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United States Senate elections, 1812 and 1813

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Senate elections, 1812 and 1813

← 1810/11 Dates vary by state 1814/15 →

12 of the 36 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
19 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 27 seats 7 seats
Seats before 30 6
Seats won 8 4
Seats after 28 8
Seat change Decrease 2 Increase 2
Seats up 10 2

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1812 and 1813 were elections that, coinciding with President James Madison's re-election, had the Democratic-Republican Party lose two seats but still retain an overwhelming majority in the United States Senate. As in recent elections, the minority Federalists had gone into the elections with such a small share of Senate seats (6 out of 36, or 16.7%) that if they had won every one of the elections, they would still not have controlled a majority.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

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Transcription

CCUS 11 – War of 1812 Hi, I’m John Green. This is Crash Course U.S. history and today we’re gonna talk about what America’s best at: War. (Libertage.) Uh, Mr. Green, the United States has actually only declared war 5 times in the last 230 years. Oh, Me from the Past, you sniveling literalist. Well, today we’re gonna talk about America’s first declared war, the War of 1812, so called because historians are terrible at naming things. I mean, they could’ve called it the Revolutionary War Part Deux, or the Canadian Cataclysm, or the War to Facilitate Future Wars. But no. They just named it after the year it started. Intro I know this disappoints the military historians among you, but as usual we’re gonna spend more time talking about the causes and effects of the war than the actual, like, killing parts, because ultimately it’s the ambiguity of the War of 1812 that makes it so interesting. The reason most often given for the War of 1812 was the British impressment of American sailors, whereby American sailors would be kidnapped and basically forced into British servitude. This disrupted American shipping. It also seems like a reasonably obvious violation of American sovereignty, but it’s a little more complicated than that. First of all, there were many thousands of British sailors working aboard American ships, so many of the sailors that the British captured were in fact British —which gets to the larger point that citizenship at the time was a pretty slippery concept, especially on the high seas, like papers were often forged and many sailors identified their supposed American-ness through tattoos of, like, Eagles and Flags. And there were several reasons why a British sailor might want to become or pretend to be an American, including that the Brits at the time were fighting Napoleon in what historians, in their infinite creativity, called the Napoleonic Wars. And on that topic, Britain’s impressment policy allowed them both to disrupt American shipping to France and to get new British sailors to strengthen their war effort, which was annoying to the Americans on a couple levels, especially the French loving Republicans, which is a phrase that you don’t hear very often anymore. Another reason often given for the war was America’s crazy conspiratorial Anglophobia. There was even a widespread rumor that British agents were buying up Connecticut sheep in order to sabotage the textile industry! Lest you worry that America’s fascination with conspiracy theories is new. So those pushing for war were known as War Hawks, and the most famous among them was Kentucky’s Henry Clay. They took the impressment of sailors as an affront to American national honor, but they also complained that Britain’s actions were an affront to free trade, by which they meant America’s ability to trade with Europeans other than Great Britain. And, to be fair, the British WERE trying to regulate American trade. They even passed the Orders in Council, which required American ships to dock in Britain and pay tax before trading with other European nations. Britain, we were an independent nation! You can’t do that kind of stuff. We have a special relationship. It’s not that special. But the problem with saying this caused the war is that the Orders had been in effect for 5 years before the war started AND they were rescinded in 1812 before the U.S. declared war, although admittedly we didn’t know about it because it didn’t reach us until after we declared war...there was no Twitter. Another reason for the war was Canada. That’s right, Canada. Americans wanted you, Canada, and who can blame them, with your excellent health care and your hockey and your first-rate national anthem. Stan, this is fun, but enough with the #1812problems. According to Virginia Congressman John Randolph “Agrarian cupidity, not maritime rights urges the war. We have heard but one word … Canada!, Canada!, Canada!” I’m not here to criticize you, John Randolph, but that’s actually three words. Now, some historians disagree with this, but the relentless pursuit of new land certainly fits in with the Jeffersonian model of an agrarian republic. And there’s another factor that figured into America’s decision to go to war: expansion into territory controlled by Native Americans. Oh it’s time for the