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United States Senate elections, 1974

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Senate elections, 1974 and 1975

← 1972 November 5, 1974 1976 →

34 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate
51 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Michael Joseph Mansfield.jpg
SenHughScott.jpg
Leader Mike Mansfield Hugh Scott
Party Democratic Republican
Leader since January 3, 1961 September 24, 1969
Leader's seat Montana Pennsylvania
Seats before 56 42
Seats after 60 38
Seat change Increase 4 Decrease 4
Popular vote 22,544,761 16,145,793
Percentage 55.2% 39.6%
Swing Increase 9.7% Decrease 12.8%
Seats up 20 14
Races won 23 11

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Independent Conservative (N.Y.)
Seats before 1 1
Seats after 1[1] 1
Seat change Steady Steady
Popular vote 0 822,584
Percentage 0% 2%
Seats up 0 0
Races won 0 0

1974 Senate election map.svg
Results
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold

Majority Leader before election

Mike Mansfield
Democratic

Elected Majority Leader

Mike Mansfield
Democratic

The 1974 United States Senate elections were held in the wake of the Watergate scandal, Richard M. Nixon's resignation from the presidency, and Gerald Ford's subsequent pardon of Nixon. Economic issues, specifically inflation and stagnation, were also a factor that contributed to Republican losses.[2] Democrats made a net gain of three seats from the Republicans. Following the 1974 elections, the Democratic caucus controlled 60 seats (including one independent) and the Republican caucus controlled 39 seats (including one Conservative).

Democrats gained an additional seat in 1975 when Democrat John A. Durkin won a special election in New Hampshire that was held after the 1974 election resulted in two recounts and an extended dispute in the Senate.

This was the last Senate election where the Democrat won Orange County, California in a race with Republican opposition.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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Transcription

Hi, I'm Craig and this is Crash Course Government and Politics, and today we're going to talk about what is, if you ask the general public, the most important part of politics: elections. If you ask me, it's hair styles. Look at Martin Van Buren's sideburns, how could he not be elected? Americans are kind of obsessed with elections, I mean when this was being recorded in early 2015, television, news and the internet were already talking about who would be Democrat and Republican candidates for president in 2016. And many of the candidates have unofficially been campaigning for years. I've been campaigning; your grandma's been campaigning. Presidential elections are exciting and you can gamble on them. Is that legal, can you gamble on them, Stan? Anyway, why we're so obsessed with them is a topic for another day. Right now I'm gonna tell you that the fixation on the presidential elections is wrong, but not because the president doesn't matter. No, today we're gonna look at the elections of the people that are supposed to matter the most, Congress. Constitutionally at least, Congress is the most important branch of government because it is the one that is supposed to be the most responsive to the people. One of the main reasons it's so responsive, at least in theory, is the frequency of elections. If a politician has to run for office often, he or she, because unlike the president we have women serving in Congress, kind of has to pay attention to what the constituents want, a little bit, maybe. By now, I'm sure that most of you have memorized the Constitution, so you recognize that despite their importance in the way we discuss politics, elections aren't really a big feature of the Constitution. Except of course for the ridiculously complex electoral college system for choosing the president, which we don't even want to think about for a few episodes. In fact, here's what the Constitution says about Congressional Elections in Article 1 Section 2: "The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature." So the Constitution does establish that the whole of the house is up for election every 2 years, and 1/3 of the senate is too, but mainly it leaves the scheduling and rules of elections up to the states. The actual rules of elections, like when the polls are open and where they actually are, as well as the registration requirements, are pretty much up to the states, subject to some federal election law. If you really want to know the rules in your state, I'm sure that someone at the Board of Elections, will be happy to explain them to you. Really, you should give them a call; they're very, very lonely. In general though, here's what we can say about American elections. First stating the super obvious, in order to serve in congress, you need to win an election. In the House of Representatives, each election district chooses a single representative, which is why we call them single-member districts. The number of districts is determined by the Census, which happens every 10 years, and which means that elections ending in zeros are super important, for reasons that I'll explain in greater detail in a future episode. It's because of gerrymandering. The Senate is much easier to figure out because both of the state Senators are elected by the entire state. It's as if the state itself were a single district, which is true for states like Wyoming, which are so unpopulated as to have only 1 representative. Sometimes these elections are called at large elections. Before the election ever happens, you need candidates. How candidates are chosen differs from state to state, but usually it has something to do with political parties, although it doesn't have to. Why are things so complicated?! What we can say is that candidates, or at least good candidates, usually have certain characteristics. Sorry America. First off, if you are gonna run for office, you should have an unblemished record, free of, oh I don't know, felony convictions or sex scandals, except maybe in Louisiana or New York. This might lead to some pretty bland candidates or people who are so calculating that they have no skeletons in their closet, but we Americans are a moral people and like our candidates to reflect our ideals rather than our reality. The second characteristic that a candidate must possess is the ability to raise money. Now some candidates are billionaires and can finance their own campaigns. But most billionaires have better things to do: buying yachts, making even more money, building money forts, buying more yachts, so they don't have time to run for office. But most candidates get their money for their campaigns by asking for it. The ability to raise money is key, especially now, because running for office is expensive. Can I get a how expensive is it? "How expensive is it?!" Well, so expensive that the prices of elections continually rises and in 2012 winners of House races spent nearly 2 million each. Senate winners spent more than 10 million. By the time this episode airs, I'm sure the numbers will be much higher like a gajillion billion million. Money is important in winning an election, but even more important, statistically, is already being in Congress. Let's go to the Thought Bubble. The person holding an office who runs for that office again is called the incumbent and has a big advantage over any challenger. This is according to political scientists who, being almost as bad at naming things as historians, refer to this as incumbency advantage. There are a number of reasons why incumbents tend to hold onto their seats in congress, if they want to. The first is that a sitting congressman has a record to run on, which we hope includes some legislative accomplishments, although for the past few Congresses, these don't seem to matter. The record might include case work, which is providing direct services to constituents. This is usually done by congressional staffers and includes things like answering questions about how to get certain government benefits or writing recommendation letters to West Point. Congressmen can also provide jobs to constituents, which is usually a good way to get them to vote for you. These are either government jobs, kind of rare these days, called patronage or indirect employment through government contracts for programs within a Congressman's district. These programs are called earmarks or pork barrel programs, and they are much less common now because Congress has decided not to use them any more, sort of. The second advantage that incumbents have is that they have a record of winning elections, which if you think about it, is pretty obvious. Being a proven winner makes it easier for a congressmen to raise money, which helps them win, and long term incumbents tend to be more powerful in Congress which makes it even easier for them to raise money and win. The Constitution give incumbents one structural advantage too. Each elected congressman is allowed $100,000 and free postage to send out election materials. This is called the franking privilege. It's not so clear how great an advantage this is in the age of the internet, but at least according to the book The Victory Lab, direct mail from candidates can be surprisingly effective. How real is this incumbency advantage? Well if you look at the numbers, it seems pretty darn real. Over the past 60 years, almost 90% of members of The House of Representatives got re-elected. The Senate has been even more volatile, but even at the low point in 1980 more than 50% of sitting senators got to keep their jobs. Thanks, Thought Bubble. You're so great. So those are some of the features of congressional elections. Now, if you'll permit me to get a little politically sciencey, I'd like to try to explain why elections are so important to the way that Congressmen and Senators do their jobs. In 1974, political scientist David Mayhew published a book in which he described something he called "The Electoral Connection." This was the idea that Congressmen were primarily motivated by the desire to get re-elected, which intuitively makes a lot of sense, even though I'm not sure what evidence he had for this conclusion. Used to be able to get away with that kind of thing I guess, clearly David may-not-hew to the rules of evidence, pun [rim shot], high five, no. Anyway Mayhew's research methodology isn't as important as his idea itself because The Electoral Connection provides a frame work for understanding congressman's activities. Mayhew divided representatives' behaviors and activities into three categories. The first is advertising; congressmen work to develop their personal brand so that they are recognizable to voters. Al D'Amato used to be know in New York as Senator Pothole, because he was able to bring home so much pork that he could actually fix New York's streets. Not by filling them with pork, money, its money, remember pork barrel spending? The second activity is credit claiming; Congressmen get things done so that they can say they got them done. A lot of case work and especially pork barrel spending are done in the name of credit claiming. Related to credit claiming, but slightly different, is position taking. This means making a public judgmental statement on something likely to be of interest to voters. Senators can do this through filibusters. Representatives can't filibuster, but they can hold hearings, publicly supporting a hearing is a way of associating yourself with an idea without having to actually try to pass legislation. And of course they can go on the TV, especially on Sunday talk shows. What's a TV, who even watches TV? Now the idea of The Electoral Connection doesn't explain every action a member of Congress takes; sometimes they actually make laws to benefit the public good or maybe solve problems, huh, what an idea! But Mayhew's idea gives us a way of thinking about Congressional activity, an analytical lens that connects what Congressmen actually do with how most of us understand Congressmen, through elections. So the next time you see a Congressmen call for a hearing on a supposed horrible scandal or read about a Senator threatening to filibuster a policy that may have significant popular support, ask yourself, "Is this Representative claiming credit or taking a position, and how will this build their brand?" In other words: what's the electoral connection and how will whatever they're doing help them get elected? This might feel a little cynical, but the reality is Mayhew's thesis often seems to fit with today's politics. Thanks for watching, see you next week. Vote for me; I'm on the TV. I'm not -- I'm on the YouTube. Crash Course: Government and Politics is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. Support for Crash Course US Government comes from Voqal. Voqal supports nonprofits that use technology and media to advance social equity. Learn more about their mission and initiatives at Voqal.org. Crash Course is made by all of these nice people. Thanks for watching. That guy isn't nice.

