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1872 and 1873 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Senate elections, 1872 and 1873

← 1870/71 Dates vary by state
(And other dates for special elections)
1874/75 →

24 of the 74 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
38 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
Party Republican Democratic Liberal Republican
Last election 58 seats 9 seats 0 seats
Seats before 56 17 1
Seats won 18 5 0
Seats after 54 19 0
Seat change Decrease 2 Increase 2 Decrease 1
Seats up 20 3 1

Majority Party before election

Republican Party

Elected Majority Party

Republican Party

The United States Senate elections of 1872 and 1873 were elections which had the Republican Party, while still retaining a commanding majority, lose two seats in the United States Senate. By the beginning of the Congress, however, they'd lost three more: two as defections to the Liberal Republican Party, and one a resignation of Henry Wilson to become U.S. Vice President. These elections also coincided with President Ulysses S. Grant's easy re-election.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Reconstruction and 1876: Crash Course US History #22
  • ✪ 25. The "End" of Reconstruction: Disputed Election of 1876, and the "Compromise of 1877"
  • ✪ Hiram Rhodes Revels - First African American US Senator
  • ✪ Illinois in the Gilded Age, 1866-1896: The Chicago Fire, 1869-1872
  • ✪ Illinois in the Gilded Age, 1866-1896: 1893 Chicago's World Fair, 1892-1895