Mystery Document? The rules here are simple. I try to guess the author of the Mystery Document, usually I’m wrong and I get shocked. Alright, let’s see what we’ve got here. “You want, by your distinctions of Indian tribes, in allotting to each a particular tract of land, to make them to war with each other. You never see an Indian come and endeavor to make the white people do so.” It’s Tecumseh. DROP THE MIC. Is something that I would do except that the mic is actually attached to my shirt, so...there’s no drama in this. It’s clearly a Native American criticism of white people. And I happen to know that that particular one comes from Tecumseh. And I don’t get shocked today! So, it shouldn’t come as a surprise that Americans were continuing to push westward into territory where Indians were living. I mean, this was a big reason for the Louisiana Purchase, after all. By the beginning of the war, more than 400,000 settlers had moved into territories west of the original 13 colonies, and they outnumbered American Indians by a significant margin. Some Native groups responded with a measure of assimilation. Cherokees like John Ross wanted to become more “civilized,” that is more white and farmer-y, and some of them did even adopt such civilized practices as written languages, and slavery. The most civilized practice of all. People are always like, “Why aren’t you more celebratory of American history?” Well, why isn’t there more to celebrate? But, other Indians wanted to resist. The best known of these were the aforementioned Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa – Stan, can you just put it on the screen? Yes, let’s just enjoy looking at that. Right, that’s just for all you visual learners. So he was also known as the Prophet because of his religious teachings (and also because of the pronunciation issues). The Prophet encouraged Indians, especially those living in and around the settlement of Prophetstown, to abandon the ways of the whites, primarily in the form of alcohol and manufactured consumer goods. So stop drinking alcohol and eating refined sugars. This guy sounds like my doctor. Tecumseh was more militant, attempting to revive Neolin’s idea of pan-Indianism and actively resisting white settlement. As he put it. “Sell a country, Why not sell the air, the great sea, as well as the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them all for the use of his children?” The Americans responded to this reasonable criticism in the traditional manner: with guns. William Henry Harrison destroyed the natives’ settlement at Prophetstown in what would become known as the Battle of Tippecanoe. And he would later ride that fame all the way to the presidency in 1840 and then spoiler alert he would give the longest inauguration address ever, catch a cold, and die 40 days later. Let that be a lesson to you, American politicians. Long speeches: fatal. So, I’ve just painted a pretty negative picture of the Americans’ treatment of the Indians, because it was awful, but I haven’t mentioned how this relates to the War of 1812. The Americans were receiving reports that the British were encouraging Tecumseh, which they probably were. And the important thing to remember here is that the War of 1812, like the 7 Years War and the American Revolution, was also a war against Indians, and as in those other two wars, the Indians were the biggest losers. And not in the cool way of the Biggest Loser where, like, Trainer Bob helps you lose weight, but in the really sad way where your entire civilization gets John C. Calhoun-ed. So, the War of 1812 was the first time that the United States declared war on anybody. It was also the smallest margin of a declaration of war vote, 79-49 in the House and 19-13 in the Senate. Northern states which relied on trade a lot didn’t want to go to war while Southern and Western states, which were more agrarian and wanted expansion to get land for farming – and slavery – did. The closeness of the vote reflects a profound ambivalence about the war. As Henry Adams wrote: “Many nations have gone to war in pure gaiety of the heart, but perhaps the United States were the first to force themselves into a war they dreaded, in the hope that the war itself might create the spirit they lacked.” Don’t worry, Henry Adams, in the future, we’re gonna get pretty gaiety-of-heart-ish about war. Anyway as an actual war, the War of 1812 was something of a farce. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. The U.S. army numbered 10 to 12 thousand and its officers were “sunk into either sloth, ignorance, or habits of intemperate drinking.” The U.S. Navy had 17 ships; Great Britain had 1000. Also, America had very little money; Britain collected 40 times more tax revenue than the U.S But Britain was busy fighting Napoleon, which is why they didn’t really start kicking America’s butt until 1814 after Napoleon was defeated. Napoleon’s defeat was also the end of the practice of impressment since Britain didn’t need so many sailors anymore. Initially, much of the war consisted of America’s attempts to take Canada, which any map will show you went smashingly. Americans were confident that the Canadians would rush to join the U.S.; when marching from Detroit, General William Hull informed the Canadians that “You will be emancipated from Tyranny and oppression and restored to the dignified station of