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1822 and 1823 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1822 and 1823 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1820 / 1821 July 1, 1822 – August 14, 1823 1824 / 1825 →

All 213 seats in the U.S House of Representatives
107 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Henry Clay.jpg
LMcLane.jpg
Leader Henry Clay Louis McLane
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Leader's seat Kentucky 3rd Delaware at-large
Last election 155 seats 32 seats
Seats won 189[a] 24[b]
Seat change Increase 34 Decrease 8

Speaker before election

Philip Barbour
Democratic-Republican

Elected Speaker

Henry Clay
Democratic-Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 18th Congress were held at different dates in each state between July 1, 1822 (in Louisiana) and August 14, 1823 (in North Carolina) during James Monroe's second term in office. This was the first election based on the results of the 1820 Census, which added a total of 26 seats to the House. Four states lost one seat each, while nine states gained anywhere between one and eight seats.

The campaign was waged between the Democratic-Republican Party and the Federalist Party. However, by this time, party unity had broken down and the consensus principles of the Era of Good Feelings were giving way to fragmentation. In turn, many historians classify the parties of the Representatives based on how they voted in the contingent election of 1825 (where the House determined the winner of the 1824 presidential election), at the end of the 18th Congress, with results similar to those in the following table. Michael J. Dubin classifies candidates based on the political parties supporting them in the elections of 1822-1823 (though he does not provide a nationwide tally).

This was the single largest gain by any President's party in House midterm elections in US history, and the only time the President's party made gains of 10 seats or more in such an election.

