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United States Senate elections, 1820 and 1821

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Senate elections, 1820 and 1821

← 1818/19 Dates vary by state 1822/23 →

15 of the 46 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
24 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 30 seats 9 seats
Seats before 33 9
Seats won 11 1
Seats after 39 4
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 4
Seats up 10 5

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1820 and 1821 were elections for the United States Senate that, corresponding with James Monroe's landslide re-election, had the Democratic-Republican Party gain seven seats, assuming almost complete control of the Senate.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

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Transcription

CCUS 11 – War of 1812 Hi, I’m John Green. This is Crash Course U.S. history and today we’re gonna talk about what America’s best at: War. (Libertage.) Uh, Mr. Green, the United States has actually only declared war 5 times in the last 230 years. Oh, Me from the Past, you sniveling literalist. Well, today we’re gonna talk about America’s first declared war, the War of 1812, so called because historians are terrible at naming things. I mean, they could’ve called it the Revolutionary War Part Deux, or the Canadian Cataclysm, or the War to Facilitate Future Wars. But no. They just named it after the year it started. Intro I know this disappoints the military historians among you, but as usual we’re gonna spend more time talking about the causes and effects of the war than the actual, like, killing parts, because ultimately it’s the ambiguity of the War of 1812 that makes it so interesting. The reason most often given for the War of 1812 was the British impressment of American sailors, whereby American sailors would be kidnapped and basically forced into British servitude. This disrupted American shipping. It also seems like a reasonably obvious violation of American sovereignty, but it’s a little more complicated than that. First of all, there were many thousands of British sailors working aboard American ships, so many of the sailors that the British captured were in fact British —which gets to the larger point that citizenship at the time was a pretty slippery concept, especially on the high seas, like papers were often forged and many sailors identified their supposed American-ness through tattoos of, like, Eagles and Flags. And there were several reasons why a British sailor might want to become or pretend to be an American, including that the Brits at the time were fighting Napoleon in what historians, in their infinite creativity, called the Napoleonic Wars. And on that topic, Britain’s impressment policy allowed them both to disrupt American shipping to France and to get new British sailors to strengthen their war effort, which was annoying to the Americans on a couple levels, especially the French loving Republicans, which is a phrase that you don’t hear very often anymore. Another reason often given for the war was America’s crazy conspiratorial Anglophobia. There was even a widespread rumor that British agents were buying up Connecticut sheep in order to sabotage the textile industry! Lest you worry that America’s fascination with conspiracy theories is new. So those pushing for war were known as War Hawks, and the most famous among them was Kentucky’s Henry Clay. They took the impressment of sailors as an affront to American national honor, but they also complained that Britain’s actions were an affront to free trade, by which they meant America’s ability to trade with Europeans other than Great Britain. And, to be fair, the British WERE trying to regulate American trade. They even passed the Orders in Council, which required American ships to dock in Britain and pay tax before trading with other European nations. Britain, we were an independent nation! You can’t do that kind of stuff. We have a special relationship. It’s not that special. But the problem with saying this caused the war is that the Orders had been in effect for 5 years before the war started AND they were rescinded in 1812 before the U.S. declared war, although admittedly we didn’t know about it because it didn’t reach us until after we declared war...there was no Twitter. Another reason for the war was Canada. That’s right, Canada. Americans wanted you, Canada, and who can blame them, with your excellent health care and your hockey and your first-rate national anthem. Stan, this is fun, but enough with the #1812problems. According to Virginia Congressman John Randolph “Agrarian cupidity, not maritime rights urges the war. We have heard but one word … Canada!, Canada!, Canada!” I’m not here to criticize you, John Randolph, but that’s actually three words. Now, some historians disagree with this, but the relentless pursuit of new land certainly fits in with the Jeffersonian model of an agrarian republic. And there’s another factor that figured into America’s decision to go to war: expansion into territory controlled by Native Americans. Oh it’s time for the Mystery Document? The rules here are simple. I try to guess the author of the Mystery Document, usually I’m wrong and I get shocked. Alright, let’s