free men.” And the Canadians were like, “Yeah, we’re okay actually,” and so the British in Canada, with their Indian allies, went ahead and captured Detroit and then forced Hull’s surrender. America’s lack of success in Canada was primarily attributable to terrible strategy. They might have succeeded if they had taken Montreal, but they didn’t want to march through Northern New York because it was full of Federalists who were opposed to the war. Instead they concentrated on the west, that is, the area around Detroit, where fighting went back and forth. The British found much more success, even seizing Washington DC and burning the White House. In the course of the battle, British Admiral George Cockburn, overseeing the destruction of a newspaper printing house, told the forces that took the city: “Be sure that all the Cs are destroyed, so that the rascals cannot any longer abuse my name.” It ’s hard out there for a Cockburn. Thanks Thought Bubble. Given these problems, it’s amazing there were any American successes, but there were. The battleship U.S.S. Constitution broke the myth of British naval invincibility when cannonballs bounced off it and earned it the nickname “Old Ironsides.” Oliver Hazard Perry defeated a British fleet in, of all places, Lake Erie. At the Battle of the Thames, William Henry Harrison defeated Tecumseh. And the battle of Horseshoe Bend showed one of the reasons why Indians were defeated when Andrew Jackson played one group of Creeks against another group of Creeks and Cherokees. 800 Indians were killed in that battle. And speaking of Jackson, the most notable American victory of the war was the Battle of New Orleans, which catapulted him to prominence. He lost only 71 men while inflicting 2036 British casualties. Of course, the most memorable thing about the battle was that it took place two weeks after the peace treaty ending the war had been signed, but hey, that’s not Jackson’s fault. Again, no twitter. #1815problems The Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war proved just how necessary the war had been. (Not at all.) No territory changed hands –when negotiations started in August 1814 the British asked for northern Maine, demilitarization of the Great Lakes, and some territory to create an independent nation for the Indians in the Northwest. But none of that happened, not because the U.S. was in a particularly good negotiating position, but because it would’ve been awkward for Great Britain to carve out pieces of the U.S. and then tell Russia and Prussia that they couldn’t take pieces of Europe for themselves to celebrate their victory in the Napoleonic Wars. There were no provisions in the treaty about impressment or free trade, and basically the treaty returned everything to the status quo. So neither the U.S. nor Britain actually won, but the Indians, who suffered significant casualties and gave up even more territory, definitely lost. So with a treaty like that, the war must have had negligible impact on American history, right? Except no. The War of 1812 confirmed that the U.S. would exist. Britain would never invade America again. Until 1961. I mean, the U.S. were good customers and Great Britain was happy to let them trade as long as that trade wasn’t helping a French dictator. The war launched Andrew Jackson’s career, and solidified the settlement and conquest of land east of the Mississippi River, and our lack of success in Canada reinforced Canadian nationalism while also ensuring that instead of becoming one great nation, we would forever be Canada’s pants. The war also spelled the end of the Federalist Party, which tried in 1815 with the Hartford Convention to change the Constitution. In retrospect the Hartford Convention proposals actually look pretty reasonable: They wanted to eliminate the clause wherein black people were counted as three fifths of a human, and require a 2/3rds congressional majority to declare war. But because they had their convention right before Jackson’s victory at New Orleans, they only came off looking unpatriotic and out-of-touch, as the elite so often do. It’s hard to argue that Americans really won the War of 1812, but we FELT like we won, and nothing unleashes national pride like war-winning. The nationalistic fervor that emerged in the early 19th century was, like most things, good news for some and bad news for others, but what’s important to remember, regardless of whether you’re an American, is that after 1812, the United States saw itself not just as an independent nation, but as a big player on the world stage. For better and for worse, that’s a gig we’ve held onto. And no matter how you feel about America’s international intervention, you need to remember, it didn’t begin in Afghanistan or even Europe; it started with freaking Canada. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. The script supervisor is Meredith Danko. Our show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer, and myself. Our associate producer is Danica Johnson. And our graphics team is Thought Cafe. If you have questions about today’s video, you can ask them in comments where they will be answered by our team of historians. We also accept suggestions for the libertage captions. Thanks for watching Crash Course, and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome. Goodbye. Don’t forget to subscribe. CCUS11 War of 1812 -