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Transcription

It’s Professor Dave, let’s discuss Andrew Jackson. The election of Andrew Jackson to the presidency is a watershed moment in the history of American politics, since he is considered the founder of the modern Democratic Party. He was the first true “man of the people” to be elected, as all of the previous presidents had been well-educated members of the aristocracy. Jackson however, was born into an immigrant Scotch-Irish farming family of relatively modest means, and never attended college. If one man can be said to symbolize both the best and worst of the American spirit, it would be Jackson. Though his election was hailed as a victory for democracy, he was also a racist slave owner whose relocation policies of Native Americans drew condemnation even at the time. Jackson’s presidency was the first to demonstrate the inherent dangers of American populism. Jackson’s presidency was associated with the spread of Jacksonian democracy, the movement of political power from established elites to ordinary voters. “The Age of Jackson” shaped the national agenda and the course of American politics for decades to come. Jackson’s philosophy was much in the same vein as Thomas Jefferson, in advocating core Republican values that had been held by the generation of the Revolution. His presidency held a high moralistic tone; it railed against corruption and the banking system. Like Jefferson he had strong agrarian sympathies, having been a planter himself, and he held to a limited view of the federal government. But like Jefferson, Jackson’s moved away from his initially sympathetic views of States’ Rights as his presidency continued, and in time he would threaten to use force against South Carolina if it pursued nullification over tariffs. During the Revolutionary War, the young Jackson acted as a courier and was nearly starved to death when captured by the British. He became a lawyer and was elected to the House of Representatives and then twice to the U.S. Senate. In 1801, Jackson was appointed colonel in the Tennessee militia, which became his political as well as military base. He gained national fame in the War of 1812 during the Battle of New Orleans, where he won a decisive victory over the superior British forces. His men said he was as tough as old hickory wood, and he thusly acquired the nickname, “Old Hickory.” Ordered by President Monroe to lead a campaign against the Seminole and Creek Indians in 1817, Jackson was also ordered to prevent runaway slaves from escaping to Spanish Florida. He captured Pensacola with little more than a few warning shots and deposed the Spanish governor. He tried and executed two Englishmen who had been supplying and advising the Indians, and his actions struck fear into the Seminole tribes as word spread of his ruthlessness. The executions and Jackson’s invasion of Spanish territory created an international uproar. Many in the Monroe administration called for Jackson to be censured, however, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, a believer in Manifest Destiny, defended Jackson. Critics alleged that he exceeded his orders but Jackson claimed he was charged with ending the conflict and that the best way to do it was to seize Florida from Spain, once and for all. When the Spanish minister demanded a “suitable punishment” for Jackson, Adams used Jackson’s conquest and Spain’s own weakness to get Spain to cede Florida to the United States with Jackson named as military governor. In 1822, the Tennessee legislature nominated Jackson for President for the 1824 election. To improve his credentials, Jackson ran for and captured one of Tennessee’s senate seats in 1823. He had previously served as the state’s senator in 1797, but resigned after less than a year. The 1824 presidential contest saw Jackson face off against Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, Treasury Secretary William Crawford, and House Speaker Henry Clay. Jackson received the largest share of the popular vote but not a majority. He also captured more electoral votes than any other candidate, but again lacked a majority. The election was therefore decided by the House of Representatives, which chose Adams, despite the fact that Jackson was the clear victor. Jackson’s supporters cried foul when Clay, after throwing his states’ support to Adams, was subsequently appointed Secretary of State in the new Adams Administration. The Massachusetts born Adams had been a Federalist, but after that party collapsed he became a moderate Democratic-Republican, though never fully trusted by many Southerners. Jackson denounced the “corrupt bargain” and along with Vice President John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren, and Thomas Ritchie, founded the Democratic Party to revive many of the ideals of the old Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party, and forge a national organization dedicated to the common man of the United States. Jackson and Calhoun easily defeated Adams in 1828. During the election, his opponents referred to him as a “jackass” but Jackson enjoyed the insult and used the jackass as his symbol for a while. Years later, cartoonist Thomas Nast revived the symbol, making it the symbol for the entire Democratic Party. Jackson was the first President to invite the public to attend the White House inaugural ball. The massive crowd tracked mud on the floor and on chairs, breaking valuable items just to get a glimpse of Jackson. To get them to leave, White House attendants had to serve punch in huge tubs on the lawn. This event earned Jackson another nickname, “King Mob.” Jackson saw himself as a reformer and attempted to purge the government of corruption from previous administrations, launching presidential investigations into all executive Cabinet offices and departments. He believed in direct election of the president and repeatedly called for the abolition of the Electoral College by constitutional amendment. Sharing Jefferson’s distrust of the moneyed elites, he finally succeeded in abolishing the Bank of the United States. Many believed this was responsible for the Panic of 1837 and blamed Jackson for the economic recession that lasted nearly a decade. Jackson’s presidency also initiated a policy of Indian removal. Though relations between Europeans and Indians were always complicated, they grew increasingly more so in the years after the American Revolution. By the era of Jackson’s Administration, the earlier policy of non-intervention had grown untenable. The issue was especially problematic in the South, with its larger Indian population. Jackson became an advocate for a relocation policy to the territories of the Louisiana Purchase, in what is considered by some historians to be the most controversial aspect of his presidency. On May 26th, 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, Jackson’s first legislative victory. The act was especially popular in the South where the discovery of gold on Cherokee land had increased pressure in the region. The state of Georgia became involved in a jurisdictional dispute with the Cherokees, resulting in the 1832 U.S. Supreme Court decision Worcester vs. Georgia, in which Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Georgia could not impose any laws upon the Cherokee territory. Jackson is credited with the reply, “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it,” but the quote is actually newspaperman Horace Greeley’s. As many as four thousand Cherokees died during their relocation to Oklahoma on the infamous “Trail of Tears.” Overall, more than forty five thousand American Indians were relocated to the West during Jackson’s administration. In an effort to purge the government of the corruption of previous administrations, Jackson launched presidential investigations into all executive Cabinet offices and departments. After a Congressional investigation into the postal service revealed egregious mismanagement, Jackson implemented much needed reforms. During his presidency, those in opposition to Jackson’s purging of office holders and expansion of executive power formed the Whig Party, and took to calling Jackson “King Andrew the First”. However, Jackson’s repeated calls for the abolition of the Electoral College by constitutional amendment went unheeded. Holding to the belief that the college was an impediment to direct democracy, Jackson stressed “I have heretofore recommended amendments of the Federal Constitution giving the election of President and Vice-President to the people. So important do I consider these changes in our fundamental law that I cannot, in accordance with my sense of duty, omit to press them upon the consideration of a new Congress.” But in other reforms, he was more successful. Jackson’s Service Pension Act of 1832 provided pensions to veterans and his Act of July 1836 enabled widows of Revolutionary War soldiers to receive their husband’s pensions. In 1836, he established the ten-hour day in national shipyards. Jackson also oversaw a massive restructuring of the government spoils system, fearing it would lead to public corruption. But the conflict that had the most profound legacy was the so-called “Nullification Crisis” of 1828 to 1832. Southern planters claimed that high tariffs on European imports made those goods so expensive that they had to instead buy them from producers in the northern US, raising their overall prices. Southern politicians argued that these tariffs benefited northern industrialists at the expense of farmers in the south. The issue came to a head when Vice President Calhoun supported his home state, South Carolina, which claimed it had the right to nullify the tariff legislation of 1828 and any Federal laws that went against its own self-interest. Although Jackson sympathized with the South over this matter, he also fiercely supported a strong union, with a powerful central government. The issue developed into a bitter rivalry between the two men. At the Jefferson Day dinner in 1830, one toast was to “The Union of the States, and the Sovereignty of the States,” whereupon Jackson rose and addressed his toast to “Our federal Union: It must be preserved!” – a clear challenge to Calhoun. Calhoun clarified his position by responding “The Union: Next to our Liberty, the most dear!” At the first Democratic National Convention, Calhoun and Jackson broke from each other politically and Martin Van Buren replaced Calhoun as Jackson’s running mate in the 1832 presidential election. On December 28th, 1832, with less than two months remaining on his term, Calhoun resigned as Vice President to become a U.S. Senator for South Carolina. In response to South Carolina’s nullification claim, Jackson promised to send troops to the state to enforce the law. In December 1832, he issued a resounding proclamation against the nullifiers, stating that he considered “the power to annul a law of the United States, assumed by one State, incompatible with the existence of the Union, contradicted expressly by the letter of the Constitution, unauthorized by its spirit, inconsistent with every principle on which it was founded, and destructive of the great object for which it was formed.” Jackson claimed that South Carolina stood on “the brink of insurrection and treason”, and he requested that its citizens declare their allegiance to the Union their ancestors had fought for. Jackson also denied the right of secession, saying: “The Constitution forms a government not a league. To say that any State may at pleasure secede from the Union is to say that the United States is not a nation.” But this crisis was far from over. Another unfortunate element of Jackson’s legacy is that he indirectly triggered the worst economic crisis in American History up to that point. When he dissolved the Second Bank of the United States during his second term, he removed restrictions on some state banks; and wild speculation in lands, based on easy bank credit, had swept the West. To end this speculation, Jackson issued a Specie Circular requiring that lands be purchased with gold or silver, which over time resulted in panic. Hundreds of banks and businesses failed. Thousands lost their land. The U.S. Senate censured Jackson on March 28th, 1834, for removing funds from the Bank. The censure was a political maneuver spearheaded by Jackson’s archrival, Senator Henry Clay. During the proceedings, Jackson called Clay “as full of fury as a drunken man in a brothel”, and the issue was highly divisive within the Senate; however, the censure, which was largely symbolic, was approved 26 to 20. When the Jacksonians had a majority in the Senate, the censure was expunged after years of effort by his supporters, led by Thomas Hart Benton, who had once shot Jackson in a street fight but eventually became his ardent defender. Jackson was notorious for his quick temper. One biographer wrote: “Observers likened him to a volcano, and only the most intrepid or recklessly curious cared to see it erupt. His close associates all had stories of his blood-curdling oaths, his summoning of the Almighty to loose His wrath upon some miscreant, typically followed by his own vow to hang the villain or blow him to perdition. Given his record – in duels, brawls, mutiny trials, and summary hearings – listeners had to take his vows seriously.” The great French chronicler of American Life in the 19th Century, Alexis de Tocqueville, criticized Jackson for his domineering actions, stating: “General Jackson stoops to gain the favor of the majority; but when he feels that his popularity is secure, he overthrows all obstacles in the pursuit of the objects which the community approves. Supported by a power his predecessors never had, he tramples on his personal enemies, whenever they cross his path, with a facility without example; he takes upon himself the responsibility of measures that no one before him would have ventured to attempt. He even treats the national representatives with a disdain approaching insult; he puts his veto on the laws of Congress and frequently neglects even to reply to that powerful body.” But one gets the impression that Jackson wouldn’t have it any other way. On the last day of his presidency he admitted to only two regrets - that he “had been unable to shoot Henry Clay or hang John C. Calhoun.”