Transcription

Episode 21: Reconstruction Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course U.S. History and huzzah! The Civil War is over! The slaves are free! Huzzah! That one hit me in the head? It’s very dangerous, Crash Course. So when you say, “Don’t aim at a person,” that includes myself? The roller coaster only goes up from here, my friends. Huzzah! Mr. Green, Mr. Green, what about the epic failure of Reconstruction? Oh, right. Stupid Reconstruction always ruining everything intro So after the Civil War ended, the United States had to reintegrate both a formerly slave population and a formerly rebellious population back into the country, which is a challenge that we might’ve met, except Abraham Lincoln was assassinated and we were left with Andrew “I am the Third Worst President Ever” Johnson. I’m sorry, Abe, but you don’t get to be in the show anymore. So, Lincoln’s whole post-war idea was to facilitate reunion and reconciliation, and Andrew Johnson’s guiding Reconstruction principle was that the South never had a right to secede in the first place. Also, because he was himself a Southerner, he resented all the elites in the South who had snubbed him, AND he was also a racist who didn’t think that blacks should have any role in Reconstruction. TRIFECTA! So between 1865 and 1867, the so-called period of Presidential Reconstruction, Johnson appointed provisional governors and ordered them to call state conventions to establish new all-white governments. And in their 100% whiteness and oppression of former slaves, those new governments looked suspiciously like the old confederate governments they had replaced. And what was changing for the former slaves? Well, in some ways, a lot. Like, Fiske and Howard universities were established, as well as many primary and secondary schools, thanks in part to The Freedman’s Bureau, which only lasted until 1870, but had the power to divide up confiscated and abandoned confederate land for former slaves. And this was very important because to most slaves, land ownership was the key to freedom, and many felt like they’d been promised land by the Union Army. Like, General Sherman’s Field Order 15, promised to distribute land in 40 acre plots to former slaves. But that didn’t happen, either through the Freedman’s Bureau or anywhere else. Instead, President Johnson ordered all land returned to its former owners. So the South remained largely agricultural with the same people owning the same land, and in the end, we ended up with sharecropping. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. The system of sharecropping replaced slavery in many places throughout the South. Landowners would provide housing to the sharecroppers--no, Thought Bubble, not quite that nice. There ya go--also tools and seed, and then the sharecroppers received, get this, a share of their crop--usually between a third and a half, with the price for that harvest often set by the landowner. Freed blacks got to control their work, and plantation owners got a steady workforce that couldn’t easily leave, because they had little opportunity to save money and make the big capital investments in, like, land or tools. By the late 1860s, poor white farmers were sharecropping as well--in fact, by the Great Depression, most sharecroppers were white. And while sharecropping certainly wasn’t slavery, it did result in a quasi-serfdom that tied workers to land they didn’t own--more or less the opposite of Jefferson’s ideal of the small, independent farmer. So, the Republicans in Congress weren’t happy that this reconstructed south looked so much like the pre-Civil War south, so they took the lead in reconstruction after 1867. Radical Republicans felt the war had been fought for equal rights and wanted to see the powers of the national government expanded. Few were as radical as Thaddeus “Tommy Lee Jones” Stephens who wanted to take away land from the Southern planters and give it to the former slaves, but rank-and-file Republicans were radical enough to pass the Civil Rights Bill, which defined persons born in the United States as citizens and established nationwide equality before the law regardless of race. Andrew Johnson immediately vetoed the law, claiming that trying to protect the rights of African Americans amounted to discrimination against white people, which so infuriated Republicans that Congress did something it had never done before in all of American history. They overrode the Presidential veto with a 2/3rds majority and the Civil Rights Act became law. So then Congress really had its dander up and decided to amend the Constitution with the 14th amendment, which defines citizenship, guarantees equal protection, and extends the rights in the Bill of Rights to all the states (sort of). The amendment had almost no Democratic support, but it also didn’t need any, because there were almost no Democrats in Congress on account of how Congress had refused to seat the representatives from the “new” all-white governments that Johnson supported. And that’s how we got the 14th amendment, arguably the most important in the whole Constitution. Thanks, Thought Bubble. Oh, straight to the mystery document today? Alright. The rules here are simple. I guess the author of the Mystery Document and try not to get shocked. Alright let’s see what we’ve got today. Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the police jury of the parish of St. Landry, That no negro shall be allowed to pass within the limits of said parish without special permit in writing from his employer. Sec. 4. . . . Every negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person, or former owner, who shall be held responsible for the conduct of said negro.. Sec. 6. . . . No negro shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people, without a special permission in writing from the president of the police jury. . . . Gee, Stan, I wonder if the President of the Police Jury was white. I actually know this one. It is a Black Code, which was basically legal codes where they just replaced the word “slave” with the word “negro.” And this code shows just how unwilling white governments were to ensure the rights of new, free citizens. I would celebrate not getting shocked, but now I am depressed. So, okay, in 1867, again over Johnson’s veto, Congress passed the Reconstruction Act, which divided the south into 5 military districts and required each state to create a new government, one that included participation of black men. Those new governments had to ratify the 14th amendment if they wanted to get back into the union. Radical Reconstruction had begun. So, in 1868, Andrew Johnson was about as electable in the U.S. as Jefferson Davis, and sure enough he didn’t win. Instead, the 1868 election was won by Republican and former Union general Ulysses S. Grant. But Grant’s margin of victory was small enough that Republicans were like, “Man, we would sure win more elections if black people could vote.” Which is something you hear Republicans say all the time these days. So Congressional Republicans pushed the 15th Amendment, which prohibited states from denying men the right to vote based on race, but not based on gender or literacy or whether your grandfather could vote. So states ended up with a lot of leeway when it came to denying the franchise to African Americans, which of course they did. So here we have the federal government dictating who can vote, and who is and isn’t a citizen of a state, and establishing equality under the law--even local laws. And this is a really big deal in American history, because the national government became, rather than a threat to individual liberty, “the custodian of freedom,” as Radical Republican Charles Sumner put it. So but with this