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United States House of Representatives elections, 1882

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States House of Representatives elections, 1882

← 1880 November 7, 1882[Note 1] 1884 →

All 325 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
163 seats needed for a majority

  Majority party Minority party
John Griffin Carlisle, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg
J. Warren Keifer - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader John G. Carlisle J. Warren Keifer
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Kentucky-6th Ohio-4th
Last election 131 seats[Note 2] 151 seats
Seats won 199[1][Note 3][Note 4] 118[1][Note 3][Note 5]
Seat change Increase 59 Decrease 29

  Third party Fourth party
Party Readjuster Greenback
Last election 0 seats[Note 6] 10 seats
Seats won 4[1][Note 7] 2[1]
Seat change Increase 4 Decrease 8

Elections results from the 1882 elections

Speaker before election

Joseph Keifer

Elected Speaker

John Carlisle

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1882 for the 48th Congress, during President Chester A. Arthur's term.

Arthur's Republican Party was badly defeated, losing its majority to the opposition Democratic Party after a campaign that focused on the resistance of Republican leaders to reforming the Spoils system under which government jobs were handed to supporters of winning candidates. After the election, Arthur agreed with the Democrats to pass the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, establishing a professional civil service. However, his actions were too late, as the image of the Republican Party as corrupt was already engrained in the minds of voters. This election also saw the decline of the pro-paper money Greenback Party, and the pick up of several Virginian seats by the Readjuster Party which promoted fiscal responsibility and shunned elitism, though the Virginia-based Readjuster Party all but disappeared following this election.

