and 171, respectively, with a median of 170.[10] The 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.49 and 3.95, respectively, with a median of 3.89.[37][38]

The entering class typically consists of approximately 250 students, and admission is highly competitive.[10] Penn Law's July 2018 weighted first-time bar passage rate was 92.09%.[6] The law school is one of the "T14" law schools, that is, schools that have consistently ranked within the top 14 law schools since U.S. News & World Report began publishing rankings.[11] In the class entering in 2018, over half of students were women, over a third identified as persons of color, and 10% of students enrolled with an advanced degree.[10]

Multidisciplinary Focus

Throughout its modern history, Penn has been known for its strong focus on inter-disciplinary studies, a character that was shaped early on by Dean William Draper Lewis.[39] Its medium-size student body and the tight integration with the rest of Penn's schools (the "One University Policy")[40] have been instrumental in achieving that aim. More than 50 percent of the law school's courses are interdisciplinary, and it offers more than 20 joint and dual degree programs, including a JD/MBA (Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania), a JD/PhD in Communication (Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania), and a JD/MD (Perelman School of Medicine).

Various certificate programs that can be completed within the three-year JD program are also available, including in Business and Public Policy, in conjunction with the Wharton School); Cross-Sector Innovation; the School of Social Policy & Practice; International Business and Law, as the Themis Joint Certificate with ESADE Law School in Barcelona, Spain; and in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (SCAN).[41][42] 19 percent of the Class of 2007 earned a certificate.[43] Penn Law also offers joint degrees with international affiliates, such as Sciences Po, France; ESADE, Spain; and the University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law. Under the guidance of former Dean Michael A. Fitts, the School has further expanded its international programs with the addition of the International Internship Program, the International Summer Human Rights Program, and the Global Research Seminar, all under the umbrella of the Penn Law Global Initiative. Penn Law takes part in a number of international annual events, such as the Monroe E. Price Media Law Moot Court Competition at the University of Oxford.[44]

Career prospects

Penn combines a strong tradition in public service with being one of the top feeders of law students to the most prestigious law firms.[45] Penn Law was the first top-ranked law school to establish a mandatory pro bono requirement, and the first law school to win American Bar Association's Pro Bono Publico Award. Nevertheless, still about 75 percent of each graduating class enters private practice. In 2012, the law school placed more than 60 percent of its graduates into the United States' top 250 law firms, maintaining Penn's rank as the number one law school in the nation for the percentage of students securing employment at these top law firms.[46][47]

Based on student survey responses, ABA, and NALP data, 99.2% of the Class of 2018 obtained full-time employment after graduation, with a median salary of $180,000, as 76% of students joined law firms and 11% obtained judicial clerkships.[14] The law school was ranked # 2 of all law schools nationwide by the National Law Journal in terms of sending the highest percentage of 2018 graduates to the 100 largest law firms in the US (60%).[15]


Students at the law school publish several legal journals.[48] The flagship publication is the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, the oldest law review in the United States.[49] Penn Law Review started in 1852 as the American Law Register, and was renamed to its current title in 1908.[12] It is one of the most frequently cited law journals in the world,[25] and one of the four journals that are responsible for The Bluebook, along with the Harvard, Yale, and Columbia law journals. Penn Law Review articles have captured seminal historical moments in the 19th and 20th centuries, such as the passage of the 19th Amendment; the lawlessness of the first and second World Wars; the rise of the civil rights movement; and the war in Vietnam.[50]

Other law journals include:

U.S. Supreme Court judicial clerk alumni

Since 2000, Penn has had seven alumni serve as judicial clerks at the U.S. Supreme Court. This record gives Penn a ranking of 10th among all law schools for supplying such law clerks for the period 2000-2019.[58] Penn has placed 48 clerks at the U.S. Supreme Court in its history, ranked 11th among law schools; this group includes Curtis R. Reitz, who is the Algernon Sydney Biddle Professor of Law, Emeritus at Penn.


Based on student survey responses, ABA, and NALP data, 99.2 percent of the Class of 2018 obtained full-time employment after graduation, with a median salary of $180,000, as 76 percent of students joined law firms and 11 percent obtained a judicial clerkship.[14]

The law school was ranked second of all law schools nationwide by the National Law Journal in terms of matriculating the highest percentage of 2018 graduates– 60 percent –joining the largest 100 law firms in the U.S.[15]


The total cost of attendance, including tuition of $61,608 and student fees, as well as living expenses, for the 2018-2019 academic year was noted as $95,400 by Penn Law.[59]

Notable alumni

Owen Roberts, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
Owen Roberts, U.S. Supreme Court Justice




Private Practice


Media, Sports, and the Arts

Notable faculty

The law school's faculty is selected to match its inter-disciplinary orientation. Seventy percent of the standing faculty hold advanced degrees beyond the JD, and more than a third hold secondary appointments in other departments at the university. The law school is well known for its corporate law group, with professors Jill Fisch, Charles ("Chuck") Mooney Jr., David Skeel, and Michael Wachter being regularly included among the best corporate and securities law scholars in the country.[86] The School has also built a strong reputation for its law and economics group (professors Howard F. Chang, Tom Baker) and its criminal law group (professors Stephanos Bibas, Leo Katz, Stephen J. Morse, Paul H. Robinson, David Rudovsky). Some notable Penn Law faculty members include:

The School's faculty is complemented by renowned international visitors in the frames of the Bok Visiting International Professors Program. Past and present Bok professors include Juan Guzmán Tapia (the first judge who prosecuted former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet), Armin von Bogdandy (Director at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law), Pratap Bhanu Mehta (President of the Centre for Policy Research in India), and Michael Trebilcock (Distinguished University Professor at the University of Toronto).

