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United States military deployments

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The military of the United States is deployed in most countries around the world, with between 150,000 to 200,000 of its active-duty personnel stationed outside the United States and its territories.[1] This list consists of deployments excepting active combat deployments, which consist of troops in Iraq[2] and Syria.[3] The exact number of these troops is currently in flux due to troop withdrawals.[4][5]

Outside of active combat, US personnel are typically deployed as part of several peacekeeping missions, military attachés, or are part of embassy and consulate security. Nearly 40,000 are assigned to classified missions in locations that the US government refuses to disclose.[6]

Current deployments

The following regional tables provide detail of where personnel from the five major branches of the US military are currently deployed. These numbers do not include any military or civilian contractors or dependents. Additionally, countries in which US military are engaged in active combat operations are not included. The numbers are based on the most recent United States Department of Defense statistics as of June 30, 2021.[1]

Americas

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 United States
(excl. Alaska & Hawaii)
1,137,610 399,922 296,458 142,936 262,293 36,001
 Alaska 20,873 10,150 47 29 8,731 1,916
Guantanamo Bay 621 136 445 31 0 9
 Honduras 393 208 2 20 163 0
 Puerto Rico 161 89 31 21 20 0
 Greenland 143 0 0 0 143 0
 Canada 141 11 39 12 74 5
other 627 111 143 273 70 30
Total 1,160,569 410,627 297,165 143,322 271,494 37,961

East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Pacific Ocean

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Japan 53,938 2,573 19,608 18,818 12,925 14
 Hawaii 42,508 15,662 12,832 7,090 5,613 1,311
South Korea 26,326 17,454 363 219 8,288 2
 Guam 6,161 194 3,705 95 2,167 0
 Australia 1,714 28 71 1,529 85 1
 Philippines 216 11 9 186 9 1
 Singapore 196 12 153 8 16 7
 Thailand 104 34 10 39 21 0
other 299 60 40 166 29 4
Total 131,462 36,028 36,791 28,150 29,153 1,340

Europe

US military bases in Germany in 2014
US military bases in Germany in 2014
Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Germany 35,486 21,640 442 426 12,969 9
 Italy 12,535 4,124 3,566 88 4,755 2
United Kingdom 9,515 163 272 52 9,015 13
 Spain 3,256 23 2,568 276 389 0
 Belgium 1,170 655 96 33 386 0
 Netherlands 433 136 33 12 223 29
 Greece 405 8 360 10 27 0
 Portugal 290 5 49 44 192 0
 Finland 200 2 2 193 3 0
 Poland 169 49 86 8 26 0
 Romania 121 13 86 10 12 0
other 610 110 70 260 167 3
Total 64,190 26,928 7,630 1,412 28,164 56

West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, and Indian Ocean

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Bahrain 4,008 18 3,284 285 19 402
 Turkey 1,808 160 6 34 1,608 0
 Saudi Arabia 1,520 224 23 1,196 68 9
 Kuwait 1,146 646 3 449 48 0
 Qatar 498 217 2 55 224 0
 Jordan 350 34 2 303 11 0
 Egypt 274 223 7 25 19 0
Diego Garcia 222 0 222 0 0 0
United Arab Emirates 208 30 22 69 87 0
 Israel 107 56 7 31 13 0
other 1,076 177 68 738 93 0
Total 11,217 1,785 3,646 3,185 2,190 411

Unspecified

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
Overseas
(incl. unincorporated US territories)
6,435 208 13 4,067 1,173 974
Domestic
(50 states and District of Columbia)
6,017 6,017 0 0 0 0
Total 12,452 6,225 13 4,067 1,173 974

Analysis

Effects of Military Deployments on Host Economy and Community

The stated benefits of hosting a US military base, especially for underdeveloped countries, include learning new marketing strategies, development of modern technology found in the US, and increased security from the presence of a large-scale military. Moreover, the initial creation of the base creates brief economic growth as materials are purchased from the local markets, and construction jobs are out-sourced to the local residents.[7] One year, 2005, upwards of 80,000 locals were employed by US bases in foreign countries.[8] As long as it is not central to the US global defense, and thus the US does not have a strong incentive to stay under the presence of human rights violations, the host state may also show increased respect for human rights.[9]

The negative effects include relocation of and violence against native residents, which may also lead to destruction of local government; negative environmental impacts including the destruction of native landscape; and economic dependence created by the newly implemented marketing strategies and technology.[10] The presence of US military can also have direct effects on increase in prostitution and sex-trafficking, because of the greater demand for adult entertainment created through the surge of mainly male residents in these areas.[11] Moreover, the significant physical space taken up by the base could instead be used for schools, businesses or housing amenities which can support the local economy and increase skilled workers.[12]

Effects of Military Deployments on the United States

In addition to impacts on the host country, there are also many impacts of military deployments on military families. In the United States, about 1.4 million children have a parent in the military.[13] In many studies of military deployments, it is proven that there are negative impacts on not only the soldier, but also the military spouse and children. Military deployments are associated with higher suicide rates, behavioral problems in children, and a higher risk of divorce.[14] In a study of 1,507 children aged 11–17 with a deployed parent, it was found that these children had more emotional difficulties than children in national samples.[15]