Contents

Gains and losses

Democrats won open seats in Vermont and Florida and unseated incumbents Peter H. Dominick (R-CO) and Marlow Cook (R-KY). Republicans took an open seat in Nevada, where Republican Paul Laxalt defeated Harry Reid by 624 votes. The election also produced other close results; Milton Young (R-ND) won reelection against Democrat William L. Guy by only 186 votes and Henry Bellmon (R-OK) won reelection against Democrat Ed Edmondson by half a percent of the vote. Bob Dole (R-KS) survived the closest election of his career against Democratic Rep. William Roy, a race undoubtedly made close due to Dole's close association with Nixon as chairman of the Republican National Committee. It was the closest the Democrats have come to winning a Senate election in Kansas since George McGill won re-election in 1932 (McGill was defeated by Clyde M. Reed in 1938).

Results summary

Parties Total Seats Popular Vote
Incum
bents
Not up This election Result +/- Vote %
Up Re-
elected
Held Gained Lost
Democratic 57 37 20 15 4 Increase 4 Decrease 1 60 Increase 3 22,544,761 55.24%
Republican 41 27 14 8 2 Increase 1 Decrease 4 38 Decrease 3 16,145,793 39.56%
Conservative (N.Y.) 1 1 0 Steady Steady Steady Steady 1 Steady 822,584 2.02%
Independent 1 1 0 Steady Steady Steady Steady 1 Steady 199,108 <0.01%
Others 0 Steady Steady Steady Steady Steady Steady 0 Steady 1,098,146 2.69%
Total 100 66 34 23 6 Increase 5 Decrease 5 100 Steady 40,810,392 100.0%

Source: "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 1974 [sic]" (PDF). Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. 1975. Retrieved July 8, 2014.

