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United States Senate elections, 1816 and 1817

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Senate elections, 1816 and 1817

← 1814/15 Dates vary by state 1818/19 →

12 of the 36 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
19 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 26 seats 11 seats
Seats before 23 12
Seats won 9 3
Seats after 25 13
Seat change Increase 2 Increase 1
Seats up 9 2

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1816 and 1817 were elections for the United States Senate that had the Democratic-Republican Party gain a net of two seats from the admission of a new state, and which coincided with the presidential election.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

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Transcription

Professor Dave here, I wanna tell you about James Monroe. Born into the planter class, James Monroe fought in the Revolution under Washington, and saw combat during the disastrous Battle of Long Island, which was the first – and nearly last – major battle of the War. He crossed the Delaware with Washington on Christmas Eve, 1776, and is depicted holding the American flag in John Trumbull’s famous painting, “Washington Crossing the Delaware.” He was wounded the next morning during the Battle of Trenton with a musket ball shot to his shoulder. After studying law under Thomas Jefferson from 1780 to 1783, he served as a delegate in the Continental Congress. As an anti-Federalist delegate to the Virginia convention considering ratification of the new Constitution, Monroe opposed ratification. He claimed it gave too much power to the Federal government. But he took an active part in the new government, and in 1790 he was elected to the Senate of the first United States Congress, where he joined Jefferson’s Democratic-Republicans. He rose to national prominence as a diplomat in France when he negotiated the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. During the War of 1812, Monroe held both the critical roles of Secretary of State and the Secretary of War under President James Madison, the only man ever to hold both positions simultaneously. Facing little opposition from the disorganized Federalist Party, Monroe was easily elected president in 1816, as the Federalist candidate only carried three states. President Monroe bought Florida from Spain for five million dollars, and embarked on a tour of the country that was generally well received. He largely ignored party lines in making appointments to lower posts, which reduced old political tensions. He made two long national tours in 1817 to build national trust, thus inaugurating the “Era of Good Feelings”, which lasted through his administration. With the ratification of the Treaty of 1818, the United States resolved boundary issues with Britain, and the country extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific, giving America harbor and fishing rights in the Pacific Northwest, while jointly occupying the Oregon Country. It represented America’s first determined attempt at creating an “American global empire.” But a dispute over the admission of Missouri to the union embroiled the country in 1820, threatening national unity. On February 3rd, 1819, New York Congressman James Tallmadge Jr. submitted two amendments to Missouri’s request for statehood. The first proposed to federally prohibit further slave migration into Missouri; the second would require all slave offspring, born after statehood, to be freed at 25 years of age. At issue among southern legislators was intrusion by their northern free state colleagues regarding slave labor. Northern critics objected to the expansion of slavery into the Louisiana Purchase territory because of the three-fifths rule, which counted slaves as three-fifths of a person in the states’ population, even though they had no right to vote. The slave-holding states were acutely aware that maintaining a balance between free and slave states was necessary to ensure political equilibrium in the US Senate. With the Senate evenly split, both sections possessing 11 states, the admission of Missouri would give the South a two-seat advantage in the Senate and chip away at the North’s House majority. The South sought to enlist Missouri to maintain Southern political preeminence and ensure the security of slavery. The Missouri question ended in stalemate on March 4th, 1819 as the House sustained the Northern anti-slavery position, while the Senate blocked a slave-restricted Missouri statehood. But when Maine applied for statehood as a free state, the Senate quickly made Maine’s admission a condition for Missouri’s admission as a slave state, with Illinois Senator Jesse B. Thomas adding a provision