Contents

Election summaries

189 24
Democratic-Republican Federalist

Following the 1820 Census, 26 new seats were apportioned, with 4 States losing 1 seat each, 9 States gaining between 1 and 8 seats, and the remaining 11 States having no change in apportionment.

State Type ↑ Date Total seats Democratic-Republican Federalist
Seats Change Factions: Adams-Clay (AC), Crawford (C) and Jackson (J)
AC C J Change AC C J Change
Louisiana Districts July 1–3, 1822 3 Increase2 2 0 1 Increase2 0 Steady
Illinois At-large August 5, 1822 1 Steady 1 0 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana Districts August 5, 1822 3 Increase2 0 0 3 Increase2 0 Steady
Kentucky Districts August 5, 1822 12 Increase2 8 0 4 Increase2 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large August 5–6, 1822 1 Steady 0 0 1 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire At-large August 26, 1822[c] 6 Steady 6 0 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 27, 1822 2 Steady 2 0 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont At-large September 3, 1822 5 Decrease1 5 0 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
Delaware At-large October 1, 1822 1 Decrease1 0 Decrease1 0 1 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 7, 1822 7 Increase1 0 7 0 Increase1 0 Steady
Maryland Districts October 7, 1822 9 Steady 3 1 2 Steady 2 0 1 Steady
Missouri At-large October 7, 1822 1 Steady 1 0 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio Districts October 8, 1822 14 Increase8 10 2 2 Increase8 0 Steady
Pennsylvania Districts October 8, 1822 26 Increase3 0 0 20 Increase5 1 0 5 Decrease2
New Jersey At-large October 15, 1822 6 Steady 1 0 5 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts Districts November 4, 1822[d] 13 Steady 6 0 0 Steady 6 0 1 Steady
New York Districts November 4–6, 1822 34 Increase7 14 14 2 Increase11 4 0 0 Decrease4
South Carolina Districts February 12–13, 1823 9 Steady 0 0 9 Steady 0 Steady
Late elections (after the March 4, 1823 beginning of the term)
Virginia Districts April 1823 22 Decrease1 1 19 1 Steady 0 1 0 Decrease1
Connecticut At-large April 7, 1823 6 Decrease1 6 0 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
Maine Districts April 7, 1823[e] 7 Steady 6 0 0 Increase1 1 0 0 Decrease1
Alabama Districts August 3, 1823 3 Increase2 0 0 3 Increase2 0 Steady
Tennessee Districts August 7–8, 1823 9 Increase3 0 0 9 Increase3 0 Steady
North Carolina Districts August 14, 1823 13 Steady 0 10 2 Steady 1 0 0 Steady
Total 213 Increase 26 72 64 53 Increase34 15 2 7 Decrease8
88.7% 11.3%
House seats
Democratic-Republican
88.73%
Federalist
11.27%

Special elections

There were special elections in 1822 and 1823 to the 17th United States Congress and 18th United States Congress.

Special elections are sorted by date then district.

17th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 9 Solomon Van Rensselaer Federalist 1818 Incumbent resigned January 14, 1822.
New member elected February 25–27, 1822.
Federalist hold.
Successor seated March 12, 1822.[2]
Successor later elected to the next term in New York's 10th district, see below.
Florida Territory at-large New seat Territory was organized March 30, 1822 and granted the right to send a delegate.
New member elected September 30, 1822.
Successor seated January 23, 1823[2] as the first Hispanic American in Congress.[3]
Successor lost election to the next term, see below.
Delaware at-large Caesar A. Rodney Democratic-Republican 1802
1804 (Lost)
1820
Incumbent resigned January 24, 1822 when elected U.S. Senator.
New member elected October 1, 1822.
Federalist gain.
Successor seated December 2, 1822.[2]
Successor retired when the seat was eliminated.
  • Green tickY Daniel Rodney (Federalist) 51.5%
  • James Derickson (Democratic-Republican) 48.4%
Pennsylvania 1 William Milnor Federalist 1806
1810 (Lost)
1814
1816 (Lost)
1820
Incumbent resigned May 8, 1822.
New member elected October 1, 1822.
Federalist hold.
Successor seated December 2, 1822.[2]
Successor later lost re-election in Pennsylvania's 3rd district, see below.
Pennsylvania 6 Samuel Moore Democratic-Republican 1818 (Special) Incumbent resigned May 20, 1822.
New member elected October 1, 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 2, 1822.[2]
Successor later re-elected in Pennsylvania's 8th district, see below.
Pennsylvania 14 Henry Baldwin Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent resigned May 8, 1822 because of his declining health and failing finances.
New member elected October 1, 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 2, 1822.[2]
Successor later re-elected in Pennsylvania's 16th district, see below.
Virginia 2 Thomas Van Swearingen Federalist 1819 Incumbent died August 19, 1822.
New member elected October 28, 1822.
Federalist hold.
Successor seated December 2, 1822.[2]
Successor later re-elected in Virginia's 18th district, see below.
Maine 2 Ezekiel Whitman Federalist 1808 (in Mass.)
1810 (Lost)
1816 (in Mass.)
1820 (Maine)
Incumbent resigned June 1, 1822.
New member elected between June and December 1822.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Successor seated December 2, 1822.[2]
Successor was not a candidate to the next term, see below.
Indiana at-large William Hendricks Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent resigned July 25, 1822 to run for Governor of Indiana.
New member elected between July and December 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 2, 1822.[2]
Successor also elected to the next term in Indiana's 2nd district, see below.
South Carolina 4 James Overstreet Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent died May 24, 1822.
Successor also elected to the next term.
New member elected in October 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 4, 1822.[2]
Successor later re-elected, see below.
Pennsylvania 7 Ludwig Worman Federalist 1820 Incumbent died October 17, 1822.
New member elected December 10, 1822.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Successor seated December 23, 1822.[2]
Successor had already been elected to the next term, see below.
  • Green tickY Daniel Udree (Democratic-Republican) 51.8%
  • William Witman (Independent Democratic-Republican) 48.2%[4]
South Carolina 9 James Blair Democratic-Republican 1821 (Special) Incumbent resigned May 8, 1822.
New member elected December 11, 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 11, 1822.[2]
Successor later re-elected in South Carolina's 8th district, see below.
  • Green tickY John Carter (Democratic-Republican) 36.4%
  • James G. Spann 35.8%
  • John Waties 27.8%
South Carolina 2 William Lowndes Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent died October 27, 1822.
New member elected December 13, 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated January 6, 1823.[2]
Successor later re-elected, see below.
Maryland 5 Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican 1792
1816
Incumbent re-elected (see below) but resigned December 22, 1822.[2]
New member elected January 1, 1823.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
Successor seated January 8, 1823.[2]