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

After the January 4, 1974 appointment in Ohio.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Ran
D39
Ran
D38
Ran
D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41
Ran
D42
Ran
D43
Ran
D44
Ran
D45
Ran
D46
Ran
D47
Ran
D48
Ran
D49
Ran
D50
Ran
Majority → D51
Ran
R41
Retired
C1 I1 D57
Retired
D56
Retired
D55
Retired
D54
Ran
D53
Ran
D52
Ran
R40
Retired
R39
Retired
R38
Retired
R37
Ran
R36
Ran
R35
Ran
R34
Ran
R33
Ran
R32
Ran
R31
Ran
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
Ran
R29
Ran
R30
Ran
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the general elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Re-elected
D39
Re-elected
D38
Re-elected
D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41
Re-elected
D42
Re-elected
D43
Re-elected
D44
Re-elected
D45
Re-elected
D46
Re-elected
D47
Re-elected
D48
Re-elected
D49
Re-elected
D50
Re-elected
Majority → D51
Re-elected
D60
Gain
D59
Gain
D58
Gain
D57
Hold
D56
Hold
D55
Hold
D54
Hold
D53
Re-elected
D52
Re-elected
I1 C1 R38
Gain
R37
Hold
R36
Hold
R35
Re-elected
R34
Re-elected
R33
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R31
Re-elected
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
Re-elected
R29
Re-elected
R30
Re-elected
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
Key:
C# Conservative (N.Y.)
D# Democratic
R# Republican
I# Independent

Race summary

Elections leading to the next Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1975; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama James Allen Democratic 1968 Incumbent re-elected. James Allen (Democratic) 95.8%
Alvin Abercrombie (Prohibition) 4.2%
Alaska Mike Gravel Democratic 1968 Incumbent re-elected. Mike Gravel (Democratic) 58.3%
C. R. Lewis (Republican) 41.7%
Arizona Barry Goldwater Republican 1952
1958
1964 (Retired)
1968
Incumbent re-elected. Barry Goldwater (Republican) 58.3%
Jonathan Marshall (Democratic) 41.7%
Arkansas J. William Fulbright Democratic 1944
1950
1956
1962
1968
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Dale Bumpers (Democratic) 84.9%
John H. Jones (Republican) 15.1%
California Alan Cranston Democratic 1968 Incumbent re-elected. Alan Cranston (Democratic) 60.5%
H. L. Richardson (Republican) 36.2%
Jack McCoy (American Independent) 1.7%
Gayle M. Justice (Peace and Freedom) 1.6%
Colorado Peter H. Dominick Republican 1968 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Gary Hart (Democratic) 57.2%
Peter H. Dominick (Republican) 39.5%
John McCandish King (Independent) 2.0%
Joseph Fred Hyskell (Prohibition) 1.0%
Henry John Olshaw (American) 0.3%
Connecticut Abraham A. Ribicoff Democratic 1962
1968
Incumbent re-elected. Abraham A. Ribicoff (Democratic) 63.7%
James H. Brannen III (Republican) 34.3%
Florida Edward J. Gurney Republican 1968 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Richard Stone (Democratic) 43.4%
Jack Eckerd (Republican) 40.9%
John Grady (American) 15.7%
Georgia Herman Talmadge Democratic 1956
1962
1968
Incumbent re-elected. Herman Talmadge (Democratic) 71.7%
Jerry Johnson (Republican) 28.2%
Hawaii Daniel Inouye Democratic 1962
1968
Incumbent re-elected. Daniel Inouye (Democratic) 82.9%
James D. Kimmel (Independent) 17.1%
Idaho Frank Church Democratic 1956
1962
1968
Incumbent re-elected. Frank Church (Democratic) 56.1%
Robert L. Smith (Republican) 42.1%
Jean Stoddard (American) 1.8%
Illinois Adlai Stevenson III Democratic 1970 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Adlai Stevenson III (Democratic) 62.2%
George M. Burditt (Republican) 37.2%
Indiana Birch Bayh Democratic 1962
1968
Incumbent re-elected. Birch Bayh (Democratic) 50.7%
Richard Lugar (Republican) 46.4%
Don L. Lee (American) 2.8%
Iowa Harold Hughes Democratic 1968 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
John Culver (Democratic) 50.0%
David M. Stanley (Republican) 49.3%
Kansas Bob Dole Republican 1968 Incumbent re-elected. Bob Dole (Republican) 50.9%
William R. Roy (Democratic) 49.1%
Kentucky Marlow Cook Republican 1956
1962
1968
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Wendell Ford (Democratic) 53.5%
Marlow Cook (Republican) 44.1%
William E. Parker (American) 2.4%
Louisiana Russell B. Long Democratic 1948 (Special)
1950
1956
1962
1968
Incumbent re-elected. Russell B. Long (Democratic)
Unopposed
Maryland Charles Mathias, Jr. Republican 1968 Incumbent re-elected. Charles Mathias, Jr. (Republican) 57.3%
Barbara Mikulski (Democratic) 42.7%
Missouri Thomas Eagleton Democratic 1968 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Eagleton (Democratic) 60.1%
Thomas B. Curtis (Republican) 39.3%
Cliff Talmage (Independent) 0.6%
Nevada Alan Bible Democratic 1954 (Special)
1956
1962
1968
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Paul Laxalt (Republican) 47.0%
Harry Reid (Democratic) 46.6%
New Hampshire Norris Cotton Republican 1954 (Special)
1956
1962
1968
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Incumbent resigned December 31, 1974.
Winner was appointed December 31, 1974.
Election was contested and later voided.
Louis C. Wyman (Republican) 49.7%
John A. Durkin (Democratic) 49.7%
New York Jacob K. Javits Republican 1956
1962
1968
Incumbent re-elected. Jacob K. Javits (Republican) 45.3%
Ramsey Clark (Democratic) 38.2%
Barbara A. Keating (Conservative) 15.9%
Rebecca Finch (Socialist Workers Party) 0.1%
William F Dowling Jr (Courage) 0.1%
Robert E Massi (Socialist Labor) 0.08%
Mildred Edelman (Communist) 0.08%
Elijah Boyd Jr (Labor) 0.07%
North Carolina Sam Ervin Democratic 1954 (Special)
1954 (Appointed)
1956
1962
1968
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Robert Burren Morgan (Democratic) 62.1%
William E. Stevens (Republican) 37.0%
North Dakota Milton Young Republican 1945 (Appointed)
1946 (Special)
1950
1956
1962
1968
Incumbent re-elected. Milton Young (Republican) 48.4%
William L. Guy (Democratic) 48.3%
Ohio Howard Metzenbaum Democratic 1974 (Appointed) Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Incumbent resigned December 23, 1974.
Winner was appointed December 24, 1974.
John Glenn (Democratic) 64.6%
Ralph J. Perk (Republican) 30.7%
Oklahoma Henry Bellmon Republican 1968 Incumbent re-elected. Henry Bellmon (Republican) 49.4%
Ed Edmondson (Democratic) 48.9%
Oregon Bob Packwood Republican 1968 Incumbent re-elected. Bob Packwood (Republican) 54.9%
Betty Roberts (Democratic) 44.2%
Pennsylvania Richard Schweiker Republican 1968 Incumbent re-elected. Richard Schweiker (Republican) 53.0%
Peter F. Flaherty (Democratic) 45.9%
George W. Shankey (Constitution) 1.1%
South Carolina Ernest Hollings Democratic 1966 (Special)
1968
Incumbent re-elected. Ernest Hollings (Democratic) 69.5%
Gwenyfred Bush (Republican) 28.6%
South Dakota George McGovern Democratic 1962
1968
Incumbent re-elected. George McGovern (Democratic) 53.0%
Leo K. Thorsness (Republican) 47.0%
Utah Wallace F. Bennett Republican 1950
1956
1962
1968
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Jake Garn (Republican) 50.0%
Wayne Owens (Democratic) 44.1%
Vermont George Aiken Republican 1940 (Special)
1944
1950
1956
1962
1968
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Patrick Leahy (Democratic) 49.5%
Richard W. Mallary (Republican) 46.4%
Washington Warren Magnuson Democratic 1944
1944 (Appointed)
1950
1956
1962
1968
Incumbent re-elected. Warren G. Magnuson (Democratic) 60.7%
Jack Metcalf (Republican) 36.1%
Gene Goosman (American Independent) 2%
Clare Fraenzl (Socialist Workers) 0.8%
Pat Ruckert (U.S. Labor) 0.4%
Wisconsin Gaylord Nelson Democratic 1962
1968
Incumbent re-elected. Gaylord Nelson (Democratic) 61.8%
Tom Petri (Republican) 35.8%