legal protection, former slaves began to exercise their rights. They participated in the political process by direct action, such as staging sit-ins to integrate street-cars, by voting in elections, and by holding office. Most African Americans were Republicans at the time, and because they could vote and were a large part of the population, the Republican party came to dominate politics in the South, just like today, except totally different. Now, Southern mythology about the age of radical Reconstruction is exemplified by Gone with the Wind, which of course tells the story of northern Republican dominance and corruption by southern Republicans. Fortune seeking northern carpetbaggers, seen here, as well as southern turncoat scalawags dominated politics and all of the African American elected leaders were either corrupt or puppets or both. Yeah, well, like the rest of Gone with the Wind, that’s a bit of an oversimplification. There were about 2,000 African Americans who held office during Reconstruction, and the vast majority of them were not corrupt. Consider for example the not-corrupt and amazingly-named Pinckney B.S. Pinchback, who from 1872 to 1873 served very briefly in Louisiana as America’s first black governor. And went on to be a senator and a member of the House of Representatives. By the way, America’s second African American governor, Douglas Wilder of Virginia was elected in 1989. Having African American officeholders was a huge step forward in term of ensuring the rights of African Americans because it meant that there would be black juries and less discrimination in state and local governments when it came to providing basic services. But in the end, Republican governments failed in the South. There were important achievements, especially a school system that, while segregated, did attempt to educate both black and white children. And even more importantly, they created a functioning government where both white and African American citizens could participate. According to one white South Carolina lawyer, “We have gone through one of the most remarkable changes in our relations to each other that has been known, perhaps, in the history of the world.” That’s a little hyperbolic, but we are America after all. (libertage) It’s true that corruption was widespread, but it was in the North, too. I mean, we’re talking about governments. And that’s not why Reconstruction really ended: It ended because 1. things like schools and road repair cost money, which meant taxes, which made Republican governments very unpopular because Americans hate taxes, and 2. White southerners could not accept African Americans exercising basic civil rights, holding office or voting. And for many, the best way to return things to the way they were before reconstruction was through violence. Especially after 1867, much of the violence directed toward African Americans in the South was politically motivated. The Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1866 and it quickly became a terrorist organization, targeting Republicans, both black and white, beating and murdering men and women in order to intimidate them and keep them from voting. The worst act of violence was probably the massacre at Colfax, Louisiana where hundreds of former slaves were murdered. And between intimidation and emerging discriminatory voting laws, fewer black men voted, which allowed white Democrats to take control of state governments in the south, and returned white Democratic congressional delegations to Washington. These white southern politicians called themselves “Redeemers” because they claimed to have redeemed the south from northern republican corruption and black rule. Now, it’s likely that the South would have fallen back into Democratic hands eventually, but the process was aided by Northern Republicans losing interest in Reconstruction. In 1873, the U.S. fell into yet another not-quite-Great economic depression and northerners lost the stomach to fight for the rights of black people in the south, which in addition to being hard was expensive. So by 1876 the supporters of reconstruction were in full retreat and the Democrats were resurgent, especially in the south. And this set up one of the most contentious elections in American history. The Democrats nominated New York Governor (and NYU Law School graduate) Samuel Tilden. The Republicans chose Ohio governor (and Kenyon College alumnus) Rutherford B. Hayes. One man who’d gone to Crash Course writer Raoul Meyer’s law school. And another who’d gone to my college, Kenyon. Now, if the election had been based on facial hair, as elections should be, there would’ve been no controversy, but sadly we have an electoral college here in the United States, and in 1876 there were disputed electoral votes in South Carolina, Louisiana, and, of course, Florida. Now you might remember that in these situations, there is a constitutional provision that says Congress should decide the winner, but Congress, shockingly, proved unable to accomplish something. So they appointed a 15 man Electoral Commission--a Super-Committee, if you will. And there were 8 Republicans on that committee and 7 Democrats, so you will never guess who won. Kenyon College’s own Rutherford B. Hayes. Go Lords and Ladies! And yes, that is our mascot. Shut up. Anyway in order to get the Presidency and win the support of the supercommittee, Hayes’ people agreed to cede control of the South to the Democrats and to stop meddling in Southern affairs and also to build a transcontinental railroad through Texas. This is called the Bargain of 1877 because historians are so good at naming things and it basically killed Reconstruction. Without any more federal troops in Southern states and with control of Southern legislatures firmly in the hands of white democrats the states were free to go back to restricting the freedom of black people, which they did. Legislatures passed Jim Crow laws that limited African American’s access to public accommodations and legal protections. States passed laws that took away black people’s right to vote and social and economic mobility among African Americans in the south declined precipitously. However, for a brief moment, the United States was more democratic than it had ever been before. And an entire segment of the population that had no impact on politics before was now allowed to participate. And for the freedmen who lived through it, that was a monumental change, and it would echo down to the Civil Rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s, sometimes called the second reconstruction. But we’re gonna end this episode on a downer, as we are wont to do here at Crash Course US History because I want to point out a lesser-known legacy of Reconstruction. The Reconstruction amendments and laws that were passed granted former slaves political freedom and rights, especially the vote, and that was critical. But to give them what they really wanted and needed, plots of land that would make them economically independent, would have required confiscation, and that violation of property rights was too much for all but the most radical Republicans. And that question of what it really means to be “free” in a system of free market capitalism has proven very complicated indeed. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The associate producer is Danica Johnson. The show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer, and myself. And our graphics team is Thought Café. Every week there’s a new caption for the libertage. You can suggest those in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thank you for watching Crash Course. Don’t forget to subscribe. And as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome. reconstruction -