Contents

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

Composition after September 1812 elections in the new state of Louisiana.

DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18
Majority → DR19
DR28
Retired
DR27
Retired
DR26
Retired
DR25
Retired
DR24
Unknown
DR23
Unknown
DR22
Ran
DR21
Ran
DR20
Ran
DR29
Retired
F7
Ran
F6
Ran
F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Result of the elections

DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18
Majority → DR19
V1
DR Loss
DR27
Hold
DR26
Re-elected
DR25
Re-elected
DR24
Hold
DR23
Hold
DR22
Hold
DR21
Hold
DR20
Hold
V2
F Loss
F6
Gain
F5
Re-elected
F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Special elections during the 12th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1812 or before March 4, 1813; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Louisiana
(Class 3)
New seat Louisiana was admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812.
Inaugural senator elected September 3, 1812.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Allan Magruder (Democratic-Republican)
Jean Destréhan (Democratic-Republican)
James Brown 16
Eligius Fromentin 5
Livingston 3[1]
Louisiana
(Class 2)
New seat Louisiana was admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812.
Inaugural senator elected September 3, 1812.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Thomas Posey Democratic-
Republican
1812 (Appointed) Jean Destréhan had resigned October 1, 1812 without having qualified.
Interim successor appointed October 8, 1812.
Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected February 4, 1813 on the second ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
James Brown (Democratic-Republican) 26
Thomas Posey (Democratic-Republican) 14
F. Skipwith Eliminated[2]

Races leading to the 13th Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1813 (except where noted due to late election); ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut Chauncey Goodrich Federalist 1807 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1813. Chauncey Goodrich (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Georgia Charles Tait Democratic-
Republican
1809 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1813. Charles Tait (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky John Pope Democratic-
Republican
1806 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 12, 1813 on the third ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Jesse Bledsoe (Democratic-Republican) 56
Stephen Ormsby 51
Anthony Butler Eliminated
Isham Talbot Eliminated[3]
Louisiana Allan B. Magruder Democratic-
Republican
1812 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Eligius Fromentin (Democratic-Republican) 25
Thomas Posey 13
Richard Butler 6
Blank[4]
Maryland Philip Reed Democratic-
Republican
1806 (Special)
1806
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic-Republican loss.
[Data unknown/missing.]
New Hampshire Charles Cutts Federalist 1810 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect after 12 ballots.
Federalist loss.
Jedediah Kilburn Smith 89
John Goddard 83
Charles Cutts (Federalist) 3
David L. Morril 1[5]
New York John Smith Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Special)
1807
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 2, 1813.
Federalist gain.
Rufus King (Federalist) 51.5%
James W. Wilkin (Democratic-Republican) 46.2%
John Smith (Democratic-Republican) 2.3%[6]
North Carolina Jesse Franklin Democratic-
Republican
1799
1804 (Lost)
1806
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1812.
Democratic-Republican hold.
David Stone (Democratic-Republican) 100
A.D. Murphy (Democratic-Republican) 83
Thomas Davis (Democratic-Republican) 12[7]
Ohio Alexander Campbell Democratic-
Republican
1809 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected February 6, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Jeremiah Morrow (Democratic-Republican) 63
Calvin Pease 18[8]
Pennsylvania Andrew Gregg Democratic-
Republican
1806 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected December 8, 1812.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Abner Lacock (Democratic-Republican) 63
Daniel Montgomery, Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 26
James Brady (Independent) 22
Isaac Weaver (Democratic-Republican) 6
Not voting 5[9]
South Carolina John Gaillard Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Special)
1806
Incumbent re-elected. John Gaillard (Democratic-Republican) 118
Henry Middleton 37
James Gowdy 1[10]
Vermont Stephen R. Bradley Democratic-
Republican
1791
1795 (Lost)
1801 (Special)
1806
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected October 21, 1812.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Dudley Chase (Democratic-Republican)
Royall Tyler (Democratic-Republican) 94
Scattering 4[11]

