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1886 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1886 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1884 November 2, 1886[Note 1] 1888 →

All 325 seats to the United States House of Representatives
163 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
John Griffin Carlisle, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg
Thomas Brackett Reed - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader John G. Carlisle Thomas Brackett Reed
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Kentucky-6th Maine-1st
Last election 183 seats[Note 2] 141 seats
Seats won 167[1] 154[1][Note 3]
Seat change Decrease 16 Increase 13

  Third party Fourth party
 
HenrySmithLaborPartyCongressmanMilwaukee.png
James Weaver - Brady-Handy (cropped).jpg
Leader Henry Smith James B. Weaver
Party Labor Greenback
Leader's seat Wisconsin-4th Iowa-6th
Last election 0 seats 1 seat
Seats won 2[1] 1[1]
Seat change Increase 2 Steady

House050ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1886 elections for 50th Congress

Speaker before election

John G. Carlisle
Democratic

Elected Speaker

John G. Carlisle
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1886 for Representatives to the 50th Congress, taking place in the middle of President Grover Cleveland's first term.

As in many midterm elections, Cleveland's Democratic Party lost seats to the opposition Republican Party, although a narrow majority was retained. Many of these Republican pickups were in the industrializing Midwest states, where the debate over tariffs, which were advocated by Republicans to protect domestic industry but opposed by Democrats to allow for free agricultural trade, led to political change. The small Labor Party, supported by industrial workers, gained one seat each in Virginia (VA-06) and Wisconsin (WI-04), while the Greenback Party maintained its one seat in Iowa (James B. Weaver of IA-06). John Nichols was also elected as an Independent to NC-04.

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Transcription

>> Well, okay, let's go back to the 14th Amendment. Congress passes it. It's got to go out to three-quarters, it's got to be ratified by three-quarters of the states. The 14th Amendment becomes the issue, you might say, in the congressional elections of 1866. In that year, in that summer, fall, Andrew Johnson, unlike other presidents, takes a leading role in supporting candidates, mostly Democrats, who are in favor of his Reconstruction policy. He tries to form a new political coalition. He has something called the National Union Convention. But very few Republicans are willing to go with him. Most of the people now backing Johnson are Democrats, North and South. Johnson's effort to mobilize support in the North is injured by riots, race riots that break out in the South in the summer of 1866, leading to scores of deaths of African Americans, and of some white people, too. In Memphis, there's the Memphis riot which leads to 50 deaths, virtually all blacks, in a kind of an attack on black homes and black schools. Even worse, the New Orleans riot in the summer of 1866. These are images of the New Orleans riot. People, often police, shooting at black people. The inside of the convention hall. What happened in New Orleans was, if you remember when I was talking about Louisiana in the Civil War, the Reconstruction of Louisiana in the Civil War. They had this constitutional convention, it abolished slavery, didn't give any rights to blacks, but it said it, it authorized the president of the convention to reconvene if desired. And in 1866, with Confederates, basically in control of Louisiana, the old constitutional convention tries to reconvene. And the meeting of that leads to a riot where armed whites are assaulting the building, including the local police now allied with these, you know, ex-Confederates. And something like 40 people are killed, several hundred wounded. And again, the image of the South in Northern eyes that these riots portray, is one -- you know, that they are not willing to accept the results of the Civil War, that there is this violence against African Americans. Local authorities are not willing to do anything about it. The army has to be sent in to put down the violence. And these things really undermine whatever support there was for Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction policy. Johnson breaks with tradition and goes into the North campaigning for congressional candidates who will support his policy. This is unprecedented. The so called "swing around the circle." He travels all around the North, support -- But it turns into an utter disaster. Johnson starts exchanging epithets with people in the audience. People yell things out at him. He starts yelling curses back at them. [laughter] Bantering with the crowd. He's not very dignified as a president, so to speak. He tells the Northern people they're ignorant, they don't really know what's going on in Congress. He becomes more and more self-pitying. He starts comparing himself with Jesus Christ, saying people want kill -- he's willing to sacrifice himself for the nation. [laughter] And by the time the swing around the circle is over, whatever support Johnson had has evaporated. Here's an image of an anti-Johnson, here's an image of, someone wrote on a placard of Johnson, you see, "I am king," and put a little crown on his head. This is a Democratic cartoon. It's from the governor's election in California. This is the Republican candidate for Governor, I believe. But this is overt use of racism in the campaign. It's kind of hard to see. I think it's reproduced in my book, I can't remember. You've got the governor and you've got a black -- this is negro suffrage and what's to come -- you've got the governor, you've got a black guy, on top of him is a Chinese, on top of him is sort of a Native American, you see, with an arrow. And then someone is bringing along a monkey, saying, well, if these guys can vote, let's give monkeys the right to vote. So this is, you see, the absolute overt racism as, you know, the critique of the Radical policy of black -- black suffrage will lead to all these other disasters if followed. Well, the result of the elections, of course, is that the Republicans sweep to way beyond two-thirds control of both houses of Congress, rendering Johnson totally irrelevant. And this leaves the question of the 14th Amendment up in the air, because to get three-quarters of the states, some Southern states are going to have to ratify the 14th Amendment. There are a few leading Southerners, one guy we'll talk about next week, James Alcorn, one of the leading planters of Mississippi, says, you know, it looks like the Northern public actually doesn't support Andrew Johnson, and we better really be prudent here. Why don't we ratify the 14th Amendment. Because Congress had said, if the South ratifies the 14th Amendment, Southern states, they can come back into the Union. And Alcorn says, let's do that, we really have no alternative. But most Southern leaders say, absolutely not, the 14th Amendment is a complete violation of all our liberties. And so, legislature after legislature in the South rejects the 14th Amendment, by overwhelming majorities. In the South Carolina legislature, only one member votes in favor of ratification. In Georgia, only two. The whole South, only 20 or 30, where 700 or 800 legislators vote against it. And they are egged on by Democrats in the North, and they're egged on by Johnson. Johnson keeps saying, don't ratify the 14th Amendment, and they'll never enact black suffrage. He keeps telling the South, don't worry, don't worry. Of course, it happens, two months after he starts saying this, it does happen. And so he's completely out of touch with political reality by this time.