Contents

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 43rd Congress (1873–1875)

  • Majority Party: Republican (50–51)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (19–20)
  • Other Parties: Liberal Republican (3–2)
  • Vacant: (2–1)
  • Total Seats: 74

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

After the January 30, 1872 special election in North Carolina.

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15
Ran
D16
Unknown
D17
Unknown
R48
Unknown
R49
Unknown
R50
Unknown
R51
Retired
R52
Retired
R53
Retired
R54
Retired
R55
Retired
R56
Resigned
LR1
Retired
R47
Ran
R46
Ran
R45
Ran
R44
Ran
R43
Ran
R42
Ran
R41
Ran
R40
Ran
R39
Ran
R38
Ran
Majority →
R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36 R37
Ran
R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18
R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17
R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

Result of the elections

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15
Hold
D16
Hold
D17
Hold
R48
Hold
R49
Hold
R50
Hold
R51
Hold
R52
Hold
R53
Gain
LR1
Re-elected, new party
V1
R Loss
D19
Gain
D18
Gain
R47
Hold
R46
Hold
R45
Hold
R44
Hold
R43
Re-elected
R42
Re-elected
R41
Re-elected
R40
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R38
Re-elected
Majority → R37
Re-elected
R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36
R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18
R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17
R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

Beginning of the next Congress

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17
R48 R49 R50 LR1 LR2
Changed
LR3
Changed
V1 V2
Resigned
D19 D18
R47 R46 R45 R44 R43 R42 R41 R40 R39 R38
Majority → R37
R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36
R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18
R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17
R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1
Key:
D# Democratic
LR# Liberal Republican
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Special elections during the 42nd Congress

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1872 or in 1873 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
North Carolina
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner elected January 30, 1872.
Democratic gain.
Matt W. Ransom (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky
(Class 3)
Willis B. Machen Democratic 1872 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 21, 1873 to finish the term. Willis B. Machen (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Louisiana William P. Kellogg Republican 1868 Incumbent resigned November 1, 1872 to become Governor of Louisiana.
The seat remained vacant for the remainder of the term.
The seat also remained vacant until January 12, 1876, due to a Senate dispute, see below.[1]
Republican loss.
Pinckney B. S. Pinchback (Republican)
William L. McMillen (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Races leading to the 43rd Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1873; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama George E. Spencer Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1872.
Arkansas Benjamin F. Rice Republican 1868 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1872 or 1873.
Republican hold.
California Cornelius Cole Republican 1866 or 1867 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1872 or 1873.
Republican hold.
Connecticut Orris S. Ferry Republican 1866 Incumbent re-elected May 15, 1872 in a different party.
Liberal Republican gain.
Florida Thomas W. Osborn Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1872 or 1873.
Republican hold.
Georgia Joshua Hill Republican 1867 (Won but not seated)
1871 (Admitted)
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1873.
Democratic gain.
Illinois Lyman Trumbull Liberal Republican 1855
1861
1867
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 20, 1873.
Republican gain.
Iowa James Harlan Republican 1855
1857 (Election invalidated)
1857 (Special)
1860
1865 (Resigned)
1866
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected January 17, 1872.[4]
Republican hold.
Indiana Oliver P. Morton Republican 1867 Incumbent re-elected in 1873.
Kansas Samuel C. Pomeroy Republican 1861
1867
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1873.
Republican hold.
Kentucky Willis B. Machen Democratic 1872 (Appointed)
1873 (Special)
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1872.
Democratic hold.
Louisiana Vacant Predecessor had resigned November 1, 1872 to become Governor of Louisiana.
The seat remained vacant for the remainder of the term, see above.
The seat also remained vacant until January 12, 1876, due to a Senate dispute.[1]
Pinckney B. S. Pinchback (Republican)
William L. McMillen (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland George Vickers Democratic 1868 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1872 or in 1873.
Democratic hold.
Missouri Francis Blair Democratic 1871 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1872 or 1873.
Democratic hold.
Nevada James W. Nye Republican 1865
1867
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1873.
Republican hold.
New Hampshire James W. Patterson Republican 1866 or 1867 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected in 1872.
Republican hold.
New York Roscoe Conkling Republican 1867 Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1873.
North Carolina John Pool Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1872.
Democratic gain.
Ohio John Sherman Republican 1861 (Special)
1866
Incumbent re-elected in 1872.
Oregon Henry W. Corbett Republican 1866 or 1867 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1872.
Republican hold.
Pennsylvania Simon Cameron Republican 1867 Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1873.
South Carolina Frederick A. Sawyer Republican 1868 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1872 or 1873.
Republican hold.
Vermont Justin S. Morrill Republican 1866 Incumbent re-elected in 1872.
Wisconsin Timothy O. Howe Republican 1861
1866
Incumbent re-elected in 1872.

