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United States Senate elections, 1878 and 1879

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Senate elections, 1878 and 1879

← 1876/77 Dates vary by state
(And other dates for special elections)
1880/81 →

26 of the 76 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
39 seats needed for a majority

  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic Republican
Seats before 36 38
Seats won 14 10
Seats after 42 31
Seat change Increase 6 Decrease 7
Seats up 8 17

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Anti-Monopoly Independent
Seats before 1 1
Seats won 0 0
Seats after 1 1
Seat change Steady Steady
Seats up 0 0

Majority Party before election

Republican

Elected Majority Party

Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1878 and 1879 were elections which had the Democratic Party retake control of the United States Senate for the first time since before the Civil War.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Reconstruction and 1876: Crash Course US History #22
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Transcription

Episode 21: Reconstruction Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course U.S. History and huzzah! The Civil War is over! The slaves are free! Huzzah! That one hit me in the head? It’s very dangerous, Crash Course. So when you say, “Don’t aim at a person,” that includes myself? The roller coaster only goes up from here, my friends. Huzzah! Mr. Green, Mr. Green, what about the epic failure of Reconstruction? Oh, right. Stupid Reconstruction always ruining everything intro So after the Civil War ended, the United States had to reintegrate both a formerly slave population and a formerly rebellious population back into the country, which is a challenge that we might’ve met, except Abraham Lincoln was assassinated and we were left with Andrew “I am the Third Worst President Ever” Johnson. I’m sorry, Abe, but you don’t get to be in the show anymore. So, Lincoln’s whole post-war idea was to facilitate reunion and reconciliation, and Andrew Johnson’s guiding Reconstruction principle was that the South never had a right to secede in the first place. Also, because he was himself a Southerner, he resented all the elites in the South who had snubbed him, AND he was also a racist who didn’t think that blacks should have any role in Reconstruction. TRIFECTA! So between 1865 and 1867, the so-called period of Presidential Reconstruction, Johnson appointed provisional governors and ordered them to call state conventions to establish new all-white governments. And in their 100% whiteness and oppression of former slaves, those new governments looked suspiciously like the old confederate governments they had replaced. And what was changing for the former slaves? Well, in some ways, a lot. Like, Fiske and Howard universities were established, as well as many primary and secondary schools, thanks in part to The Freedman’s Bureau, which only lasted until 1870, but had the power to divide up confiscated and abandoned confederate land for former slaves. And this was very important because to most slaves, land ownership was the key to freedom, and many felt like they’d been promised land by the Union Army. Like, General Sherman’s Field Order 15, promised to distribute land in 40 acre plots to former slaves. But that didn’t happen, either through the Freedman’s Bureau or anywhere else. Instead, President Johnson ordered all land returned to its former owners. So the South remained largely agricultural with the same people owning the same land, and in the end, we ended up with sharecropping. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. The system of sharecropping replaced slavery in many places throughout the South. Landowners would provide housing to the sharecroppers--no, Thought Bubble, not quite that nice. There ya go--also tools and seed, and then the sharecroppers received, get this, a share of their crop--usually between a third and a half, with the price for that harvest often set by the landowner. Freed blacks got to control their work, and plantation owners got a steady workforce that couldn’t easily leave, because they had little opportunity to save money and make the big capital investments in, like, land or tools. By the late 1860s, poor white farmers were sharecropping as well--in fact, by the Great Depression, most sharecroppers were white. And while sharecropping certainly wasn’t slavery, it did result in a quasi-serfdom that tied workers to land they didn’t own--more or less the opposite of Jefferson’s ideal of the small, independent farmer. So, the Republicans in Congress weren’t happy that this reconstructed south looked so much like the pre-Civil War south, so they took the lead in reconstruction after 1867. Radical Republicans felt the war had been fought for equal rights and wanted to see the powers of the national government expanded. Few were as radical as Thaddeus “Tommy Lee Jones” Stephens who wanted to take away land from the Southern planters and give it to the former slaves, but rank-and-file Republicans were radical enough to pass the Civil Rights Bill, which defined persons born in the United States as citizens and established nationwide equality before the law regardless of race. Andrew Johnson immediately vetoed the law, claiming that trying to protect the rights of African Americans amounted to discrimination against white people, which so infuriated Republicans that Congress did something it had never done before in all of