Some of Penn's former faculty members have continued their careers at other institutions (e.g., Bruce Ackerman (now at Yale), Lani Guinier (now at Harvard), Michael H. Schill (now at Oregon), Myron T. Steele (now at Virginia), and Elizabeth Warren (at Harvard until her election to the United States Senate)).

Toll Public Interest Center and related activities

Penn was the first national law school to establish a mandatory pro bono program, and the first law school to win the American Bar Association's Pro Bono Publico Award.[citation needed] The public interest center was founded in 1989 and was renamed the Toll Public Interest Center in 2006 in acknowledgement of a $10 million gift from Robert Toll (Executive Chairman of the Board of Toll Brothers) and Jane Toll. In 2011 the Tolls donated an additional $2.5 million. The Toll Public Interest Center has supported many students who have won the Skadden Fellowship,[88] called by The Los Angeles Times "a legal Peace Corps."[89] In October 2020, The Robert and Jane Toll Foundation announced that it was donating fifty million dollars ($50,000,000) to Penn Law, which is the largest gift in history to be devoted entirely to the training and support of public interest lawyers, and among the ten (10) largest gifts ever to a law school in the United States of America.[90] The gift expands the Toll Public Interest Scholars and Fellows Program by doubling the number of public interest graduates in the coming decade through a combination of full and partial tuition scholarships.[91]

Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law

The Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law (CERL or Center) is a non-partisan, interdisciplinary research and policy institute at the University of Pennsylvania. CERL focuses on the application of the rule of law and ethics to pressing issues of national security, veterans' affairs, armed conflict, and transnational crises. CERL was co-founded in 2012 by Professor Claire Finkelstein, Algernon Biddle Professor of Law and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania Law School, and by William Craven, Chairman of Federal Systems and the Center's first Executive Board Chair, principally as a direct response to the interrogation policies and abuses in the post-9/11 era,[92] including at Baghdad's Abu Ghraib Prison.

The central mission of CERL is to protect and promote rule of law values and ethical principles in the face of international challenges such as conflict with violent non-state actors, (seemingly) irrational and dangerous enemies, and transnational security risks. Its primary means of accomplishing this is to foster an exchange of ideas among academics, analysts, and practitioners regarding the interplay of rule of law/ethics and national and international security matters; to share the products of those discussions through published volumes or in open forums to raise public consciousness; and to prepare briefing papers and otherwise disseminate its views to educate policymakers as well as to impact public discussion.

Much of CERL's work to date has revolved around setting up two annual roundtable, interdisciplinary conferences that bring together scholars and practitioners to consult on critical global issues relating to national or international security and the rule of law. Articles authored for the conference are then compiled with other writings into published volumes by Oxford University Press. CERL's event topics have been wide-ranging and included The Ethics of Autonomous Weapons Systems (November 2014),[93] Preventing and Treating the Invisible Wounds of War: Combat Trauma and Psychological Injury (December 2015), The Ethics of Negotiation in Armed Conflict (April 2016), Using Law to Fight Terror: Legal Approaches to Combating Violent Non-State Actors (September 2016), Preserving Art and Culture in Times of War (April 2017), and Foreign Interference with Democratic Institutions (April 2017). Events are generally held at Penn Law School, but sometimes at other Philadelphia-area venues, such as the National Constitution Center, the Penn Museum, and the Perry World House.

Notable speakers or participants at these events have included: General James "Hoss" Cartwright (a Four-Star General who served as Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from August 2007 to August 2011), Dr. Haleh Esfandiari (the Iranian-American Founding Director of the Woodrow Wilson Center's Middle East Program), Ambassador Dennis Ross (Director of the State Department's Policy Planning Staff under President George W. Bush and Special Middle East Coordinator under President Bill Clinton), Irina Bokova (Bulgarian Director-General of UNESCO from 2009-2017), David Sanger (Chief White House Correspondent for The New York Times), and General Michael Hayden (former Director of the CIA and Director of the NSA).

CERL publications include: Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World (OUP, April 2012),[94] Cyberwar: Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts (OUP, May 2015),[95] and Weighing Lives in War (OUP, October 2017).[96] Several others are forthcoming based on prior CERL conferences: Sovereignty and the New Executive Authority, Ethical Dilemmas in the Global Defense Industry, The Ethics of Autonomous Weapons Systems, Preventing and Treating the Invisible Wounds of War: Combat Trauma and Psychological Injury, and The Ethics of Negotiation in Armed Conflict. CERL also issued its first policy briefing paper in January 2017, entitled, "The Intersection of Opioid Usage and Veteran Mental Health Challenges."

CERL's non-fiduciary Executive Board consists of a high-level mix of former U.S. government officials, law professors, philosophy professors, businesspersons, and practicing lawyers. The current Chair of the Executive Board is Paul G. Haaga, Jr., formerly the Chairman of the Board, Capital Research and Management Company and Vice Chair of National Public Radio (NPR).[97] CERL also benefits from advisory input from a roster of experts drawn from the ranks of academia, the military, legal practice, and business, including Vijay Kumar, Dean of the Penn Engineering School;[98] Stuart Diamond, author of a best-selling book on negotiations;[99] and Jeff McMahan, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Oxford.[100][101] In March 2017, CERL hired its inaugural Executive Director, David A. Sadoff, who formerly served as Deputy Legal Adviser and Director for Intelligence Reform at the National Security Council (NSC), Assistant General Counsel at the CIA, and General Counsel to the International Development Law Organization (IDLO).[102]

CERL is a not-for-profit that is supported financially by individual donors, corporations, foundations, other centers, institutes, and programs on and off the Penn campus, and by the Penn Law School and the University of Pennsylvania's Office of the Provost.


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