Special election during the 95th Congress

In this special election, the winner was elected after January 3, 1975.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Norris Cotton Republican 1954 (Special)
1956
1962
1968
1974 (Retired)
1975 (Appointed)
Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected September 16, 1975.
Democratic gain.
John A. Durkin (Democratic) 53.6%
Louis C. Wyman (Republican) 43.04%
Carmen C. Chimento (American Independent) 3.4%

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arizona election

← 1968
1980 →
 
Barry Goldwater photo1962.jpg
No image.png
Nominee Barry Goldwater Jonathan Marshall
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 320,396 229,523
Percentage 58.26% 41.74%

1974 Arizona.png
U.S. Senate election results map.
Red denotes counties won by Goldwater.
Blue denotes those won by Marshall.

U.S. Senator before election

Barry Goldwater
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Barry Goldwater
Republican

Incumbent Republican Barry Goldwater decided to run for reelection to a second consecutive term, after returning to the U.S. Senate in 1968 following his failed Presidential run in 1964 against Lyndon B. Johnson. Goldwater defeated Democratic Party nominee philanthropist Jonathan Marshall in the general election.

Democratic primary results[3]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Jonathan Marshall, philanthropist 79,225 53.55%
Democratic George Oglesby, attorney 36,262 24.51%
Democratic William Mathews Feighan 32,449 21.93%
Total votes 147,936 100.00
United States Senate election in Arizona, 1974[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Barry Goldwater 320,396 58.26%
Democratic Jonathan Marshall 229,523 41.74%
Majority 90,873 16.52%
Turnout 549,919
Republican gain from Democratic Swing

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Florida

Florida election

← 1968
1980 →
 
Richardbernardstone.jpg
Jack Eckerd (cropped).jpg
Nominee Richard Stone Jack Eckerd
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 781,031 736,674
Percentage 43.38% 40.91%

 
Nominee John Grady
Party American Independent
Popular vote 282,659
Percentage 15.70%

U.S. Senator before election

Edward Gurney
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Richard Stone
Democratic

Incumbent Republican Edward Gurney declined to seek a second term after being indicted for taking bribes in return for his influence with the Federal Housing Administration.

The primary for the Republican nomination pitted Eckerd drug store owner Jack Eckerd against Florida Public Service Commissioner Paula Hawkins. Eckerd won handily, receiving approximately 67.5% of the vote.

Republican primary results
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jack Eckerd 186,897 67.49%
Republican Paula Hawkins 90,049 32.52%
Total votes 276,946 100.00%

The Democratic primary, however, was a crowded field with eleven candidates vying for the nomination. Because no candidate received a majority of the votes, U.S. Representative Bill Gunter and Secretary of State of Florida Richard Stone advanced to a run-off election. Stone won by a small margin of 1.68%.

Democratic primary results
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Richard Stone 236,185 29.80%
Democratic Bill Gunter 157,301 19.85%
Democratic Richard A. Pettigrew 146,728 18.51%
Democratic Mallory Horne 90,684 11.44%
Democratic Glenn W. Turner 51,326 6.48%
Democratic George Balmer 24,408 3.08%
Democratic Burton Young 23,199 2.93%
Democratic Bob Brewster 19,913 2.51%
Democratic David B. Higginbottom 17,401 1.64%
Democratic Duaine E. Macon 14,961 1.89%
Total votes 782,106 100.00%
Democratic primary runoff results
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Richard Stone 321,683 50.84%
Democratic Bill Gunter 311,044 49.16%
Total votes 632,727 100.00%

Thus, Eckerd and Stone faced off in the general election. John Grady, a family physician and member of George Wallace's American Independent Party, performed exceptionally well for a third party candidate. Grady may have split the conservative vote, allowing for Stone to win. On election day, Stone received 43.38% of the vote, Eckerd garnered 40.91% of the vote, and Grady acquired 15.7% of the vote.