Contents

Election summaries

State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 8 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas District 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District 6 2 Increase 1 4 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Colorado At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 10 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 20 6 Decrease 4 14 Increase 4 0 Steady
Indiana District 13 6 Decrease 3 7 Increase 3 0 Steady
Iowa District 11 1 Decrease 2 9[Note 4] Increase 2 1[Note 5] Steady
Kansas District 7 0 Steady 7[Note 4] Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 8 Decrease 2 3 Increase 2 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 6 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Maine[Note 6] District 4 0 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 5 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 12 4 Increase 2 8 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Michigan District 11 5 Decrease 2 6 Increase 2 0 Steady
Minnesota District 5 3 Increase 3 2 Decrease 3 0 Steady
Mississippi District 7 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 14 12 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Nebraska District 3 1 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 1 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
New Jersey District 7 2 Decrease 1 5 Increase 1 0 Steady
New York District 34 16 Decrease 1 18 Increase 1 0 Steady
North Carolina District 9 7 Decrease 1 1 Steady 1[Note 7] Increase 1
Ohio District 21 6 Decrease 5 15 Increase 5 0 Steady
Oregon[Note 6] At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+ at-large
28 8 Steady 20 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 7 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 8 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Texas District 11 11 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont[Note 6] District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 10 3 Decrease 5 6 Increase 5 1[Note 8] Increase 1
West Virginia District 4 3 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 9 1 Decrease 1 7 Steady 1[Note 8] Increase 1
Total 325 167[1]
51.4%
Decrease 16 154[1][Note 3]
47.4%
Increase13 4[1]
1.2%
Increase 3
House seats
Democratic
51.38%
Republican
47.38%
Labor
0.62%
Greenback
0.31%
Others
0.31%

There were 2 Labor Party and 1 Independent members elected, and 1 Greenback Party member re-elected in Iowa. The previous election saw just the Greenback elected.