see what we’ve got here. “You want, by your distinctions of Indian tribes, in allotting to each a particular tract of land, to make them to war with each other. You never see an Indian come and endeavor to make the white people do so.” It’s Tecumseh. DROP THE MIC. Is something that I would do except that the mic is actually attached to my shirt, so...there’s no drama in this. It’s clearly a Native American criticism of white people. And I happen to know that that particular one comes from Tecumseh. And I don’t get shocked today! So, it shouldn’t come as a surprise that Americans were continuing to push westward into territory where Indians were living. I mean, this was a big reason for the Louisiana Purchase, after all. By the beginning of the war, more than 400,000 settlers had moved into territories west of the original 13 colonies, and they outnumbered American Indians by a significant margin. Some Native groups responded with a measure of assimilation. Cherokees like John Ross wanted to become more “civilized,” that is more white and farmer-y, and some of them did even adopt such civilized practices as written languages, and slavery. The most civilized practice of all. People are always like, “Why aren’t you more celebratory of American history?” Well, why isn’t there more to celebrate? But, other Indians wanted to resist. The best known of these were the aforementioned Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa – Stan, can you just put it on the screen? Yes, let’s just enjoy looking at that. Right, that’s just for all you visual learners. So he was also known as the Prophet because of his religious teachings (and also because of the pronunciation issues). The Prophet encouraged Indians, especially those living in and around the settlement of Prophetstown, to abandon the ways of the whites, primarily in the form of alcohol and manufactured consumer goods. So stop drinking alcohol and eating refined sugars. This guy sounds like my doctor. Tecumseh was more militant, attempting to revive Neolin’s idea of pan-Indianism and actively resisting white settlement. As he put it. “Sell a country, Why not sell the air, the great sea, as well as the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them all for the use of his children?” The Americans responded to this reasonable criticism in the traditional manner: with guns. William Henry Harrison destroyed the natives’ settlement at Prophetstown in what would become known as the Battle of Tippecanoe. And he would later ride that fame all the way to the presidency in 1840 and then spoiler alert he would give the longest inauguration address ever, catch a cold, and die 40 days later. Let that be a lesson to you, American politicians. Long speeches: fatal. So, I’ve just painted a pretty negative picture of the Americans’ treatment of the Indians, because it was awful, but I haven’t mentioned how this relates to the War of 1812. The Americans were receiving reports that the British were encouraging Tecumseh, which they probably were. And the important thing to remember here is that the War of 1812, like the 7 Years War and the American Revolution, was also a war against Indians, and as in those other two wars, the Indians were the biggest losers. And not in the cool way of the Biggest Loser where, like, Trainer Bob helps you lose weight, but in the really sad way where your entire civilization gets John C. Calhoun-ed. So, the War of 1812 was the first time that the United States declared war on anybody. It was also the smallest margin of a declaration of war vote, 79-49 in the House and 19-13 in the Senate. Northern states which relied on trade a lot didn’t want to go to war while Southern and Western states, which were more agrarian and wanted expansion to get land for farming – and slavery – did. The closeness of the vote reflects a profound ambivalence about the war. As Henry Adams wrote: “Many nations have gone to war in pure gaiety of the heart, but perhaps the United States were the first to force themselves into a war they dreaded, in the hope that the war itself might create the spirit they lacked.” Don’t worry, Henry Adams, in the future, we’re gonna get pretty gaiety-of-heart-ish about war. Anyway as an actual war, the War of 1812 was something of a farce. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. The U.S. army numbered 10 to 12 thousand and its officers were “sunk into either sloth, ignorance, or habits of intemperate drinking.” The U.S. Navy had 17 ships; Great Britain had 1000. Also, America had very little money; Britain collected 40 times more tax revenue than the U.S But Britain was busy fighting Napoleon, which is why they didn’t really start kicking America’s butt until 1814 after Napoleon was defeated. Napoleon’s defeat was also the end of the practice of impressment since Britain didn’t need so many sailors anymore. Initially, much of the war consisted of America’s attempts to take Canada, which any map will show you went smashingly. Americans were confident that the Canadians would rush to join the U.S.; when marching from Detroit, General William Hull informed the Canadians that “You will be emancipated from Tyranny and oppression and restored to the dignified station of free men.” And the Canadians were like, “Yeah, we’re okay actually,” and