General election results
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Richard Stone 781,031 43.38%
Republican Jack Eckerd 736,674 40.91%
American Independent John Grady 282,659 15.70%
Independent Jim Fair 117 0.01%
Independent Henry J. Matthew 35 <0.01%
Independent Hortense L. Arvan 13 <0.01%
Independent Timothy L. "Tim" Adams 10 <0.01%
Majority 44,357 3.32%
Turnout 1,800,539
Democratic gain from Republican

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maryland

Maryland election

← 1968
1980 →
 
Charlesmathiasjr.jpg
Senator Nancy Kassebaum's retirement party (cropped).jpg
Nominee Charles Mathias, Jr. Barbara Mikulski
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 503,223 374,663
Percentage 57.32% 42.68%

U.S. Senator before election

Charles Mathias, Jr.
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Charles Mathias, Jr.
Republican

Incumbent Republican Charles Mathias won re-election to a second term. As a Republican representing heavily-Democratic Maryland, Mathias faced a potentially difficult re-election bid for the 1974 election. State Democrats nominated Barbara Mikulski, then a Baltimore City Councilwoman who was well-known to residents in her city as a social activist, but with limited name recognition in the rest of the state.[5] Mathias was renominated by Republicans, fending off a primary election challenge from conservative doctor Ross Pierpont. Pierpont was never a substantial threat to Mathias, whose lack of competition was due in part to fallout from the Watergate scandal.[6][7]

As an advocate for campaign finance reform, Mathias refused to accept any contribution over $100 to "avoid the curse of big money that has led to so much trouble in the last year".[8] However, he still managed to raise over $250,000, nearly five times Mikulski's total. Ideologically, Mikulski and Mathias agreed on many issues, such as closing tax loopholes and easing taxes on the middle class. On two issues, however, Mathias argued to reform Congress and the U.S. tax system to address inflation and corporate price fixing, contrary to Mikulski.[5] In retrospect, The Washington Post felt the election was "an intelligent discussion of state, national, and foreign affairs by two smart, well-informed people".[9]

United States Senate election in Maryland, 1974[10]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Charles McC. Mathias, Jr. (Incumbent) 503,223 57.3
Democratic Barbara A. Mikulski 374,663 42.7
Invalid or blank votes
Total votes 877,886 100.00
Turnout  
Republican hold

Missouri

Nevada

Nevada election

← 1968
1980 →
 
PaulLaxalt.JPG
Harry Reid official portrait.jpg
Nominee Paul Laxalt Harry Reid
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 79,605 78,981
Percentage 47.0% 46.6%

 
Nominee Jack C. Doyle
Party Independent American 
Popular vote 10,887
Percentage 6.42%

U.S. Senator before election

Alan Bible
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Paul Laxalt
Republican

Incumbent Democrat Alan Bible decided to retire instead of seeking a fourth full term. Republican nominee Paul Laxalt won the open seat.

Former Governor Paul Laxalt won by less than 700 votes, becoming one of the few bright spots in a bad year for Republicans. He beat Lieutenant Governor Harry Reid. Reid would succeed Laxalt twelve years later.

General election results[11]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Paul Laxalt 79,605 46.97% +1.73%
Democratic Harry Reid 78,981 46.60% -8.16%
Independent American  Jack C. Doyle 10,887 6.42%
Majority 624 0.37% -9.15%
Turnout 169,473
Republican gain from Democratic

New Hampshire

New Hampshire election

 
WymanLouis(R-NH).jpg
John A. Durkin.jpg
Nominee Louis C. Wyman John A. Durkin
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 110,926 110,924
Percentage 49.6618% 49.6609%

U.S. Senator before election

Norris Cotton
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Louis C. Wyman
(Disputed)
Republican

The New Hampshire election resulted in the longest contested election for the U.S. Congress in United States history.

In 1973, then-incumbent Senator Norris Cotton announced he would not seek re-election. Republican strategists admitted that it would be tough for their party to hold on to the seat.[12]

The campaign of 1974 pitted Democrat John A. Durkin, who had served as New Hampshire's Insurance Commissioner and as Attorney General, against Republican Louis C. Wyman, a conservative, widely known member of the United States House of Representatives from New Hampshire's 1st congressional district. As Wyman was the more experienced politician, he was predicted by many to win handily.[13]

On election day, Wyman won with a margin of just 355 votes.[citation needed] Durkin immediately demanded a recount, which, completed November 27, 1974, declared Durkin the winner by a margin of 2 votes. Republican Governor Meldrim Thomson, Jr. awarded Durkin a provisional certificate of election.

New Hampshire United States Senate Election, 1974: Second Recount
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Louis Wyman 110,926 49.6618%
Democratic John A. Durkin 110,924 49.6609%
American Independent Carmen C. Chimento 1,513 0.68%
Plurality 2 0.0009%
Turnout 223,363

Wyman promptly appealed to the New Hampshire State Ballot Law Commission. Durkin tried to defeat the appeal in the New Hampshire courts. The state ballot commission conducted its own partial recount and announced on December 24, 1974, that Wyman had won by just two votes. Governor Thomson rescinded Durkin’s certificate, and awarded a new credential to Wyman.

Senator Cotton resigned December 31, 1974, and Governor Thomson appointed Wyman to fill the remainder of the term, which would expire January 3, 1975.

The election contest was not settled, however, and eventually a new election would be called, see below.

New Hampshire (Special)

New Hampshire election

← 1974 September 16, 1975 1980 →
 
John A. Durkin.jpg
WymanLouis(R-NH).jpg
Nominee John A. Durkin Louis C. Wyman
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 140,778 113,007
Percentage 53.62% 43.04%

U.S. Senator before election

Norris Cotton
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

John A. Durkin
Democratic

As a last option to the disputed election above, Durkin petitioned the Senate, which had a 60-vote Democratic majority, to review the case, based on the Constitutional provision that each house of Congress is the final arbiter of elections to that body.

On January 13, 1975, the day before the new Congress convened, the Senate Rules Committee tried unsuccessfully to resolve the matter. Composed of five Democrats and three Republicans, the Rules Committee deadlocked 4–4 on a proposal to seat Wyman pending further review. Democrat James Allen voted with the Republicans on grounds that Wyman had presented proper credentials.