18th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 5 Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican 1792
1816
Incumbent re-elected (see below) but resigned December 22, 1822.[2]
New member elected January 1, 1823.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor also elected the same day to finish the term, see above.
Successor seated with the rest of the House at the December 1, 1823 beginning of the first session.[6]
Massachusetts 10 William Eustis Democratic-Republican 1800
1804 (Lost)
1820 (Special)
1820
1822
Incumbent re-elected (see below) but declined the election.
New member elected September 8, 1823.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Election was challenged and successor was not seated, leading to a new election.[6]
  • Green tickY John Bailey (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 59.0%
  • John Ames (Federalist) 33.6%
  • Sher Leland (Democratic-Republican) 7.5%
New York 28 William B. Rochester Adams Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent resigned April 21, 1823 to become Judge of the New York's Eighth Circuit Court.
New member elected in November 1823.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor was seated with the rest of the House at the December 1, 1823 beginning of the first session.[6]

Alabama

Alabama increased from one to three seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. The state then changed from a single at-large district to three geographic districts. Alabama elected its members August 3, 1823, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1
"Northern district"
Gabriel Moore
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 2
"Middle district"
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John McKee (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 24.7%
  • Thomas Farrar 21.6%
  • Jesse W. Garth (Democratic-Republican) 19.6%
  • Marmaduke Williams (Democratic-Republican) 19.1%
  • Sion L. Perry 7.9%
  • John S. Fulton 7.0%
Alabama 3
"Southern district"
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Connecticut

Connecticut lost one seat in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Connecticut elected its members April 7, 1823, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Noyes Barber Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
Ebenezer Stoddard Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
Gideon Tomlinson Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Ansel Sterling Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
John Russ Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Henry W. Edwards Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Daniel Burrows Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent lost re-election.
Seat eliminated.
Democratic-Republican loss.

Delaware

Delaware was reduced once more from two back to one seat after the Fourth Census, which number has remained constant to the present day. At the time of the October 1, 1822 election, the second seat in Delaware's at-large district was vacant, so there was only one incumbent going into the election.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large Louis McLane
(Seat A)
Federalist 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Caesar A. Rodney
(Seat B)
Democratic-Republican 1802
1804 (Lost)
1820
Incumbent resigned January 24, 1822 when elected U.S. Senator.
Successor was only elected to finish the term (see above) as the seat was eliminated.
Democratic-Republican loss.

Georgia

Georgia gained one seat in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Georgia elected its members October 7, 1822.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia at-large
7 seats on a general ticket
Alfred Cuthbert Democratic-Republican 1813 (Special)
1816 (Resigned)
1820
Incumbent re-elected.
George R. Gilmer Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Joel Abbot Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Edward F. Tattnall Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
Robert R. Reid Democratic-Republican 1819 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Wiley Thompson Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Illinois

Illinois elected its sole at-large member August 5, 1822.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois at-large Daniel P. Cook Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.

Indiana

Indiana gained two seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census, and elected its members August 5, 1822.

Indiana's single at-large seat in the 17th Congress was empty at the time of the election, previous incumbent William Hendricks (Democratic-Republican) having resigned to run for Governor of Indiana. Jonathan Jennings (Jackson Democratic-Republican), elected to the new 2nd district, was elected in the ensuing special election to fill the at-large district for the remainder of the 17th Congress.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Indiana 1 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Indiana 2 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Successor also elected the same day to finish the term in the expiring at-large district, see above.
Indiana 3 William Hendricks
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent resigned July 25, 1822 to run for Governor of Indiana.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John Test (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 46.5%
  • Samuel C. Vance 32.7%
  • Ezra Ferris 20.8%

Kentucky

Kentucky gained two seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Kentucky elected its members August 5, 1822.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1 David Trimble Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 2 Thomas Metcalfe
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Thomas Metcalfe (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 73.8%
  • William Worthington 14.0%
  • Walker Reid 12.3%
Kentucky 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Kentucky 4 John S. Smith
Redistricted from the 7th district
Democratic-Republican 1821 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Kentucky 5 John T. Johnson
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Adams Republican gain.
  • Green tickY David White (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 56.1%
  • John Logan 43.9%
Kentucky 7 Samuel H. Woodson
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Kentucky 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Adams Republican gain.
Kentucky 9 James D. Breckinridge
Redistricted from the 8th district
Democratic-Republican 1821 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Kentucky 10 Francis Johnson
Redistricted from the 6th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 11 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Philip Thompson (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican)[j]
  • James Crutcher
  • William Inglish
  • John S. Eave
Kentucky 12 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Louisiana

Louisiana gained two seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Louisiana elected its members July 1–3, 1822.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana 1 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Louisiana 2 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Louisiana 3 Josiah S. Johnston
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Maine