excluding slavery from all land north of the 36 30’ parallel. The combined measures passed the Senate, but were voted down in the House by Northern representatives who held out for a free Missouri. Speaker of the House Henry Clay of Kentucky, in a desperate bid to break the deadlock, divided the Senate bills. Clay and his allies succeeded in pressuring half the House Southerners to allow the Illinois provision while persuading Northern House members to allow admission of Missouri as a slave state. The Missouri Compromise was passed on March 2nd, 1820. Thus, a national crisis was averted, though only temporarily. The collapse of the Federalists left Monroe with no organized opposition at the end of his first term, and he ran for reelection unopposed, which has never occurred since. A single elector from New Hampshire cast a vote for John Quincy Adams in order to preserve Washington’s legacy as the only recipient of a unanimous Electoral College vote. After the Napoleonic wars ended in 1815, most of Spain and Portugal’s colonies in Latin America revolted and declared independence. Americans welcomed this development as a validation of the spirit of self-governance. However, there was a Russian claim to the Pacific Coast down to the 51st Parallel while European pressures mounted to have Latin America returned to its previous colonial status. On December 2nd, 1823, in his annual report to Congress, Monroe formally announced American opposition to any foreign intervention in the recently independent countries of the Americas, stating that the Americas should be free from future European colonization and free from any foreign interference in sovereign nations’ affairs. He further stated the United States’ intent to stay neutral in European affairs, but also that he would consider any attempts at new colonies or interference with independent nations in the Americas as hostile acts toward the United States. Monroe stated that since stable governments had been established in Argentina, Colombia, Chile, and Mexico, the policy of the United States was to uphold republican institutions, seek treaties of commerce on a most-favored-nation basis with free nations, and oppose any attempts to return them to colonial status. The articulation of an “American system” distinct from that of Europe was a basic tenet of Monroe’s policy toward Latin America and he was proud that the United States was the first nation to recognize the freed colonies in support of “liberty and humanity.” This proclamation became known as the Monroe Doctrine, a landmark in American foreign policy. Although it is Monroe’s most famous contribution to American history, the statement was actually written by his Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams. Monroe and Adams realized that American recognition would not protect the new independent countries from military attempts to restore Spain’s power. Britain proposed that they and the United States jointly declare their opposition to European intervention, as the British also opposed any re-conquest of Latin America and suggested that the US join in proclaiming a “hands off” policy. Ex-presidents Jefferson and Madison urged Monroe to accept the offer, but Adams advised caution, saying it would be better “to avow our principles explicitly to Russia and France, than to come... in the wake of the British man-of-war.” Monroe accepted Adams’ advice and proclaimed that not only must Latin America be left alone, but warned Russia not to encroach southward on the Pacific coast. “The American continents,” he stated, “by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Power.” The Monroe Doctrine held that any future foreign effort to gain further political control in the hemisphere or to violate the independence of existing states would be treated as an act of hostility. It is to Monroe and Adams’ great credit that there have been few serious European attempts at intervention since. Monroe’s presidency was the end of an era; not only was he the last of the Founding Fathers but his Presidency marked the end of the first period of American presidential history. He was the last U.S. President to wear a powdered wig, knee-breeches, and tri-cornered hat, earning him the nickname “Last Cocked Hat.” He was also the last of the Virginia slave holding Founding Fathers. Yet as President, he alone tried to make restitution by providing passage back to the West Coast of Africa for the freed descendants of kidnapped Africans. They founded a new nation named Liberia and named its capital Monrovia in gratitude. Following his retirement in 1825, Monroe died in New York City on July 4th, 1831, becoming the third president to die on Independence Day. His presidency was a tremendous success and historians have rated him highly.