American history. They overrode the Presidential veto with a 2/3rds majority and the Civil Rights Act became law. So then Congress really had its dander up and decided to amend the Constitution with the 14th amendment, which defines citizenship, guarantees equal protection, and extends the rights in the Bill of Rights to all the states (sort of). The amendment had almost no Democratic support, but it also didn’t need any, because there were almost no Democrats in Congress on account of how Congress had refused to seat the representatives from the “new” all-white governments that Johnson supported. And that’s how we got the 14th amendment, arguably the most important in the whole Constitution. Thanks, Thought Bubble. Oh, straight to the mystery document today? Alright. The rules here are simple. I guess the author of the Mystery Document and try not to get shocked. Alright let’s see what we’ve got today. Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the police jury of the parish of St. Landry, That no negro shall be allowed to pass within the limits of said parish without special permit in writing from his employer. Sec. 4. . . . Every negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person, or former owner, who shall be held responsible for the conduct of said negro.. Sec. 6. . . . No negro shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people, without a special permission in writing from the president of the police jury. . . . Gee, Stan, I wonder if the President of the Police Jury was white. I actually know this one. It is a Black Code, which was basically legal codes where they just replaced the word “slave” with the word “negro.” And this code shows just how unwilling white governments were to ensure the rights of new, free citizens. I would celebrate not getting shocked, but now I am depressed. So, okay, in 1867, again over Johnson’s veto, Congress passed the Reconstruction Act, which divided the south into 5 military districts and required each state to create a new government, one that included participation of black men. Those new governments had to ratify the 14th amendment if they wanted to get back into the union. Radical Reconstruction had begun. So, in 1868, Andrew Johnson was about as electable in the U.S. as Jefferson Davis, and sure enough he didn’t win. Instead, the 1868 election was won by Republican and former Union general Ulysses S. Grant. But Grant’s margin of victory was small enough that Republicans were like, “Man, we would sure win more elections if black people could vote.” Which is something you hear Republicans say all the time these days. So Congressional Republicans pushed the 15th Amendment, which prohibited states from denying men the right to vote based on race, but not based on gender or literacy or whether your grandfather could vote. So states ended up with a lot of leeway when it came to denying the franchise to African Americans, which of course they did. So here we have the federal government dictating who can vote, and who is and isn’t a citizen of a state, and establishing equality under the law--even local laws. And this is a really big deal in American history, because the national government became, rather than a threat to individual liberty, “the custodian of freedom,” as Radical Republican Charles Sumner put it. So but with this legal protection, former slaves began to exercise their rights. They participated in the political process by direct action, such as staging sit-ins to integrate street-cars, by voting in elections, and by holding office. Most African Americans were Republicans at the time, and because they could vote and were a large part of the population, the Republican party came to dominate politics in the South, just like today, except totally different. Now, Southern mythology about the age of radical Reconstruction is exemplified by Gone with the Wind, which of course tells the story of northern Republican dominance and corruption by southern Republicans. Fortune seeking northern carpetbaggers, seen here, as well as southern turncoat scalawags dominated politics and all of the African American elected leaders were either corrupt or puppets or both. Yeah, well, like the rest of Gone with the Wind, that’s a bit of an oversimplification. There were about 2,000 African Americans who held office during Reconstruction, and the vast majority of them were not corrupt. Consider for example the not-corrupt and amazingly-named Pinckney B.S. Pinchback, who from 1872 to 1873 served very briefly in Louisiana as America’s first black governor. And went on to be a senator and a member of the House of Representatives. By the way, America’s second African American governor, Douglas Wilder of Virginia was elected in 1989. Having African American officeholders was a huge step forward in term of ensuring the rights of African Americans because it meant that there would be black juries and less discrimination in state and local governments when it came to providing basic services. But in the end, Republican governments failed in the South. There were important achievements, especially a school system that, while segregated, did attempt to educate both black and white children. And even more importantly, they created a functioning government where both white and African American citizens could participate. According to one white South Carolina lawyer, “We have gone through one of the most remarkable changes in our relations to each other that has been known, perhaps, in the history of the world.” That’s a little