Although Maine neither gained nor lost seats after the 1820 United States Census, redistricting placed two incumbents into the 3rd district. Maine elected its members April 7, 1823, after the term began but before the new Congress convened. Maine law required a majority for election, with additional ballots taken if a majority were not achieved. This proved necessary in 1822 in the 1st, 3rd, 4th, and 6th districts, but all members were still chosen before the new Congress convened.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maine 1 Joseph Dane Federalist 1820 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
First ballot (April 7, 1823):
  • Isaac Lane (Democratic-Republican) 29.9%
  • William Burleigh (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 27.7%
  • Thomas G. Thornton (Democratic-Republican) 11.4%
  • Edward P. Hayman 8.8%
  • Rufus McIntire (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 8.0%
  • Benjamin Greene 7.5%
  • John MacDonald 5.5%
  • Others 1.2%

Second ballot (June 30, 1823):
  • William Burleigh (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 41.6%
  • Isaac Lane (Democratic-Republican) 33.5%
  • Rufus McIntire (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 20.7%
  • John MacDonald 1.3%
  • Edward P. Hayman 1.0%
  • Others 1.9%

Third ballot (September 9, 1823):

Fourth ballot (November 3, 1823):
Maine 2 Mark Harris Democratic-Republican 1822 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Maine 3 Ebenezer Herrick
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected. First ballot (April 7, 1823):
Mark Langdon Hill (Democratic-Republican) 31.6%

Second ballot (June 30, 1823):

Third ballot (September 9, 1823):
Mark Langdon Hill Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent lost re-election.
Democratic-Republican loss.
Maine 4 Joshua Cushman
Redistricted from the 6th district
Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected. First ballot (April 7, 1823):

Second ballot (June 30, 1823):
Green tickY Joshua Cushman (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 60.2%
  • Ebenezer T. Warren (Democratic-Republican) 29.1%
  • Josiah Prescott 7.5%
  • Others 3.2%
Maine 5 Enoch Lincoln
Redistricted from the 7th district
Democratic-Republican 1818 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Green tickY Enoch Lincoln (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 96.7%
  • Ezekiel Thompson 1.7%
  • Others 1.6%
Maine 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
First ballot (April 7, 1823):
  • Jeremiah O'Brien (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 31.4%
  • Alfred Johnson Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 28.2%
  • William Abbott (Federalist) 25.4%
  • Aaron Holbrook (Democratic-Republican) 9.4%
  • Jonathan D. Weston 3.9%
  • Others 1.7%

Second ballot (June 30, 1823):
  • Jeremiah O'Brien (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 40.8%
  • Alfred Johnson Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 37.1%
  • William Abbott (Federalist) 21.9%
  • Others 0.2%

Third ballot (September 9, 1823):
  • Green tickY Jeremiah O'Brien (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 53.2%
  • Alfred Johnson Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 26.6%
  • William Abbott (Federalist) 18.7%
  • Others 1.5%
Maine 7 William D. Williamson
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY David Kidder (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 51.8%
  • William Emerson (Democratic-Republican) 24.7%
  • Obid Wilson 17.8%
  • Others 5.8%

Maryland

Maryland elected its members October 7, 1822.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 1 Raphael Neale Federalist 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Raphael Neale (Adams-Clay Federalist) 64.7%
  • Thomas Blackiston (Federalist) 34.9%
  • Others 0.4%
Maryland 2 Joseph Kent Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Joseph Kent (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 99.5%
  • Others 0.5%
Maryland 3 Henry R. Warfield Federalist 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 4 John Nelson Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
  • Green tickY John Lee (Jackson Federalist) 30.9%
  • Thomas C. Worthington (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 30.1%
  • Michael Sprigg (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 24.8%
  • Casper Weaver (Democratic-Republican) 6.6%
  • William Gabby (Democratic-Republican) 6.1%
  • Joseph Swearingin (Democratic-Republican) 1.5%
Maryland 5
Plural district with 2 seats
Peter Little Democratic-Republican 1810
1812 (Lost)
1816
Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Peter Little (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 44.1%
  • Green tickY Samuel Smith (Crawford Democratic-Republican) 43.2%
  • John Patterson (Democratic-Republican) 12.7%
Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican 1792
1803 (Retired)
1816
Incumbent re-elected but resigned December 22, 1822,[2] leading to a pair of special elections for the current and next congresses.
Maryland 6 Philip Reed Democratic-Republican 1816
1818 (Lost)
1820
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Maryland 7 Robert Wright Democratic-Republican 1810
1816 (Lost)
1820
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Maryland 8 Thomas Bayly Federalist 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John S. Spence (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 66.5%
  • James Murray (Federalist) 33.5%
  • Others 0.1%

Massachusetts

Massachusetts elected its members November 4, 1822. Massachusetts law required a majority for election, which was not met in 3 districts, necessitating additional elections on March 3, 1823 and May 12, 1823; nevertheless, all elections were complete before the new Congress convened.

District[m] Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Massachusetts 1
"Suffolk district"
Benjamin Gorham Federalist 1820 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
  • Green tickY Daniel Webster (Adams-Clay Federalist) 62.9%
  • Jesse Putnam (Democratic-Republican) 37.1%
Massachusetts 2
"Essex South district"
Gideon Barstow Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
First ballot (November 4, 1822):

Second ballot (March 3, 1823):
Massachusetts 3
"Essex North district"
Jeremiah Nelson Federalist 1804
1806 (Retired)
1814
Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Jeremiah Nelson (Adams-Clay Federalist) 76.0%
  • Amos Spaulding (Democratic-Republican) 24.0%
Massachusetts 4
"Middlesex district"
Timothy Fuller Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 5
"Worcester South district"
Jonathan Russell
Redistricted from the 11th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
First ballot (November 4, 1822):

Second ballot (March 3, 1823):
Massachusetts 6
"Worcester North district"
Lewis Bigelow
Redistricted from the 12th district
Federalist 1820 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
First ballot (November 4, 1822):

Second ballot (March 3, 1823):