The full Senate took up the case on January 14, with Wyman and Durkin seated at separate tables at the rear of the chamber. Soon, the matter was returned to the Rules Committee, which created a special staff panel to examine 3,500 questionable ballots that had been shipped to Washington. Following this review, the Rules Committee sent a report of 35 disputed points in the election to the full Senate, which spent the next six weeks debating the issue, but resolved only one of the 35 points in dispute. Republicans successfully filibustered the seating of Durkin.[13]

Facing deadlock with the August recess approaching, The Washington Post ran an editorial on July 28 charging that it would be "incredible" if the Senate were to "go on vacation for a month without settling the New Hampshire Senate election case."[14] The Post suggested that Wyman and Durkin themselves should try to reach some agreement to settle the matter. Following up on the suggestion, Louis Wyman wrote to Durkin that day, urging him to support a new, special election. Durkin initially refused, but then on July 29, reversed his earlier position, and announced to a New Hampshire television audience his intention to agree to the new election.[15] The next morning, July 30, he reported this change to the Democratic leadership, thus relieving the Senate from further deliberations on the topic.

Later that same day, the Senate voted 71–21 to declare the seat vacant as of August 8. Governor Thomson this time appointed former Senator Norris Cotton to hold the seat temporarily. New Hampshire then arranged to hold a special election.

The special election was held on September 16, 1975. Widespread attention in the media resulted in a record-breaking turnout, which gave the election to Durkin by a 27,000-vote margin.[13][16]

United States Senate Special Election in New Hampshire, 1975
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John A. Durkin 140,778 53.62%
Republican Louis Wyman (Disputed incumbent) 113,007 43.04%
American Independent Carmen C. Chimento 8,787 3.35%
Majority 27,771 10.58%
Turnout 262,572
Democratic gain from Republican

New York

North Carolina

North Carolina election

← 1968 November 5, 1974 1980 →
 
Robert Burren Morgan.jpg
No image.svg
Nominee Robert Morgan William Stevens
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 633,647 386,720
Percentage 61.6% 37.6%

U.S. Senator before election

Sam Ervin
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Robert Morgan
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Sam Ervin chose to retire. The general election was fought between the Democratic nominee Robert Morgan and the Republican nominee William Stevens.

Democratic primary[17]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Robert Morgan 294,986 50.40%
Democratic Nick Galifianakis 189,815 32.43%
Democratic Henry Wilson 67,247 11.49%
Democratic James Johnson 6,138 1.05%
Democratic Others 27,140 4.64%
Turnout 585,326
Republican primary [17]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican William Stevens 62,419 65.12%
Republican Wood Hall Young 26,918 28.08%
Republican B. E. Sweatt 6,520 6.80%
Turnout 95,857
General election[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Robert Morgan 633,647 61.56% +1.00%
Republican William Stevens 386,720 37.57% -1.87%
Other 8,974 0.87% N/A
Turnout 1,029,341

North Dakota

North Dakota election

← 1968
1980 →
 
Milton Young.jpg
William L. Guy North Dakota Governor 1968.jpg
Nominee Milton R. Young William L. Guy
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 114,852 114,675
Percentage 48.45% 48.37%

U.S. Senator before election

Milton R. Young
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Milton R. Young
Republican

Incumbent Republican Milton Young was re-elected to his sixth term, defeating North Dakota Democratic-NPL Party candidate William L. Guy, a former Governor of North Dakota.[11]

Only Young filed as a Republican, and the endorsed Democratic candidate was William L. Guy of Bismarck, North Dakota, who had served as Governor of the state from 1961 to 1973; and had presumably left the office to seek the senate seat. Young and Guy won the primary elections for their respective parties. Guy, who was very popular as governor throughout the state, and Young, who had a high approval rating as senator for the state, created the closest ever election for one of North Dakota's senate seats. Young won the election by only 177 votes, and Guy retired from politics.

Two independent candidates, James R. Jungroth and Kenneth C. Gardner, also filed before the deadline. Jungroth's platform was based on his opposition to strip mining the state's coal reserves.[18] Gardner would later run for the state's other seat in 1988 against then incumbent Quentin Burdick.

1974 United States Senate election, North Dakota
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Milton R. Young 114,852 48.45%
Democratic William L. Guy 114,675 48.37%
Independent James R. Jungroth 6,679 2.82%
Independent Kenneth C. Gardiner 853 0.36%
Majority 177 0.07%
Turnout 237,059

Ohio

Ohio election

← 1968
1980 →
 
John Glenn 97th Congress 1981.jpg
Ralph Perk.jpg
Nominee John Glenn Ralph Perk
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,930,670 918,133
Percentage 64.6% 30.7%

U.S. Senator before election

Howard Metzenbaum
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

John Glenn
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Howard Metzenbaum was running for re-election his first full term after he was appointed in 1970 by Ohio governor John J. Gilligan to fill out the Senate term of William B. Saxbe, who had resigned to become United States Attorney General. Metzenbaum lost the primary election to retired astronaut John Glenn, who went on to win the general election and win every county in the state over Republican Ralph Perk, Mayor of Cleveland

OH United States Senate election, 1974[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic John Glenn 1,930,670 64.6%
Republican Ralph Perk 918,133 30.7%
Independent Kathleen G. Harroff 76,882 2.6%
Independent Richard B. Kay 61,921 2.1%
Independent John O'Neill 257 0.0%
Independent Ronald E. Girkins 88 0.0%

Oklahoma

Oklahoma election

← 1968
1980 →
 
BellmonHL.jpg
Ed Edmondson.jpg
Nominee Henry Bellmon Ed Edmondson
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 390,997 387,162
Percentage 49.4% 48.9%

U.S. Senator before election

Henry Bellmon
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Henry Bellmon
Republican

Incumbent Republican Henry Bellmon narrowly won re-election to a second term, beating Representative Ed Edmondson by nearly 4,000 votes.

General election results[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Henry Bellmon 390,997 49.4%
Democratic Ed Edmondson 387,162 48.9%
Independent Paul E. Trent 13,650 1.7%

Oregon

Oregon election

← 1968
1980 →
 
RWPackwood.jpg
No image.svg
Nominee Bob Packwood Betty Roberts
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 420,964 338,591
Percentage 54.9% 44.2%

U.S. Senator before election

Bob Packwood
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Bob Packwood
Republican

Incumbent Republican Bob Packwood won re-election to a second term. Betty Roberts was chosen to replace former U.S. Senator Wayne Morse, who won the Democratic primary but died before the general election.[21][22]

Wayne Morse won the Democratic primary, but died prior to the general election.
Wayne Morse won the Democratic primary, but died prior to the general election.