hyperbolic, but we are America after all. (libertage) It’s true that corruption was widespread, but it was in the North, too. I mean, we’re talking about governments. And that’s not why Reconstruction really ended: It ended because 1. things like schools and road repair cost money, which meant taxes, which made Republican governments very unpopular because Americans hate taxes, and 2. White southerners could not accept African Americans exercising basic civil rights, holding office or voting. And for many, the best way to return things to the way they were before reconstruction was through violence. Especially after 1867, much of the violence directed toward African Americans in the South was politically motivated. The Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1866 and it quickly became a terrorist organization, targeting Republicans, both black and white, beating and murdering men and women in order to intimidate them and keep them from voting. The worst act of violence was probably the massacre at Colfax, Louisiana where hundreds of former slaves were murdered. And between intimidation and emerging discriminatory voting laws, fewer black men voted, which allowed white Democrats to take control of state governments in the south, and returned white Democratic congressional delegations to Washington. These white southern politicians called themselves “Redeemers” because they claimed to have redeemed the south from northern republican corruption and black rule. Now, it’s likely that the South would have fallen back into Democratic hands eventually, but the process was aided by Northern Republicans losing interest in Reconstruction. In 1873, the U.S. fell into yet another not-quite-Great economic depression and northerners lost the stomach to fight for the rights of black people in the south, which in addition to being hard was expensive. So by 1876 the supporters of reconstruction were in full retreat and the Democrats were resurgent, especially in the south. And this set up one of the most contentious elections in American history. The Democrats nominated New York Governor (and NYU Law School graduate) Samuel Tilden. The Republicans chose Ohio governor (and Kenyon College alumnus) Rutherford B. Hayes. One man who’d gone to Crash Course writer Raoul Meyer’s law school. And another who’d gone to my college, Kenyon. Now, if the election had been based on facial hair, as elections should be, there would’ve been no controversy, but sadly we have an electoral college here in the United States, and in 1876 there were disputed electoral votes in South Carolina, Louisiana, and, of course, Florida. Now you might remember that in these situations, there is a constitutional provision that says Congress should decide the winner, but Congress, shockingly, proved unable to accomplish something. So they appointed a 15 man Electoral Commission--a Super-Committee, if you will. And there were 8 Republicans on that committee and 7 Democrats, so you will never guess who won. Kenyon College’s own Rutherford B. Hayes. Go Lords and Ladies! And yes, that is our mascot. Shut up. Anyway in order to get the Presidency and win the support of the supercommittee, Hayes’ people agreed to cede control of the South to the Democrats and to stop meddling in Southern affairs and also to build a transcontinental railroad through Texas. This is called the Bargain of 1877 because historians are so good at naming things and it basically killed Reconstruction. Without any more federal troops in Southern states and with control of Southern legislatures firmly in the hands of white democrats the states were free to go back to restricting the freedom of black people, which they did. Legislatures passed Jim Crow laws that limited African American’s access to public accommodations and legal protections. States passed laws that took away black people’s right to vote and social and economic mobility among African Americans in the south declined precipitously. However, for a brief moment, the United States was more democratic than it had ever been before. And an entire segment of the population that had no impact on politics before was now allowed to participate. And for the freedmen who lived through it, that was a monumental change, and it would echo down to the Civil Rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s, sometimes called the second reconstruction. But we’re gonna end this episode on a downer, as we are wont to do here at Crash Course US History because I want to point out a lesser-known legacy of Reconstruction. The Reconstruction amendments and laws that were passed granted former slaves political freedom and rights, especially the vote, and that was critical. But to give them what they really wanted and needed, plots of land that would make them economically independent, would have required confiscation, and that violation of property rights was too much for all but the most radical Republicans. And that question of what it really means to be “free” in a system of free market capitalism has proven very complicated indeed. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The associate producer is Danica Johnson. The show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer, and myself. And our graphics team is Thought Café. Every week there’s a new caption for the libertage. You can suggest those in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thank you for watching Crash Course. Don’t forget to subscribe. And as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome. reconstruction -