Veteran families may experience conflict from actions or feelings of withdrawal, numbing, and irritability that are caused by post-traumatic stress disorder. Generally, these families also struggle with role ambiguity from the parent or partner that was deployed, due to anxiety and/or post-traumatic stress disorder.[16]

Impact on Childhood Development

Notably, the number of spouses/partners and children of deployed military personnel far outnumber the actual number of service members. These families must navigate long or extended deployment separations, relocations, destruction of familial routines or role changes, and the threat posed against their loved one. This combined with contextual factors, such as living arrangements during deployment, stress levels of the parent who remains home, and frequency of contact with the deployed parent can positively or adversely impact the family members, and lead to increased rate of mental health issues, work/academic issues, internal familial conflict, or maltreatment. These stressors pose a significant threat to the development of the children, depending on how old they are when they occur. For instance, young children may not fully understand the implications and threats posed on their loved one during deployment, but their definite absence in an indefinite amount of time can be highly stressful.

Children under five experience the most significant physical, emotional, and cognitive advancements because this occurs during this first five years of life, and they also make up the largest group of children with deployed service members (i.e., parents). Children above three with a deployed parent, are more likely to display behavior problems, such as need for attention, clinginess, temper tantrums, questions regarding deployed parents, defiance, appetite changes, and sleep problems or nightmares.

Elementary school-aged children may also be hindered by their limited coping/problem-solving skills regarding their parent's absence. Middle school-aged children may be more heavily impacted due to pubertal transitions and elicited questions or increased responsibilities to help out at home. Within this age group, significant levels of anxiety, both separation anxiety and physical symptoms, were found, and a study of five- to twelve-year-olds showed that one-third was in high-risk range for “psychosocial morbidity”, according to the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Acute stress reaction/adjustments, mood, and behavioral disorders are also common.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Number of Military and DoD Appropriated Fund (APF) Civilian Personnel Permanently Assigned By Duty Location and Service/Component (as of June 30, 2021)". Defense Manpower Data Center. August 7, 2021. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021.
  2. ^ "United States formally announces troop reduction in Iraq". Al Jazeera. September 9, 2020.
  3. ^ Bo Williams, Katie (November 2, 2020). "Outgoing Syria Envoy Admits Hiding US Troop Numbers; Praises Trump's Mideast Record". Defense One.
  4. ^ Brannen, Kate; Goodman, Ryan (October 7, 2020). "We're suing the Pentagon to find out where U.S. troops are deployed". The Washington Post.
  5. ^ "'Endless Wars,' Here's Where About 200000 Troops Remain". The New York Times. October 21, 2019.
  6. ^ "America's Forever wars". The New York Times. 23 October 2017.
  7. ^ "U.S. Military Deployment and Host-Nation Economic Growth". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  8. ^ Johnson, Chalmers A.; Chalmers, Johnson (2007). Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic. Scribe Publications. ISBN 978-1-921215-76-6.
  9. ^ Bell, Sam R.; Clay, K. Chad; Martinez Machain, Carla (2017). "The Effect of US Troop Deployments on Human Rights". Journal of Conflict Resolution. 61 (10): 2020–2042. doi:10.1177/0022002716632300. S2CID 156333176. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  10. ^ MacLeish, Kenneth T. (2010). "The Bases of Empire: The Global Struggle against U.S. Military Posts edited by Catherine Lutz". American Ethnologist. 37 (2): 385–386. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1425.2010.01262_5.x. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  11. ^ Allen, Michael A; Flynn, Michael E (2013). "Putting our best boots forward: US military deployments and host-country crime". Conflict Management and Peace Science. 30 (3): 263–285. doi:10.1177/0738894213484055. ISSN 0738-8942. JSTOR 26275359. S2CID 41077614.
  12. ^ author., Vines, David, Base nation : how U.S. military bases abroad harm America and the world, ISBN 978-1-4945-6541-1, OCLC 956554400, retrieved 2021-03-05
  13. ^ a b Alfano, Candice A.; Lau, Simon; Balderas, Jessica; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C. (February 2016). "The impact of military deployment on children: Placing developmental risk in context". Clinical Psychology Review. 43: 17–29. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.11.003. ISSN 0272-7358. PMID 26655960.
  14. ^ Schell, Terry L.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Friedman, Esther M.; Trail, Thomas E.; Beckman, Robin L.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Hengstebeck, Natalie; Troxel, Wendy M.; Ayer, Lynsay; Vaughan, Christine Anne (2016-04-15). "How Military Families Respond Before, During and After Deployment: Findings from the RAND Deployment Life Study". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ Creech, Suzannah K.; Hadley, Wendy; Borsari, Brian (December 2014). "The Impact of Military Deployment and Reintegration on Children and Parenting: A Systematic Review". Professional Psychology, Research and Practice. 45 (6): 452–464. doi:10.1037/a0035055. ISSN 0735-7028. PMC 4383395. PMID 25844014.
  16. ^ McFarlane, Alexander (July 2009). "Military deployment: the impact on children and family adjustment and the need for care". Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 22 (4): 369–73. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32832c9064. PMID 19424067. S2CID 33825488 – via Lippincott Research.

Further reading

This page was last edited on 31 August 2021, at 20:27
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