The Democratic primaries were held on May 28, 1974. Incumbent Senator Bob Packwood was running for re-election after his upset victory against popular incumbent Democrat Wayne Morse in 1968 made him the youngest member of the Senate.[23]

In the Democratic primary, former Senator Morse, trying to win back the seat he had for 24 years before losing to Packwood six years earlier, faced Oregon State Senate President Jason Boe and several other candidates for a chance to take back his Senate seat.[24] Boe, who was 45, made Morse's age, 73, an issue in the race while Morse said his experience in the Senate made him a stronger candidate.[25] Boe called for a series of debates around the state, but Morse refused. He went on to defeat Boe 49% to 39%, and planned to use the same strategy in the general election against Packwood, whose narrow victory over Morse 6 years earlier was attributed to Packwood's superior performance at a debate in Portland late in the campaign.[21]

Democratic primary for the United States Senate from Oregon, 1974[26]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Wayne Morse 155,729 48.98%
Democratic Jason Boe 125,055 39.33%
Democratic Robert T. Daly 21,881 6.88%
Democratic Robert E. O'Connor 14,984 4.71%
Democratic (Scattering) 319 0.10%
Total votes 396,204 100.00%

In July, Morse was hospitalized in Portland with what was originally described as a serious urinary tract infection. His condition deteriorated and he died on July 22.[22] The death was originally reported to have been caused by kidney failure, but it was later revealed that Morse died of leukemia; Boe apparently knew of the diagnosis during the campaign but did not make it a campaign issue.[27]

The Oregon Democratic State Central Committee met on August 11, two days after Richard Nixon resigned the Presidency. They chose State Senator Betty Roberts over Boe to replace Morse as the Democratic nominee.[28] Roberts, an Oregon State Senator, had run for the Democratic nomination for Governor that year, but lost in the May primary to eventual general election winner Robert W. Straub.[28]

Outgoing Oregon governor Tom McCall, who had decided not to run in 1968, had pledged to Packwood a year earlier that he would not challenge him in 1974.[29] But as his term as governor ended, McCall began reconsidering his decision, believing he would bring more integrity to the job. In March 1974, at a dinner party held at Packwood's Washington D.C. home in McCall's honor, McCall informed Packwood that he would challenge him.[29] The news of McCall's change of plans soon reached the media. Eventually, McCall decided that he had little chance against Packwood, who had similar positions to his own and had a reputation for ruthless campaigning that McCall did not share.[29][30] McCall did not run, and Packwood was unopposed in the Republican primary.[24]

Strong Democratic gains were predicted, giving Roberts a good chance at an upset. In addition, the Senate had no female members and Roberts was one of three women (along with Barbara Mikulski in Maryland and Gwenyfred Bush in South Carolina) seeking a Senate seat.[31] But on the issues, Packwood and Roberts shared many positions, such as on abortion, military spending, and the environment.[32] Moreover, Packwood had distanced himself from Watergate, calling for Nixon's impeachment and denouncing Gerald Ford's pardon of Nixon.[32][33] Roberts was also at a financial disadvantage, having entered the race late and facing debt from her failed gubernatorial run; Packwood was able to use money he had raised for a primary challenge that never materialized, and led in most polls by a double-digit margin.[32]

Roberts lost the election to Packwood 54% to 44%.[34] Packwood was the only Oregon Republican up for re-election to keep his seat: Democrats won every other available seat. In the Governor's race, Bob Straub, who beat Roberts in the Democratic primary, defeated Vic Atiyeh to become the first Democrat elected governor since 1956; in the U. S. House of Representatives races, Les AuCoin won an open seat in the 1st district and in the 4th district, Jim Weaver upset incumbent John Dellenback.[35]

After the election, Roberts, whose criticism of Packwood's ethics was a theme in her campaign, considered filing a lawsuit against Packwood for misrepresenting her positions on gun control, abortion, and Social Security in campaign advertisements, but later dropped the idea.[36]

United States Senate election in Oregon, 1974[37]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Bob Packwood 420,984 54.93%
Democratic Betty Roberts 338,591 44.18%
Write-In Jason Boe 5,072 0.66%
Write-In Misc. 1,767 0.23%
Total votes 766,414 100.00%
Republican hold

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania election

← 1968
1980 →
 
RichardSchweiker.jpg
No image.svg
Nominee Richard Schweiker Peter Flaherty
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,843,317 1,596,121
Percentage 53.0% 45.9%

Pennsylvania Senatorial Election Results by County, 1974.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Richard Schweiker
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Richard Schweiker
Republican

Incumbent Republican Richard Schweiker won re-election, defeating Democratic nominee Peter F. Flaherty, Mayor of Pittsburgh.

In the general election campaign, Schweiker faced popular Pittsburgh mayor Peter Flaherty. Both candidates, as highlighted by a New York Times article, "[took] firm stands against inflation, recession, big spending by the Federal Government and abortion on demand."[38] Schweiker, who was endorsed by the AFL–CIO, distanced himself from the Richard Nixon administration, specifically the Watergate scandal, by emphasizing his early calls for Nixon's resignation and the fact that he was on Nixon's "enemies list."[38]

In the end, Schweiker won re-election with 53% of the popular vote, with Flaherty winning 45.9%. Schweiker carried 53 of Pennsylvania's counties, a decrease from the 59 counties he carried in the 1968 election. Flaherty had a strong showing in Allegheny County, which contains his home town of Pittsburgh, which Schweiker had won in 1968. The final election results represented a political divide between the eastern and western portions of the state, Schweiker in the east and Flaherty in the west, with the exception of Flaherty's slim 4,491 vote victory in Philadelphia.[38]

Pennsylvania United States Senate Election, 1974[11]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Richard Schweiker (Incumbent) 1,843,317 53.00%
Democratic Peter F. Flaherty 1,596,121 45.89%
Constitution George W. Shankey 38,004 1.09%
N/A Other 370 0.01%
Majority 247,196 7.11%
Turnout 3,477,812
Republican hold

South Carolina

South Carolina election

← 1968
1980 →
 
Ernest Hollings 91st Congress.jpg
No image.svg
Nominee Ernest Hollings Gwen Bush
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 355,107 146,649
Percentage 69.4% 28.7%

U.S. Senator before election

Ernest Hollings
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Ernest Hollings
Democratic

The 1974 South Carolina United States Senate election was held on November 5, 1974 to select the U.S. Senator from the state of South Carolina. Incumbent Democratic Senator Fritz Hollings easily defeated Republican challenger Gwen Bush to win his second full term. Both Hollings and Bush faced no opposition in their party's primaries which allowed both candidates to concentrate solely on the general election. The Watergate scandal caused the Republicans to perform poorly nationwide in 1974 and Gwen Bush was little more than a sacrificial lamb. The main focus of the voters in South Carolina was on the competitive gubernatorial contest and Hollings easily cruised to a comfortable re-election.