Third ballot (May 12, 1823):
Massachusetts 7
"Franklin district"
Samuel C. Allen
Redistricted from the 6th district
Federalist 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 8
"Hampden district"
Samuel Lathrop
Redistricted from the 5th district
Federalist 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Samuel Lathrop (Adams-Clay Federalist) 81.2%
  • Thomas Shepherd (Democratic-Republican) 18.8%
Massachusetts 9
"Berkshire district"
Henry W. Dwight
Redistricted from the 7th district
Federalist 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Henry W. Dwight (Adams-Clay Federalist) 62.4%
  • William Jarvis (Democratic-Republican) 37.6%
Massachusetts 10
"Norfolk district"
William Eustis
Redistricted from the 13th district
Democratic-Republican 1800
1804 (Lost)
1820 (Special)
1820
Incumbent re-elected but declined the seat to become Governor of Massachusetts, leading to a special election.
  • Green tickY William Eustis (Democratic-Republican) 84.5%
  • Richard Sullivan (Federalist) 5.7%
  • Others 9.8%
Massachusetts 11
"Plymouth district"
Aaron Hobart
Redistricted from the 8th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Aaron Hobart (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 58.1%
  • Cushing Otis (Federalist) 41.9%
Massachusetts 12
"Bristol district"
Francis Baylies
Redistricted from the 10th district
Federalist 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Francis Baylies (Jackson Federalist) 66.8%
  • Hercules Cushman (Democratic-Republican) 33.2%
Massachusetts 13
"Barnstable district"
John Reed Jr.
Redistricted from the 9th district
Federalist 1812
1816 (Lost)
1820
Incumbent re-elected.

Mississippi

Mississippi elected its member August 5–6, 1822.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi at-large Christopher Rankin Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.

Missouri

Missouri elected its member October 7, 1822.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri at-large John Scott Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John Scott (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 60.0%
  • John B. Lucas 25.2%
  • Alexander Stuart 14.8%

New Hampshire

New Hampshire elected its members August 26, 1822. New Hampshire law required a candidate to receive votes from a majority of voters for election, that is 1/12 of votes. Only five candidates received the requisite majority, and so a May 11, 1823 run-off election was held for the sixth seat.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Josiah Butler Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
First ballot (August 26, 1822):
  • Green tickY Matthew Harvey (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 16.6%
  • Green tickY William Plumer Jr. (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 16.1%
  • Green tickY Aaron Matson (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 15.2%
  • Green tickY Ichabod Bartlett (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 14.9%
  • Green tickY Thomas Whipple Jr. (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 11.6%
  • Edmund Parker (Democratic-Republican) 6.8%
  • Charles Wooman (Independent) 5.7%
  • Arthur Livermore (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 3.9%
  • Estwicke Evans (Independent) 3.0%
  • Richard Odell (Independent) 2.9%
  • Nichol Eastman (Independent) 1.9%
  • William Vale (Independent) 1.5%

Second ballot (May 11, 1823):
  • Green tickY Arthur Livermore (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 38.8%
  • Edmund Parker (Democratic-Republican) 31.4%
  • Richard Odell (Independent) 29.8%
Nathaniel Upham Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Matthew Harvey Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
Aaron Matson Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
William Plumer Jr. Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Thomas Whipple Jr. Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.

New Jersey

New Jersey elected its members October 15, 1822.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
George Holcombe Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
George Cassedy Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
Lewis Condict Democratic-Republican 1821 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel Swan Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
James Matlack Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
Ephraim Bateman Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

New York

New York's representation increased after the 1820 United States Census from 27 to 34 seats, elected from 30 districts, two with two members each, and one with three members. New York elected its members November 4–6, 1822.

As in the previous election, the Democratic-Republican Party in New York was divided into two factions, the "Bucktails" and the Clintonians, which distinction is not marked here. The Clintonians and the Federalists ran on a joint ticket in 1822 as in 1821, in some cases, it's unclear which party a candidate belonged to, those are marked Crawford Federalist.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1 Silas Wood Federalist 1818 Re-elected
as Democratic-Republican
  • Green tickY Silas Wood (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 50.5%
  • John P. Osborn (Democratic-Republican) 49.5%
New York 2 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Jacob Tyson (Crawford Democratic-Republican) 90.9%
  • Jacob Patchen (Crawford Federalist) 9.1%
New York 3
Plural district with 3 seats
John J. Morgan
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
Churchill C. Cambreleng
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 4 None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 5 William W. Van Wyck
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 7 Charles H. Ruggles Federalist 1821 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
  • Green tickY James Strong (Federalist) 57.7%
  • Joseph D. Monnell (Democratic-Republican) 42.3%
New York 9 John D. Dickinson
Redistricted from the 10th district
Federalist 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 10 Stephen Van Rensselaer
Redistricted from the 9th district
Federalist 1822 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
New York 11 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 12 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Lewis Eaton (Crawford Democratic-Republican) 62.8%
  • Nicholas F. Beck (Crawford Federalist) 34.7%
  • Henry R. Teller (Crawford Federalist) 1.7%
  • Gideon Halladay 0.7%
New York 13 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 14 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New York 15 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John Herkimer (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 59.6%
  • Simeon Ford (Crawford Federalist) 40.4%
New York 16 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 17 John W. Taylor
Redistricted from the 11th district
Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John W. Taylor (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 54.2%
  • George Palmer (Democratic-Republican) 45.8%
New York 18 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 19 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 20
Plural district with 2 seats
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 21 Samuel Campbell Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 22 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 23 Elisha Litchfield
Redistricted from the 19th district
Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 24 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 25 David Woodcock
Redistricted from the 20th district
Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 26
Plural district with 2 seats
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Dudley Marvin (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 33.6%
  • Green tickY Robert S. Rose (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 22.7%
  • William Thompson (Crawford Federalist) 19.1%
  • John Price (Crawford Federalist) 13.9%
  • Micah Brooks (Democratic-Republican) 10.6%
  • Others 0.1%
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 27 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Moses Hayden (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 60.6%
  • John H. Jones (Democratic-Republican) 39.3%
  • Others 0.1%
New York 28 William B. Rochester
Redistricted from the 20th district
Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected but resigned April 21, 1823, leading to a special election.
New York 29 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Election was later successfully challenged and a new winner would be seated in 1824.
New York 30 Albert H. Tracy
Redistricted from the 22nd district
Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.