Contents

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 15th Congress (1817–1819)

  • Majority Party: Democratic-Republican (25–28)
  • Minority Party: Federalist (13–12)
  • Total Seats: 38–42

Change in Senate composition

Results of the January 1816 special elections

DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18
Majority → DR19
F9 F10 F11 F12 F13
Gain
DR23
Gain
DR22 DR21 DR20
F8 F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Before the general elections

After the January 1816 special elections.

DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15
Ran
DR16
Unknown
DR17
Unknown
DR18
Unknown
Majority → DR19
Unknown
F9 F10 F11
Ran
F12
Unknown
F13
Unknown
DR23
Resigned
DR22
Resigned
DR21
Resigned
DR20
Retired
F8 F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Results of the general elections

DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15
Hold
DR16
Hold
DR17
Hold
DR18
Hold
Majority → DR19
Hold
F9 F10 F11
Hold
F12
Gain
F13
Gain
V1
DR Loss
DR22
Gain
DR21
Gain
DR20
Hold
F8 F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Results of the later special elections

DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Hold
DR18
Hold
DR19
Hold
Majority → DR20
F10
Hold
F11 F12 F13 V1 DR24
Gain
DR23
Gain
DR22
Hold
DR21
F9 F8 F7 F6 F5
Hold
F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Special elections during the preceding Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1816 or before March 4, 1817; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Virginia
(Class 2)
Vacant William B. Giles (DR) had resigned March 3, 1815.
New senator elected January 3, 1816 on the fourth ballot despite being legally too young to serve.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Armistead Mason (Democratic-Republican) 128 votes
Scattering 33 votes[1]
Maryland
(Class 1)
Vacant The Maryland General Assembly failed to elect in time for the March 4, 1815 beginning of the term.
New senator elected January 29, 1816.
Federalist gain.
Robert Harper (Federalist) 45 votes
John T. Mason (Democratic-Republican) 44 votes[2]
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
Christopher Gore Federalist 1813 (Appointed)
1815 (Special)
Incumbent resigned May 30, 1816, unhappy with the politics of Washington and suffering from poor health.
New senator elected June 12, 1816.
Federalist hold.
Eli P. Ashmun (Federalist) 158 votes
Scattering 137 votes[3]
Georgia
(Class 2)
William Wyatt Bibb Democratic-Republican 1813 (Special) Incumbent resigned November 9, 1816.
New senator elected November 13, 1816.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Democratic-Republican hold.
George M. Troup (Democratic-Republican) 62 votes
Clark 49 votes
Spalding 6 votes[4]
North Carolina
(Class 2)
James Turner Democratic-Republican 1804
1810
Incumbent resigned November 21, 1816 due to ill health.
New senator elected December 4, 1816 on the third ballot.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Montfort Stokes (Democratic-Republican) 98 votes
John Branch 87 votes[5]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
John Taylor Democratic-Republican 1810 (Special)
1810
Incumbent resigned November 1816.
New senator elected December 4, 1816.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William Smith (Federalist) 101 votes
James R. Pringle 51 votes[6]
Kentucky
(Class 2)
Martin D. Hardin Federalist 1814 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee elected December 5, 1816.[7] Martin D. Hardin (Democratic-Republican) 74 votes
Samuel H. Woodson (Democratic-Republican) 31 votes
Norborn B. Beall (Democratic-Republican) 12 votes
Matthew Lyon 2 votes[8]
Indiana
(Class 1)
New seat Indiana was admitted to the Union December 11, 1816.
New senator elected November 8, 1816.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Noble (Democratic-Republican) 265 votes
Waller Taylor (Democratic-Republican) 20 votes
James Scott 16 votes
Jesse L. Holman 3 votes
Ezra Ferris 2 votes
Davis Floyd 2 votes
Walter Wilson 2 votes
Elias MacNamee 1 vote[9]
Indiana
(Class 3)
New seat Indiana was admitted to the Union December 11, 1816.
New senator elected November 8, 1816.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Maryland
(Class 1)
Robert Goodloe Harper Federalist 1816 (Special) Incumbent resigned December 6, 1816.
New senator elected December 20, 1816.
Federalist hold.
Alexander Hanson (Federalist) 46 votes
William H. Winder (Federalist) 39 votes
Scattering (Federalist) 3 votes[10]