Contents

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 46th Congress (1879–1881)

  • Majority Party: Democratic (42)
  • Minority Party: Republican (31)
  • Other Parties: Independent (1), Anti-Monopoly (1)
  • Total Seats: 76

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28 D27 D26 D25 D24 D23 D22 D21 D20 D19
D29
Ran
D30
Ran
D31
Ran
D32
Ran
D33
Unknown
D34
Unknown
D35
Retired
D36
Retired
AM1 I1
Plurality → R38
Retired
R29
Unknown
R30
Unknown
R31
Retired
R32
Retired
R33
Retired
R34
Retired
R35
Retired
R36
Retired
R37
Retired
R28
Ran
R27
Ran
R26
Ran
R25
Ran
R24
Ran
R23
Ran
R22
Ran
R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

After the elections

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28 D27 D26 D25 D24 D23 D22 D21 D20 D19
D29
Re-elected
D30
Re-elected
D31
Hold
D32
Hold
D33
Hold
D34
Hold
D35
Hold
D36
Gain
D37
Gain
D38
Gain
Majority → D39
Gain
R29
Hold
R30
Hold
R31
Gain
V1
R loss
AM1 I1 D42
Gain
D41
Gain
D40
Gain
R28
Hold
R27
Re-elected
R26
Re-elected
R25
Re-elected
R24
Re-elected
R23
Re-elected
R22
Re-elected
R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1
Key:
AM# Anti-Monopoly Party
D# Democratic
I# Independent
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Special elections during the 45th Congress

In these elections, the winners were seated in 1879 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Missouri
(Class 3)
David H. Armstrong Democratic 1877 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when successor elected.
Winner elected January 27, 1879.
Democratic hold.
Winner did not run for the next term, see below.
James Shields (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Indiana
(Class 3)
Daniel W. Voorhees Democratic 1877 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 31, 1879.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Daniel W. Voorhees (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Michigan
(Class 1)
Isaac P. Christiancy Republican 1874 Incumbent resigned February 10, 1879 due to ill health.
Winner elected February 22, 1879.
Republican hold.
Zachariah Chandler (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Races leading to the 46th Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1885; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama George E. Spencer Republican 1868 (Special)
1872
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in August 1878.
Democratic gain.
George S. Houston (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Arkansas Stephen W. Dorsey Republican 1872 or 1873 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1878.
Democratic gain.
James D. Walker (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
California Aaron A. Sargent Republican 1872 or 1873 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1878.
Democratic gain.
James T. Farley (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Colorado Jerome B. Chaffee Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1879.
Republican hold.
Nathaniel P. Hill (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Connecticut William Henry Barnum Democratic 1876 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1879.
Republican gain.
Orville H. Platt (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Florida Simon B. Conover Republican 1872 or 1873 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 21, 1879.[1]
Democratic gain.
Wilkinson Call (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Georgia John Brown Gordon Democratic 1873 Incumbent re-elected in 1879. John Brown Gordon (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Illinois Richard J. Oglesby Republican 1872 or 1873 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1879.
Republican hold.
John A. Logan (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Indiana Daniel W. Voorhees Democratic 1877 (Appointed)
1879 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1879. Daniel W. Voorhees (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Iowa William B. Allison Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected January 23, 1878.[2] William B. Allison (Republican) 104 votes
Daniel F. Miller (Republican) 35 votes
E. N. Gates 3 votes[2]
Kansas John Ingalls Republican 1873 Incumbent re-elected in 1879. John Ingalls (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky Thomas C. McCreery Democratic 1872 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1879.
Democratic hold.
John Stuart Williams (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Louisiana James B. Eustis Democratic 1876 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1879.
Democratic hold.
Benjamin F. Jonas (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland George R. Dennis Democratic 1872 or 1873 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1878 or in 1879.
Democratic hold.
James Black Groome (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Missouri James Shields Democratic Illinois:
—1848 or 1849
—1849 (Election voided)
1849 (Special)
—1855 (Lost)
Minnesota:
1858
—1859 (Lost)
Missouri:
1879 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1879.
Democratic hold.
George G. Vest (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Nevada John P. Jones Republican 1873 Incumbent re-elected in 1879. John P. Jones (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New Hampshire Bainbridge Wadleigh Republican 1872 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
[Data unknown/missing.]
New York Roscoe Conkling Republican 1867
1873
Incumbent re-elected January 22, 1879. Roscoe Conkling (Republican)
William Dorsheimer (Democratic)
Peter Cooper (Greenback)
North Carolina Augustus Merrimon Democratic 1872 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1879.
Democratic hold.
Zebulon Vance (Democratic)
Augustus Merrimon (Democratic)
Ohio Stanley Matthews Republican 1877 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1878 or 1879.
Democratic gain.
George H. Pendleton (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Oregon John H. Mitchell Republican 1872 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1878 or 1879.
Democratic gain.
James H. Slater (Democratic)
John H. Mitchell (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Pennsylvania J. Donald Cameron Republican 1877 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 20, 1879. J. Donald Cameron (Republican) 53.78%
Hiester Clymer (Democratic) 36.65%
Daniel Agnew (Greenback) 6.37%
Edward McPherson (Republican) 1.20%
Russell Thayer (Republican) 0.40%
Galusha A. Grow (Republican) 0.40%
South Carolina John J. Patterson Republican 1872 or 1873 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1878.
Democratic gain.
Wade Hampton III (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Vermont Justin S. Morrill Republican 1866
1872
Incumbent re-elected in 1878. Justin S. Morrill (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Wisconsin Timothy O. Howe Republican 1861
1866
1872
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected January 22, 1879.[3]
Republican hold.
Matthew H. Carpenter (Republican)
Timothy O. Howe (Republican)
Elisha W. Keyes (Republican)