South Carolina U.S. Senate Election, 1974
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Fritz Hollings 355,107 69.4% +7.5%
Republican Gwen Bush 146,649 28.7% -9.4%
Independent Harold Hough 9,624 1.9% +1.9%
Majority 208,458 40.7% +16.9%
Turnout 511,380 51.3% -25.2%
Democratic hold

South Dakota

South Dakota Senate election, 1974

← 1968
1980 →
 
George McGovern bioguide.jpg
Unknown-person.gif
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 147,929 130,955
Percentage 53.04% 46.96%

U.S. Senator before election

George McGovern
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

George McGovern
Democratic

Utah

Vermont

Vermont election

← 1968
1980 →
 
Patrick Leahy 1979 congressional photo.jpg
Richard W. Mallary.jpg
Nominee Patrick Leahy Richard W. Mallary
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 70,629 66,223
Percentage 49.5% 46.4%

U.S. Senator before election

George Aiken
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Patrick Leahy
Democratic

Incumbent Republican George Aiken did not run for re-election to another term in the United States Senate. Democratic candidate, attorney and prosecutor Patrick Leahy defeated the Republican candidate, congressman Richard W. Mallary to succeed him.

Republican primary results[39]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Richard W. Mallary 27,221 59.1%
Republican Charles R. Ross 16,479 35.8%
Republican T. Serse Ambrosini 2,265 4.9%
Republican Other 61 0.1%
Total votes 46,026 100.0%
Democratic primary results[39]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Patrick Leahy 19,801 83.9%
Democratic Nathaniel Frothingham 3,703 15.7%
Democratic Other 97 0.4%
Total votes 23,601 100.0%
United States Senate election in Vermont, 1974[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Patrick Leahy 70,629 49.47%
Republican Richard W. Mallary 66,223 46.38%
Liberty Union Bernie Sanders 5,901 4.13%
N/A Other 19 0.0%
Total votes 142,772 100.0%

Washington

Wisconsin

Wisconsin election

← 1968
1980 →
 
GaylordNelson.jpg
TomPetri.jpg
Nominee Gaylord Nelson Tom Petri
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 740,700 429,327
Percentage 61.8% 35.8%

U.S. Senator before election

Gaylord Nelson
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Gaylord Nelson
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Gaylord Nelson won re-election to a third term over Tom Petri, State Senator since 1973.

General election results
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Gaylord Nelson 740,700 61.8%
Republican Tom Petri 429,327 35.8%
American Gerald L. McFarren 24,003 2.0%
Lowering the Property Tax Roman Blenski 5,396 0.6%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Harry F. Byrd Jr. (VA) was an Independent who caucused with the Democrats. In some circles he is called an "Independent Democrat," but his actual registration was listed as "Independent." See, e.g., United States Congress. "Harry Flood Byrd, Jr. (id: B001209)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  2. ^ James M. Naughton (November 6, 1974). "Senate and House Margins Are Substantially Enlarged". New York Times. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  3. ^ "AZ US Senate - D Primary Race - Sep 10, 1974". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
  4. ^ "AZ US Senate Race - Nov 05, 1974". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
  5. ^ a b Barker, Karlyn (November 6, 1974). "Mathias Is Elected To a Second Term". The Washington Post. p. A12.
  6. ^ Watson, Douglas (August 15, 1974). "Mathias Purge Threat Ends: White House Scandals Boost Senator's Re-election Bid". The Washington Post. p. C1.
  7. ^ Barker, Karlyn (September 11, 1974). "Mathias Wins GOP Md. Race". The Washington Post. p. A24.
  8. ^ Richards, Bill (February 3, 1974). "Sen. Mathias Re-Election Drive Opens". The Washington Post. p. B1.
  9. ^ "U.S. Senate Choice in Maryland". The Washington Post. October 22, 1980. p. A22.
  10. ^ "1974 Senatorial General Election Results - Maryland".
  11. ^ a b c "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 1974 [sic]" (PDF). Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
  12. ^ Lydon, Christopher (December 17, 1973). "Republican Strategists See Major 1974 Election Losses for G.O.P.; Most Incredible'". The New York Times.
  13. ^ a b c "Message from New Hampshire". Time. September 29, 1975.
  14. ^ Glass, Andrew (July 29, 2015). "Closest election in Senate annals prompts 'do-over'". Politico.
  15. ^ Wermiel, Stephen (July 30, 1975). "Durkin reverses, asks new N.H. vote". The Boston Globe.
  16. ^ "Toledo Blade - Google News Archive Search". Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  17. ^ a b c "North Carolina DataNet #46" (PDF). University of North Carolina. April 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2009.
  18. ^ Our Campaigns - Candidate - James R. Jungroth
  19. ^ "OH US Senate Race - Nov 05, 1974". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
  20. ^ "OK US Senate Race - Nov 05, 1974". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
  21. ^ a b "No debate". The Register-Guard. April 9, 1974. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  22. ^ a b "Death claims ex-Sen. Wayne Morse". The Bulletin (Bend). July 22, 1974. Retrieved January 29, 2010.[dead link]
  23. ^ "From political obscurity, Packwood defeated veteran". The Bulletin (Bend). November 12, 1974. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
  24. ^ a b "Packwood, unopposed, spent most in Senate primary". The Bulletin (Bend). June 28, 1974. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
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References

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