167 2 1 1 2 152
Democratic La I Gb IR Republican
  House seats by party holding plurality in state     80+% – 100% Democratic    80+% – 100% Republican     60+% – 80% Democratic    60+% – 80% Republican     Up to 60% Democratic    Up to 60% Republican
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% – 100% Democratic
  80+% – 100% Republican
  60+% – 80% Democratic
  60+% – 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
  Net gain in party representation     6+ Democratic gain       6+ Republican gain     3-5 Democratic gain       3-5 Republican gain     1-2 Democratic gain    1-2 Labor gain    1-2 Republican gain     1-2 Independent gain     no net change
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
 
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Labor gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  1-2 Independent gain
  no net change

Early election dates

In 1886, three states, with 7 seats among them, held elections early:

Complete list of races

California

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Barclay Henley Democratic 1882 Incumbent retired.
Democratic hold
Thomas Larkin Thompson (D) 50.2%
Charles A. Garter (R) 47.2%
L. W. Simmons (Pr) 2.6%
California 2 James A. Louttit Republican 1884 Incumbent retired.
Democratic gain.
Marion Biggs (D) 50%
J. C. Campbell (R) 47%
W. O. Clark (Pr) 3%
California 3 Joseph McKenna Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph McKenna (R) 53.1%
Henry C. McPike (D) 44.6%
W. W. Smith (Pr) 2.4%
California 4 William W. Morrow Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected. William W. Morrow (R) 48.7%
Frank McCoppin (D) 42%
Charles A. Sumner (I) 9%
Robert Thompson (Pr) 0.4%
California 5 Charles N. Felton Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected. Charles N. Felton (R) 48.8%
Frank J. Sullivan (D) 48.4%
C. Henderson (Pr) 1.4%
A. E. Redstone (I) 1.4%
California 6 Henry Markham Republican 1884 Incumbent retired.
Republican hold
William Vandever (R) 47.3%
Joseph D. Lynch (D) 47.1%
W. A. Harris (Pr) 5.6%

Florida

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected. Robert H. M. Davidson (D) 66.2%
C. B. Pendleton (R) 33.8%
Florida 2 Charles Dougherty Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected. Charles Dougherty (D) 53.9%
J. C. Greeley (R) 44.9%
R. B. Norment (Pr) 1.2%

South Carolina

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 Samuel Dibble Democratic 1882 Incumbent re-elected. Samuel Dibble (D) 99.9%
Others 0.1%
South Carolina 2 George D. Tillman Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected. George D. Tillman (D) 99.6%
Others 0.4%
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Incumbent retired.
Democratic hold.
James S. Cothran (D) 99.8%
Others 0.2%
South Carolina 4 William H. Perry Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected. William H. Perry (D) 100%
South Carolina 5 John J. Hemphill Democratic 1882 Incumbent re-elected. John J. Hemphill (D) 99.9%
Others 0.1%
South Carolina 6 George W. Dargan Democratic 1882 Incumbent re-elected. George W. Dargan (D) 98.7%
Others 1.3%
South Carolina 7 Robert Smalls Republican 1884 (special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Democratic gain.
William Elliott (D) 52.0%
Robert Smalls (R) 47.8%
Others 0.2%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Three states held early elections between June 7 and September 10.
  2. ^ Included 1 Independent Democrat.
  3. ^ a b Includes 2 Independent Republicans, John Alexander Anderson elected to KS-05, and Albert R. Anderson to IA-08.
  4. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Republican.
  5. ^ Greenback Party
  6. ^ a b c Elections held early.
  7. ^ John Nichols was elected as an Independent to NC-04.
  8. ^ a b Labor Party

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Martis, pp. 140–141.

Bibliography

  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External links

This page was last edited on 30 March 2019, at 05:06
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