North Carolina

North Carolina's delegation remained unchanged after the census, at thirteen seats. North Carolina elected its members August 14, 1823, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1 Lemuel Sawyer Democratic-Republican 1806
1813 (Lost)
1817
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
North Carolina 2 Hutchins G. Burton Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 3 Thomas H. Hall Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Thomas H. Hall (Crawford Democratic-Republican) 52.2%
  • William Clark (Federalist) 47.8%
North Carolina 4 William S. Blackledge Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
North Carolina 5 Charles Hooks Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special)
1817 (Lost)
1819
Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 6 Weldon N. Edwards Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 7 Archibald McNeill Federalist 1821 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
North Carolina 8 Josiah Crudup Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
North Carolina 9 Romulus M. Saunders Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 10 John Long Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John Long (Crawford Democratic-Republican) 66.9%
  • John MacClelland 33.1%
North Carolina 11 Henry W. Connor Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 12 Felix Walker Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.[n]
Democratic-Republican hold.
North Carolina 13 Lewis Williams Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent re-elected.

Ohio

Ohio gained eight seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Ohio elected its members October 8, 1822.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio 1 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Ohio 2 Thomas R. Ross
Redistricted from the 1st district
Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY William McLean (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 28.8%
  • Joseph H. Crane (Democratic-Republican) 26.1%
  • William Blodget 14.5%
  • Joseph L. Hawkins 13.0%
  • Fielding Lowry 9.9%
  • John Houtz 7.5%
  • Others 0.2%
Ohio 4 Joseph Vance
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 5 John W. Campbell
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Ohio 7 Levi Barber
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic-Republican 1816
1818 (Lost)
1820
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Ohio 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Ohio 9 David Chambers
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1821 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Ohio 10 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John Patterson (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 53.7%
  • Charles Hammond 46.3%
Ohio 11 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John C. Wright (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 58.4%
  • John MacLaughlin 41.5%
  • John Kimmel 0.1%
Ohio 12 John Sloane
Redistricted from the 6th district
Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John Sloane (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 98.9%
  • George M. Crane 1.1%
Ohio 13 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Elisha Whittlesey (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican) 37.3%
  • Eli Baldwin 35.9%
  • Nehemiah King 11.4%
  • Samuel W. Phelps 10.9%
  • Adamson Bentley 4.3%
  • Others 0.1%
Ohio 14 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania gained three seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Pennsylvania elected its members October 8, 1822.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[4]
Pennsylvania 1 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Pennsylvania 2 Joseph Hemphill
Redistricted from the 1st district
Federalist 1800
1802 (Lost)
1818
Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 3 Thomas Forrest
Redistricted from the 1st district
Federalist 1822 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 3 seats
James Buchanan
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Federalist 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
William Darlington
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1814
1816 (Lost)
1818
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Samuel Edwards
Redistricted from the 1st district
Federalist 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 6 John Phillips
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Federalist 1820 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 7
Plural district with 2 seats
Ludwig Worman Federalist 1820 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Incumbent then died October 17, 1822 and winner was also elected December 10, 1822 to begin term early.
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 8
Plural district with 2 seats
Samuel D. Ingham
Redistricted from the 6th district
Democratic-Republican 1822 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Thomas J. Rogers
Redistricted from the 6th district
Democratic-Republican 1818 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 9
Plural district with 3 seats
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
  • Green tickY William Cox Ellis (Jackson Federalist) 18.1%
  • Green tickY Samuel McKean (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 17.4%
  • Green tickY George Kremer (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 17.3%
  • Joseph Wood (Democratic-Republican) 16.7%
  • Henry Welles (Independent Democratic-Republican) 15.0%
  • Henry Yearwick (Independent Democratic-Republican) 10.5%
  • Ethan Baldwin (Independent Democratic-Republican) 3.6%
  • Nicholas Middlesworth (Democratic-Republican) 1.5%
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 10 James S. Mitchell
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 11
Plural district with 2 seats
John Findlay
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic-Republican 1821 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
James McSherry
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania 12 John Brown
Redistricted from the 9th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 13 John Tod
Redistricted from the 8th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 14 Andrew Stewart
Redistricted from the 13th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Andrew Stewart (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 60.8%
  • Joseph Houston (Independent Democratic-Republican) 39.2%
Pennsylvania 15 Thomas Patterson
Redistricted from the 12th district
Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Thomas Patterson (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 67.8%
  • Walter Craig (Independent Democratic-Republican) 32.2%
Pennsylvania 16
Plural district with 2 seats
Walter Forward
Redistricted from the 14th district
Democratic-Republican 1822 (Special) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Walter Forward (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 30.2%
  • Green tickY James Allison Jr. (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 28.2%
  • John A. Scroggs (Independent Democratic-Republican) 21.3%
  • Joel Lewis (Independent Democratic-Republican) 20.2%
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 17 George Plumer
Redistricted from the 11th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY George Plumer (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 54.1%
  • Alexander W. Foster (Independent Democratic-Republican) 45.9%
Pennsylvania 18 Patrick Farrelly
Redistricted from the 15th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Patrick Farrelly (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 71.4%
  • Samuel Williamson (Independent Democratic-Republican) 28.6%

Rhode Island

Rhode Island elected its members August 27, 1822.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Samuel Eddy Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Job Durfee Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.

South Carolina

South Carolina elected its members February 12–13, 1823.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 Joel R. Poinsett Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 2 James Hamilton Jr. Democratic-Republican 1822 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3 Thomas R. Mitchell Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
South Carolina 4 Andrew R. Govan Democratic-Republican 1822 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 5 George McDuffie
Redistricted from the 6th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY George McDuffie (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 63.2%
  • Joseph Black 24.6%
  • James Lomax 12.2%
South Carolina 6 John Wilson
Redistricted from the 7th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 7 Joseph Gist
Redistricted from the 8th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Joseph Gist (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 55.0%
  • James McCreary 44.3%
  • Others 0.3%
South Carolina 8 John Carter
Redistricted from the 9th district
Democratic-Republican 1822 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John Carter (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 55.4%
  • James G. Spann 44.3%
  • Others 0.3%
South Carolina 9 Starling Tucker
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Starling Tucker (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 61.4%
  • William Strother 38.3%
  • Others 0.3%