so the British in Canada, with their Indian allies, went ahead and captured Detroit and then forced Hull’s surrender. America’s lack of success in Canada was primarily attributable to terrible strategy. They might have succeeded if they had taken Montreal, but they didn’t want to march through Northern New York because it was full of Federalists who were opposed to the war. Instead they concentrated on the west, that is, the area around Detroit, where fighting went back and forth. The British found much more success, even seizing Washington DC and burning the White House. In the course of the battle, British Admiral George Cockburn, overseeing the destruction of a newspaper printing house, told the forces that took the city: “Be sure that all the Cs are destroyed, so that the rascals cannot any longer abuse my name.” It ’s hard out there for a Cockburn. Thanks Thought Bubble. Given these problems, it’s amazing there were any American successes, but there were. The battleship U.S.S. Constitution broke the myth of British naval invincibility when cannonballs bounced off it and earned it the nickname “Old Ironsides.” Oliver Hazard Perry defeated a British fleet in, of all places, Lake Erie. At the Battle of the Thames, William Henry Harrison defeated Tecumseh. And the battle of Horseshoe Bend showed one of the reasons why Indians were defeated when Andrew Jackson played one group of Creeks against another group of Creeks and Cherokees. 800 Indians were killed in that battle. And speaking of Jackson, the most notable American victory of the war was the Battle of New Orleans, which catapulted him to prominence. He lost only 71 men while inflicting 2036 British casualties. Of course, the most memorable thing about the battle was that it took place two weeks after the peace treaty ending the war had been signed, but hey, that’s not Jackson’s fault. Again, no twitter. #1815problems The Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war proved just how necessary the war had been. (Not at all.) No territory changed hands –when negotiations started in August 1814 the British asked for northern Maine, demilitarization of the Great Lakes, and some territory to create an independent nation for the Indians in the Northwest. But none of that happened, not because the U.S. was in a particularly good negotiating position, but because it would’ve been awkward for Great Britain to carve out pieces of the U.S. and then tell Russia and Prussia that they couldn’t take pieces of Europe for themselves to celebrate their victory in the Napoleonic Wars. There were no provisions in the treaty about impressment or free trade, and basically the treaty returned everything to the status quo. So neither the U.S. nor Britain actually won, but the Indians, who suffered significant casualties and gave up even more territory, definitely lost. So with a treaty like that, the war must have had negligible impact on American history, right? Except no. The War of 1812 confirmed that the U.S. would exist. Britain would never invade America again. Until 1961. I mean, the U.S. were good customers and Great Britain was happy to let them trade as long as that trade wasn’t helping a French dictator. The war launched Andrew Jackson’s career, and solidified the settlement and conquest of land east of the Mississippi River, and our lack of success in Canada reinforced Canadian nationalism while also ensuring that instead of becoming one great nation, we would forever be Canada’s pants. The war also spelled the end of the Federalist Party, which tried in 1815 with the Hartford Convention to change the Constitution. In retrospect the Hartford Convention proposals actually look pretty reasonable: They wanted to eliminate the clause wherein black people were counted as three fifths of a human, and require a 2/3rds congressional majority to declare war. But because they had their convention right before Jackson’s victory at New Orleans, they only came off looking unpatriotic and out-of-touch, as the elite so often do. It’s hard to argue that Americans really won the War of 1812, but we FELT like we won, and nothing unleashes national pride like war-winning. The nationalistic fervor that emerged in the early 19th century was, like most things, good news for some and bad news for others, but what’s important to remember, regardless of whether you’re an American, is that after 1812, the United States saw itself not just as an independent nation, but as a big player on the world stage. For better and for worse, that’s a gig we’ve held onto. And no matter how you feel about America’s international intervention, you need to remember, it didn’t begin in Afghanistan or even Europe; it started with freaking Canada. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. The script supervisor is Meredith Danko. Our show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer, and myself. Our associate producer is Danica Johnson. And our graphics team is Thought Cafe. If you have questions about today’s video, you can ask them in comments where they will be answered by our team of historians. We also accept suggestions for the libertage captions. Thanks for watching Crash Course, and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome. Goodbye. Don’t forget to subscribe. CCUS11 War of 1812 -