Elections during the 46th Congress

In this election, the winner was elected in 1879 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Charles H. Bell Republican 1879 (Appointed) Legislature had failed to elect, see above.
Interim appointee retired when successor elected.
Winner elected June 17, 1879.
Republican hold.
Henry W. Blair (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Complete list of elections

New York

In New York, the election was held on January 21, 1879, by the New York State Legislature. Republican Roscoe Conkling had been re-elected in January 1873 to this seat, and his term would expire on March 3, 1879. At the State election in November 1877, 19 Republicans and 13 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1878-1879) in the State Senate. At the State election in November 1878, 97 Republicans, 28 Democrats and 3 Greenbackers were elected for the session of 1879 to the Assembly, and Republican Thomas Murphy was elected to fill the vacancy in the State Senate caused by the death of Democrat John Morrissey. The 102nd New York State Legislature met from January 7 to May 22, 1879, at Albany, New York.

The caucus of Republican State legislators met on January 20, Temporary President of the State Senate William H. Robertson presided. Present were all Republican legislators except State Senator Louis S. Goebel[4] (6th D.) and Assemblyman James W. Wadsworth. They re-nominated the incumbent U.S. Senator Conkling unanimously. The caucus of the Democratic State legislators met also on January 20. State Senator Thomas C. E. Ecclesine (8th D.) offered to adopt a prostest against the senatorial election proceedings, claiming that the senatorial and assembly districts were incorrectly apportioned and thus the State Legislature did not represent the wish of the people of the State. The protest was substituted by a resolution to appoint a committee which would elaborate an address on the apportionment at a later date. Ecclesine then marched out, and the remaining legislators nominated Lieutenant Governor William Dorsheimer for the U.S. Senate.

1879 Democratic caucus for United States Senator result
Candidate First ballot Second ballot
William Dorsheimer 11 18
James F. Starbuck 8 8
DeWitt C. West[5] 8 6
Elijah Ward 2

The two Greenback assemblymen John Banfield (Chemung Co.) and George E. Williams (Oswego Co.) voted for 87-year-old Peter Cooper, a New York City inventor, industrialist and philanthropist who had run for U.S. President in 1876 on the Greenback ticket.

Roscoe Conkling was the choice of both the Assembly and the State Senate, and was declared elected.

1879 United States Senator election result
  Republican Democrat Greenback
State Senate
(32 members)
Roscoe Conkling 20 William Dorsheimer 12
State Assembly
(128 members)
Roscoe Conkling 95 William Dorsheimer 23 Peter Cooper 2

Note: The votes were cast on January 21, but both Houses met in a joint session on January 22 to compare nominations, and declare the result.

Pennsylvania

In Pennsylvania, the election was held January 20, 1879. J. Donald Cameron was re-elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[6]

After Sen. Simon Cameron resigned from office, his son J. Donald Cameron was elected by the General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, in 1877 to serve the remainder of the unexpired term, which was to expire on March 4, 1879. The Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on January 20, 1879, to elect a Senator to serve the term beginning on March 4, 1879. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican J. Donald Cameron (Inc.) 135 53.78
Democratic Hiester Clymer 92 36.65
Greenback Daniel Agnew 16 6.37
Republican Edward McPherson 3 1.20
Republican Russell Thayer 1 0.40
Republican Galusha A. Grow 1 0.40
N/A Not voting 3 1.20
Totals 251 100.00%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "THE FLORIDA SENATORSHIP". The New York Times. January 22, 1879. p. 1.
  2. ^ a b Clark, p. 185.
  3. ^ Thompson, p. 262.
  4. ^ State Senator Goebel refused to caucus with any of the parties, but voted for Conkling at the election.
  5. ^ DeWitt Clinton West (1824-1880), of Lowville, assemblyman 1853
  6. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 20 January 1879" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013.

References

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