Elections during the 43rd Congress

In this election, the winner was elected in 1873 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Henry Wilson Republican 1855 (Special)
1859
1865
1871
Incumbent resigned.
Winner elected March 17, 1873.
Republican hold.
George S. Boutwell (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
California
(Class 1)
Eugene Casserly Democratic 1868 Incumbent resigned.
Winner elected December 23, 1873.
Democratic hold.
John S. Hager (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Complete list of races

New York

The New York election was held January 21, 1873.[5] Republican Roscoe Conkling had been elected in January 1867 to this seat, and his term would expire on March 3, 1873.

At the State election in November 1871, 21 Republicans and 11 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1872-1873) in the State Senate. In 1872, a faction of the Republican Party opposed the re-election of President Ulysses S. Grant and the Radical Republicans who supported him, and under the name Liberal Republican Party nominated a joint ticket with the Democratic Party. At the State election in November 1872, 91 Republicans, 35 Democrats and 2 Independents were elected for the session of 1873 to the Assembly. The 96th New York State Legislature met from January 7 to May 30, 1873, at Albany, New York.

The caucus of Republican State legislators met on January 8, State Senator William B. Woodin, of Auburn (25th D.), presided. 18 state senators and 88 assemblymen were present. They re-nominated Conkling unanimously. The caucus of the Democratic State legislators nominated Ex-First Judge of Dutchess County Charles Wheaton.

Roscoe Conkling was the choice of both the Assembly and the State Senate, and was declared elected.

House Republican Democratic Republican Liberal Republican
State Senate
(32 members)
Roscoe Conkling 20 Charles A. Wheaton[6] 5 William M. Evarts 1 Henry R. Selden 1
State Assembly
(128 members)
Roscoe Conkling 92 Charles A. Wheaton 26        

Note: The vote for Ex-U.S. Attorney General William M. Evarts was cast by Norman M. Allen (32nd D.), the vote for Ex-Judge of the New York Court of Appeals Henry R. Selden by Gabriel T. Harrower (27th D.). Allen, Harrower and Abiah W. Palmer (11th D.) were the three Liberal Republicans in the State Senate.

Pennsylvania

The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives and the Pennsylvania State Senate, voted on January 21, 1873. Incumbent Republican Simon Cameron, who was elected in 1867, won re-election.[7]

State Legislature Results[7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Simon Cameron (Inc.) 76 57.14
Democratic William A. Wallace 50 37.59
Liberal Republican Thomas Marshall 1 0.75
Democratic Hendrick Wright 1 0.75
N/A Not voting 5 3.76
Totals 133 100.00%

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Taft, et al., pages 483–512
  2. ^ "CT US Senate". OurCampaigns.com. May 25, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2019., citing The Journal of the House of Representatives of Connecticut 1872.
  3. ^ "Our Campaigns - IL US Senate Race - Jan 20, 1873". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  4. ^ Clark, page 167
  5. ^ Although the votes were cast on January 21, both Houses met in a joint session on January 22 to compare nominations, and declare the result.
  6. ^ Charles A. Wheaton (1834-1886), lawyer, of Poughkeepsie, First Judge of the Dutchess County Court 1863-67
  7. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 21 January 1873" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
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