Tennessee

Tennessee gained three seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Tennessee elected its members August 7–8, 1823, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John Blair (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 52.5%
  • John Tipton 47.5%
Tennessee 2 John Cocke Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Tennessee 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Tennessee 5 Robert Allen
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Robert Allen (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 99.8%
  • Edward D. Trailer 0.2%
Tennessee 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Tennessee 7 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Sam Houston (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 99.9%
  • Others 0.1%
Tennessee 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Tennessee 9 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Vermont

Vermont lost one seat in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. For the 1822 election, Vermont switched back to using a single at-large district. This would be the last year that Vermont would use an at-large district until 1932, when its representation was reduced to a single seat. Vermont elected its members September 3, 1822.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont at-large
5 seats on a general ticket
Rollin Carolas Mallary
Redistricted from the 1st district
Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Phineas White
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Charles Rich
Redistricted from the 3rd district"
Democratic-Republican 1812
1814 (Lost)
1816
Incumbent re-elected.
Elias Keyes
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Samuel C. Crafts
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
John Mattocks
Redistricted from the 6th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent lost re-election.
Seat eliminated.
Democratic-Republican loss.

Virginia

Virginia lost one seat in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Nineteen incumbents ran for re-election leaving three open seats. Virginia elected its members in April 1823, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1 Thomas Newton Jr.
Redistricted from the 21st district
Democratic-Republican 1797 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 2 Arthur Smith
Redistricted from the 20th district
Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 3 William S. Archer
Redistricted from the 17th district
Democratic-Republican 1820 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 4 Mark Alexander
Redistricted from the 18th district
Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 5 John Randolph
Redistricted from the 16th district
Democratic-Republican 1797
1819
Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 6 George Tucker
Redistricted from the 15th district
Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 7 Jabez Leftwich
Redistricted from the 14th district
Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 8 Burwell Bassett
Redistricted from the 13th district
Democratic-Republican 1805
1812 (Lost)
1815
1819 (Retired)
1821
Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 9 Andrew Stevenson
Redistricted from the 23rd district
Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 10 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Virginia 11 Philip P. Barbour Democratic-Republican 1814 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 12 Robert S. Garnett Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 13 William Lee Ball
Redistricted from the 9th district
Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY William Lee Ball (Crawford Democratic-Republican)[j]
  • John Clowning
  • Ellyson Currie
  • John W. Hungerford (Democratic-Republican)
Virginia 14 Charles F. Mercer
Redistricted from the 8th district
Federalist 1817 Re-elected
as Democratic-Republican
Virginia 15 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John S. Barbour (Crawford Democratic-Republican) 43.8%
  • Thomas Marshall (Federalist) 17.8%
  • Thomas Brown (Democratic-Republican) 15.6%
Virginia 16 James Stephenson
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Federalist 1822 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 17 Jared Williams
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 18 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Joseph Johnson (Jackson Democratic-Republican) 58.2%
  • Phillip Doddridge (Federalist) 38.3%
  • Edwin S. Duncan (Democratic-Republican) 2.5%
  • Jeremiah Browning (Democratic-Republican) 1.0%
Virginia 19 William McCoy
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 20 John Floyd
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 21 William Smith
Redistricted from the 7th district
Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY William Smith (Crawford Democratic-Republican) 55.5%
  • James M. H. Beale (Democratic-Republican) 31.6%
  • Isaac Morris (Democratic-Republican) 8.8%
  • Robert Bailey (Democratic-Republican) 3.1%
  • John Haymond (Democratic-Republican) 1.0%
Virginia 22 Alexander Smyth
Redistricted from the 6th district
Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Alexander Smyth (Crawford Democratic-Republican) 55.6%
  • Benjamin Estill (Federalist) 44.4%

Non-voting delegates

There were three territories with the right to send delegates to the 18th Congress.

District Incumbent First
elected
Result Candidates
Arkansas Territory at-large James Woodson Bates 1819 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Florida Territory at-large Joseph M. Hernández September 30, 1822 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Michigan Territory at-large Solomon Sibley 1820 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Corresponds to the sum of Adams-Clay Republicans (72), Jackson Republicans (64), and Crawford Republicans (53), if the 1824 votes for President are used to categorize.[1]
  2. ^ Corresponds to the sum of Adams-Clay Federalists (15), Jackson Federalists (7), and Crawford Federalists (2), if the 1824 votes for President are used to categorize.[1]
  3. ^ Run-off election held for one seat on May 11, 1823.
  4. ^ Majority required for election, which was not met in 3 districts, necessitating additional elections on March 3 and May 12, 1823.
  5. ^ Majority required for election which was not met in 4 districts necessitating additional elections held on June 30, September 9, and November 3.
  6. ^ "Bucktail" faction
  7. ^ Thomas Forrest, in 1822 Pennsylvania's 1st congressional district special election, won by a single vote, 5,977 to 5,976.[4]
  8. ^ a b Source does not give party affiliation.
  9. ^ Based on incomplete data.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Numbers of votes missing or incomplete in source.
  11. ^ Numbers of votes not available in source, said to have won by a majority of 101 votes.
  12. ^ a b Source does not give full name.
  13. ^ District numbers differed between source used and elsewhere on Wikipedia; district numbers used elsewhere on Wikipedia used here.
  14. ^ a b c In Georgia's 12th district, incumbent Robert Brank Vance and challenger Felix Walker both received 1,913 votes. The sheriffs of the four counties in that district cast the tie-breaking votes. Three voted for Vance, and one for Walker, giving the seat to Vance.[citation needed]
  15. ^ a b c d Changed parties.

References

  1. ^ a b "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Seventeenth Congress March 4, 1821, to March 3, 1823". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved February 4, 2019 – via History.house.gov.
  3. ^ Hernández, Joseph Marion, (1788 - 1857)
  4. ^ a b c d e Cox, Harold (January 14, 2007). "Pennsylvania Election Statistics: 1682-2006" (PDF). The Wilkes University Election Statistics Project. Wilkes University. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  5. ^ "South Carolina 1822 U.S. House of Representatives, District 4, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c "Eighteenth Congress March 4, 1823, to March 3, 1825". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved February 25, 2019 – via History.house.gov.

Bibliography

External links

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