Special elections during the 13th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated in 1813 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
James Lloyd (F) Federalist 1808 (Special)
1809
Resigned May 1, 1813.
New senator elected May 5, 1813.
Federalist hold.
Christopher Gore (Federalist) 381
William King 10
Scattering 102[12]
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Chauncey Goodrich Federalist 1807 (Special)
1812
Incumbent resigned May 13, 1813 to become Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut.
New senator elected May 13, 1813.
Federalist hold.
David Daggett (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland
(Class 3)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
New senator elected May 21, 1813.
Federalist gain.
Robert Henry Goldsborough (Federalist) 53
Edward Lloyd (Democratic-Republican) 35[13]
Delaware
(Class 2)
James A. Bayard Federalist 1804 (Special)
1805
1811
Resigned March 3, 1813.
New senator elected May 21, 1813.
Federalist hold.
William H. Wells (Federalist) 14
George Monro (Democratic-Republican) 10
Richard Bassett (Federalist) 1[14]
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Charles Cutts Federalist 1810 (Special)
1813 (Appointed)
Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected June 10, 1813 on the second ballot.
Federalist hold.
Jeremiah Mason (Federalist) 129
Charles Cutts (Federalist) 39
John Goddard Eliminated
Scattering 4[15]
Georgia
(Class 2)
William Bulloch Democratic-
Republican
1813 (Appointed) Unknown if interim appointee retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected November 6, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William Wyatt Bibb (Democratic-Republican) 79
J. Macintosh 39[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Louisiana 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 22, 2018., citing American Watchman; and Delaware Republican (Wilmington, DE). October 14, 1812.
  2. ^ "Louisiana 1812 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 22, 2018., citing The Louisiana Gazette and New-Orleans Advertiser (New Orleans, LA). December 3, 1812.
  3. ^ "Kentucky 1813 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 22, 2018., citing Muskingum Messenger (Zanesville, OH). January 27, 1813.
  4. ^ "Louisiana 1813 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Courrier de la Louisiane (New Orleans, LA). January 22, 1813.
  5. ^ "New Hampshire 1812 U.S. Senate, Ballot 12". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Concord Gazette (Concord, NH). December 29, 1812.
  6. ^ "NY US Senate". Our Campaigns. August 8, 2012. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  7. ^ "North Carolina 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing The Star (Raleigh, NC). December 11, 1812.
  8. ^ Taylor, William A. (1900). Ohio in Congress from 1803 to 1901 with Notes and Sketches of Senators and Representatives and Other Historical Data and Incidents. Columbus, Ohio: The XX. Century Publishing Co. p. 98 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ "Pennsylvania 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Journal of the Pennsylvania State Senate, 1812. 41-43.
  10. ^ "South Carolina 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing City Gazette and Commercial Advertiser (Charleston, SC). December 10, 1812.
  11. ^ "Vermont 1812 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Columbian Phenix: or, Providence Patriot (Providence, RI). October 31, 1812.
  12. ^ "Massachusetts 1813 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing The Virginia Patriot (Richmond, VA). June 11, 1813.
  13. ^ "Maryland 1813 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Republican Star or Eastern Shore General Advertiser (Easton, MD). May 25, 1813.
  14. ^ "Delaware 1813 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware State Senate, 1813. 12.
  15. ^ "New Hampshire 1813 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Portsmouth Oracle (Portsmouth, NH). June 12, 1813.
  16. ^ "Georgia 1813 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 23, 2018., citing Liberty Hall (Cincinnati, OH). December 14, 1813.

External links

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