Contents

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 17th Congress (1821–1823)

  • Majority Party: Democratic-Republican (39–43)
  • Minority Party: Federalist (4)
  • Vacant: (3–1)
  • Total Seats: 46–48

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

Composition after the June 13 & 14, 1820 elections in Maine.

DR1 DR2 DR3
DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4
DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR19 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23
Majority → DR24
DR31
Ran
DR30
Ran
DR29
Ran
DR28
Ran
DR27
Ran
V1* V2* DR26 DR25
DR32
Ran
DR33
Unknown
DR34
Unknown
DR35
Retired
F9
Retired
F8
Retired
F7
Unknown
F6
Ran
F5
Ran
F4
F1 F2 F3
Notes:
  • V1 (Mississippi seat): Incumbent Democratic-Republican had resigned May 15, 1820. A Democratic-Republican successor would be elected August 30, 1820 to finish the term and would also be elected to the next term.
  • V2 (Kentucky class 3 seat): Democratic-Republican Senator had resigned May 28, 1820. A Democratic-Republican successor would be elected October 19, 1820.

Beginning of the next Congress

DR1 DR2 DR3
DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4
DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR19 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23
Majority → DR24
DR33
Hold
DR32
Re-elected
DR31
Re-elected
DR30
Re-elected
DR29
Re-elected
DR28
Re-elected
DR27 DR26 DR25
DR34
Hold
DR35
Hold
DR36
Gain
DR37
Gain
DR38
Gain
DR39*
Gain
V1* V2* V3* F4
Re-elected
F1 F2 F3
Notes:
  • DR39 (Rhode Island class 2 seat): Federalist Senator died December 25, 1820, after the elections. A Democratic-Republican successor was elected January 9, 1821.
  • V1 (Delaware seat): Incumbent Federalist retired and a replacement wasn't elected until late in 1822.
  • V2 (Pennsylvania seat): Legislature failed to elect and a replacement wasn't elected until late in 1821.
  • V3 (Tennessee seat): Incumbent Democratic-Republican was re-elected, but not until September 1821. That was after the next Congress started, but before the Senate first convened.
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the preceding Congress

In these special elections, the winner was elected during 1820 or before March 4, 1821; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
New York
Class 3
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect in 1818/1819.
Previous incumbent was elected January 8, 1820.
Federalist gain.
Rufus King (Federalist) Unanimous
Massachusetts
Class 1
Prentiss Mellen Federalist 1820 (Special) Incumbent resigned to become Chief Justice of Maine.
Winner elected June 12, 1820.
Winner was also elected to the next term.
Federalist hold.
Elijah H. Mills (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maine
Class 1
New state Winner elected June 13, 1820.
Winner was also elected to the next term.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Holmes (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maine
Class 2
New state Winner elected June 14, 1820.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Chandler (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Mississippi
Class 1
Walter Leake Democratic-
Republican
1817 Incumbent resigned May 15, 1820.
Winner elected August 30, 1820.
Winner was also elected to the next term.
Democratic-Republican hold.
David Holmes (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky
Class 3
William Logan Democratic-
Republican
1818 or 1819 Incumbent resigned May 28, 1820 to run for Governor of Kentucky.
Winner elected October 19, 1820.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Isham Talbot (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Rhode Island
Class 2
James Burrill, Jr. Federalist 1816 or 1817 Incumbent died December 25, 1820.
Winner elected January 9, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Nehemiah R. Knight (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Races leading to the next Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1821; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut Samuel Dana Federalist 1810 (Special)
1814
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected March 4, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Elijah Boardman (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Delaware Outerbridge Horsey Federalist 1810 (Special)
1815
Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Federalist loss.
A Democratic-Republican was later elected in 1822.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Indiana James Noble Democratic-
Republican
1816 Incumbent re-elected in 1821. James Noble (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maine John Holmes Democratic-
Republican
1820 Incumbent re-elected in 1820. John Holmes (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland William Pinkney Democratic-
Republican
1819 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1820 or 1821. William Pinkney (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Massachusetts Elijah H. Mills Federalist 1820 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1820 or 1821. Elijah H. Mills (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Mississippi David Holmes Democratic-
Republican
1820 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1820 or 1821. David Holmes (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New Jersey James J. Wilson Democratic-
Republican
1814 or 1815 Incumbent lost re-election, then resigned January 8, 1821.
New senator elected November 11, 1820.[1]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Samuel L. Southard (Democratic-Republican) 30[1]
James J. Wilson (Democratic-Republican) 24[1]
New York Nathan Sanford Democratic-
Republican
1809 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 6, 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Martin Van Buren (Democratic-Republican)
Nathan Sanford (Democratic-Republican)
Ohio Benjamin Ruggles Democratic-
Republican
1815 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Benjamin Ruggles (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Pennsylvania Jonathan Roberts Democratic-
Republican
1814 (Special)
1814
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic-Republican loss.
New senator would later be elected in 1821.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Rhode Island William Hunter Federalist 1811 (Special)
1814
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1820 or 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James DeWolf (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Tennessee John H. Eaton Democratic-
Republican
1818 (Appointed)
1819 (Special)
Legislature failed to elect
Democratic-Republican loss.
New senator would later be elected September 27, 1821, see below.[2]
[Data unknown/missing.]
Vermont Isaac Tichenor Federalist 1796
1796
1797 (Resigned)
1814 or 1815
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Horatio Seymour (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Virginia James Barbour Democratic-
Republican
1815 (Special)
1814
Incumbent re-elected in 1821. James Barbour (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Special elections during the next Congress

In this special election, the winner was elected in 1821 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Missouri
Class 1
New state Winner elected August 10, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Thomas H. Benton (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Missouri
Class 3
New state Winner elected August 10, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
David Barton (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Tennessee
Class 1
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner re-elected late September 27, 1821.[2]
Democratic-Republican gain.
John H. Eaton (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Georgia
Class 1
Freeman Walker Democratic-
Republican
1819 (Special) Incumbent resigned August 6, 1821.
Winner elected November 10, 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Nicholas Ware (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Pennsylvania
Class 1
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner elected December 10, 1821.
Democratic-Republican gain.
William Findlay (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "New Jersey 1820 U.S. Senate". A New Nation Votes. Tufts University Digital Collections and Archives. November 11, 1820. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
  2. ^ a b "EATON, John Henry, (1790 - 1856)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
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