Races leading to the next Congress

In these general elections, the winners were seated March 4, 1817; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Delaware William H. Wells Federalist 1799 (Special)
1799
1804 (Resigned)
1813 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 31, 1817 on the third ballot.
Federalist hold.
Nicholas Van Dyke (Federalist) 14 votes
William Hill Wells (Federalist) 11 votes
James Tilton (Democratic-Republican) 1 vote[11]
Georgia William Wyatt Bibb Democratic-Republican 1813 (Special) Resigned November 9, 1816.
New senator elected November 13, 1816 on the second ballot.
Winner was also elected to finish the previous term, see above.
Democratic-Republican hold.
George M. Troup (Democratic-Republican) 62 votes
Clark 49 votes
Spalding 6 votes[4]
Kentucky Martin D. Hardin Federalist 1816 (Appointed)
1816 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected December 10, 1816 on the second ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John J. Crittenden (Democratic-Republican) 72 votes
John Adair (Federalist) 47 votes[12]
Louisiana James Brown Democratic-Republican 1813 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1816 or 1817.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William Claiborne (Democratic-Republican) 27 votes
James Brown 22 votes
Blank 1 vote[13]
Massachusetts Joseph Bradley Varnum Democratic-Republican 1811 Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
New senator elected June 12, 1816.
Federalist gain.
Harrison Gray Otis (Federalist) 183 votes
John Holmes 130 votes
Levi Lincoln Jr. 6 votes
Scattering 5 votes[14]
New Hampshire Thomas W. Thompson Federalist 1814 (Special) Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
New senator elected in 1816 on the third ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
David L. Morrill (Democratic-Republican) 92 votes
John F. Parrott 86 votes
Scattering 5 votes[15]
New Jersey John Condit Democratic-Republican 1809 (Special)
1810
Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
New senator elected January 23, 1817.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Mahlon Dickerson (Democratic-Republican) Unanimous
Unopposed[16]
North Carolina James Turner Democratic-Republican 1804
1810
Resigned November 21, 1816 due to ill health.
New senator elected December 4, 1816 on the second ballot.
Winner was also elected to finish the previous term, see above.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Montfort Stokes (Democratic-Republican) 96 votes
Bartlett Yancey 91 votes
[Data unknown/missing.][17]
Rhode Island Jeremiah Howell Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1816 or 1817.
Federalist gain.
James Burrill, Jr. (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
South Carolina John Taylor Democratic-Republican 1810 (Special)
1810
Incumbent resigned November 1816.
New senator elected December 4, 1816.
Winner was also elected to the previous term, see above.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William Smith (Federalist) 101 votes
James R. Pringle 51 votes[6]
Tennessee John Williams Democratic-Republican 1815 (Special) Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Incumbent was then appointed to start the term.
Democratic-Republican loss.
None.
Virginia Armistead T. Mason Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special) Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election, but he was an unsuccessful candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives.
New senator elected December 9, 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John W. Eppes (Democratic-Republican) 103 votes
John Mercer (Democratic-Republican) 93 votes[18][19]

Special elections during the next Congress

In these special elections, the winners were elected in 1817 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Tennessee
(Class 2)
John Williams Democratic-Republican 1815 (Special) Legislature had failed to elect and the incumbent was then appointed to start the term.
Interim appointee was re-elected October 2, 1817 to finish the term.
John Williams (Democratic-Republican) 51 votes
Unopposed[20]
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Jeremiah Mason Federalist 1813 (Special) Incumbent resigned June 16, 1817.
New senator elected June 27, 1817 on the thirteenth ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Clement Storer (Democratic-Republican)
Jeremiah Smith (Federalist)
"An unfortunate disagreement among some of the members of the House, with regard to a candidate for Senator to Congress, was the occasion of several ballotings before a choice could be made. The Hon. CLEMENT STORER, was however, elected by the unanimous voice of the Republican members of the Senate, which vote was concurred by the House, on Thursday, by a plurality of eleven votes."[21]
"The ballotings for a Senator to Congress, (after 13 trials, in which 33 persons were voted for) resulted in the choice of the Hon. CLEMENT STORER, by a majority of 8 or 10." Farmer's Cabinet (Amherst, NH). July 5, 1817.[21]
Vermont
(Class 3)
Dudley Chase Democratic-Republican 1812 Resgined November 3, 1817.
New senator elected November 4, 1817.
Democratic-Republican hold.
James Fisk (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Mississippi
(Class 1)
New state Mississippi was admitted as a new state.
New senator elected December 10, 1817.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Walter Leake (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Mississippi
(Class 2)
New state Mississippi was admitted as a new state.
New senator elected December 10, 1817.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Thomas Williams (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Virginia 1816 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 4". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
  2. ^ "Maryland 1816 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  3. ^ "Massachusetts 1816 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 19, 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Georgia 1816 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  5. ^ "North Carolina 1816 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  6. ^ a b "South Carolina 1816 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  7. ^ Byrd, page 110.
  8. ^ "Kentucky 1816 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  9. ^ "Indiana 1816 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  10. ^ "Maryland 1816 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  11. ^ "Delaware 1817 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
  12. ^ "Kentucky 1816 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  13. ^ "Louisiana 1817 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
  14. ^ "Massachusetts 1816 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 19, 2018.
  15. ^ "New Hampshire 1816 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
  16. ^ "New Jersey 1817 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  17. ^ "North Carolina 1816 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  18. ^ "VA US Senate". Our Campaigns. January 11, 2008. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
  19. ^ "Virginia 1816 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
  20. ^ "Tennessee 1817 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  21. ^ a b "New Hampshire 1817 U.S. Senate, Ballot 13". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved May 17, 2018.

References

This page was last edited on 15 November 2018, at 19:53
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