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The United States is one of the founding countries of modern-day constitutionalism, federalist governmental setup and democracy. With its humble beginnings in ancient Greece, democracy was never really seen a reality until the declaration of independence by the United States in 1783 when its first constitution was enacted and implemented. Democracy itself had become extinct, so it seems, starting from Roman rule all the way till the middle ages, except just a few organisations that might have observed certain amount of suffrage to elect representatives or nobles, as observed in early Roman institutes before its transformation into an imperial power and confederacies where leaders would gather to get elected for high positions. This idea of democracy would remain a nascent one till the emergence of the Rights of Man and the rise of values such as liberalism and freedom of expression and representation originally attributed to French events during the 18th century. This idea would climax during the declaration of independence, when the U.S would be the first democratically run, federal country. Other nations would soon follow. In its entire history of American democracy, lies the history of its presidents, their decisions that would permanently cause waves of socio-political change across the country, irrespective of class and caste, creed or religion. Presidents such as Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Roosevelt would lead the country through chaos and destruction only to witness a more powerful, more self-sufficient and a stronger nation that would dictate the world order in the 20th century. The Beginning of United States under George Washington American constitution is one of the oldest written legal documents that allow a federally setup government at the centre. It is also one of the shortest. The beginning of American constitutionalism starts with the events that unfolded in 18th century Americas, during which modern day United States was divided into several colonial possessions of France, Britain and Spain, with only some small territories with the Dutch and Swedes. It was a time of violent chaos in the country. Colonial ambitions were such that rulers never really sat in peace seeing others gaining territory and political power. Great Britain at this point of time was one of the largest and most aggressive of colonial powers and had a deep interest into American resources for strengthening its own empire and plant the seeds of industrialisation that would earn the tag ‘workshop of the world’ in the coming century. The United States was primarily divided into three spheres during this era. The eastern half of the country was composed of 13 autonomous states ruled by the British crown. These states were collectively known as the Thirteen Colonies and would act as the spearhead of rising resistance against the British. The Thirteen colonies would also be the political and industrial centre for the rest of the country after gaining independence. With the Thirteen Colonies to the east, the middle portion of U.S was under the French crown while the western most part was Spanish, ranging all the way down to Mexico that got separated in the 1800s as a different nation. During the years that followed, several political developments had led the Thirteen Colonies to declare war on Great Britain because of several factors that had primarily alienated the American citizenry from British rule. One of these primary factors was direct rule from the parliament, a move zealously resisted by Americans, asserting the opinion that a separate parliamentary function be constituted for the colonies in Americas. The move was cited by most Americans as a tyrannical conduct on part of the British, citing also other factors such as ‘no tax without representation’. The years that followed only developed into a more conflicting situation, with several citizens in the colonies rebelling against the crown. The rebellion soon turned into a full-scale war with the French proving to be the biggest ally for the Americans. At this point of time, George Washington was the Commander-in-Chief of the continental army of the colonies, a loosely fit conventional army recruited in the colonies and made up of certain regular troops aided by militias and citizen troops (often referred to as ‘minutemen’). George Washington’s legacy and contribution towards the American country is immense and is lauded with much respect and acclaim not just in the United States but elsewhere in the world as one the ‘founding fathers of modern democracy’ characterised by a sense of republic nationalism and non-partisanship. He is indeed considered one of the most influential of all American presidents till date and has been repeatedly ranked as one of the top three presidents to have ‘designed’ a country from scratch. His qualities regarding strong leadership abilities and a commitment toward republicanism is one of his many few facets that earn him a name seen on every dollar note and monument across the US and acts as a catalyst of inspiration for several notable presidents that have succeeded him and put his ideas and decisions time and again on the national frontier. George Washington was born to a wealthy family of landowners and tobacco planters in the territory of Colonia Virginia that he inherited. He joined the militia ranks in his youth, ranking up to officer grades during the French and Indian War and would get selected as a fully commissioned commander-in-chief of the continental army in 1775 at the Second Continental Congress. George Washington would successfully fight the British and oust them, once getting decisively defeated himself at the defeat at New York City in 1776, after forcing the British out of there in the same year. Escaping capture eventually, Washington would defeat two large British armies at the fields Trenton and Princeton, retaking New Jersey and restoring the cause of patriots. Not just on the battlefield, George Washington is rather remembered more for his overall leadership strengths on the socio-political spectrum. The first president oversaw and executed a strong sway of political and social reforms that have left a deep permanent impact on American society. His creation of a federally setup national government, the first of its kind in centuries and of that era, a well-structured tax system that still has its code in place today and several institutional features such as the cabinet system of the president, the inaugural address and the title of Mr. President being some of the core areas of his interest and contribution. George Washington was a strictly non-partisan, non-sectional political leader whose resignation from the post of commander-in-chief following the surrender of the British from the continent, rather than retaining the post to gain the position of president or dictatorial rule is lauded by politicians and scholars to this day as one of the most graceful political decisions of his time. After finally becoming president through political support and standard procedure, Washington maintained neutrality with most of the European colonial powers still operating in the Americas while presiding over the constitutional convention in 1787 to implement the American constitution, fixing state and national debts existing since the time of the war and created a national bank. His foreign policy was equally successful, planting seeds of neutrality and trade relationships with Britain, which had just a couple of years ago waged war with the US. In fact, Washington is perhaps the only president who established a tradition of retaining the position for two terms, the second being Franklin Roosevelt who would win for a third more time until his death in 1940. The 22nd amendment was thus passed that limited a nominee’s term to only two. Freedom and Peace under Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln was one of the most influential political leaders US would have got during a time of great upheaval and chaos. Abraham Lincoln was also a close imitation of the founding fathers, namely George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, the latter being another influential president. Abraham Lincoln was born in a poor family at the western frontier of Kentucky and Indiana. Born to uneducated parents whose main area of occupation was physical labour, Abraham Lincoln would self-educate himself before becoming a lawyer and a president in the run-up in the race of 1861. Although considered as one of the greatest presidents of all time, Lincoln would serve only one term before getting assassinated at the Ford’s Theatre on 14 April, 1865, five days after the surrender of confederate general Robert E. Lee by a confederate sympathizer, John Wilkes Booth. Abraham Lincoln’s great contribution towards abolishing slavery once and for all, providing legal freedom for black Americans to live an equal and a dignified way of live in a society that was still enslaved by the notion of racism and slavery, and providing the American economy perhaps its very first seeds of modernisation and contact with the rest of the world after the decisions taken by his predecessors like George Washington to unlock the potential of the vast resources of the American countryside through implementing a more robust tax system, improving the infrastructure of railroads, banks and tariffs and making sure the union government got enough finances to extinguish the confederate south. Abraham Lincoln’s greatest legacy lies beyond the abolishment of slavery and modernisation of the economy. Perhaps, his greatest legacy is in the way he rose up the ranks from being a self-educated individual, to becoming a lawyer and president after several setbacks. The civil war of 1860-1865 was a turning point for the American people in that it instilled in a sense of unity and sympathy for the enormous human life that was lost in the conflict. The civil war was by far the bloodiest conflict the states had ever faced and with growing, increasing crises. The union north was facing a serious threat from confederate south and with an equally well-equipped and well led army, the union could have faced destruction if not for Lincoln’s last minute decisions. His supervision concerning his officers and marshals on the battlefield and taking the right course of action both politically and militarily, forced the confederates to meet at the ground of Gettysburg, where Lincoln delivered one of the finest speeches in American and public speaking history, just hours before the commencement of the battle. The Battle of Gettysburg would establish itself as the epitome of the American civil war, with bloody casualties suffered on both sides and the confederate forced to surrender. General Robert E. Lee, commander-in-chief of the southern army was prompted to deliver full surrender of all his troops and regiments across the frontiers and acceptance of the federal government as the rightful beholder of the United States. Perhaps, even more intriguing about Abraham Lincoln is in the manner he rose to power. Born to uneducated parents, Lincoln grew up in a small wooden cottage at Hodgenville, Kentucky. Largely self-educated, Lincoln never really attended proper school but a passion for gaining worldly knowledge and wisdom contributed in him becoming a lawyer during his young years. Lincoln since early on, took keen interest in American politics and therefore decided to enlist in it. Practicing law in Illinois, Lincoln got elected to the Illinois House of Representatives where he served for eight years. In 1846, he got elected to the United States House of Representatives where he promoted several ground-breaking reforms relating to banking overhauls, construction of railroad and large infrastructural projects that would lead the nation to greater economic heights and allow for more fruitful trade relations with the European world and Asia as well and also supporting some of the most controversial issues of those times that included abolishing slavery and freeing black citizens from the shackles of ownership of wealthy landowners and planters. Such moves and ideas were seen as anti-national in much of the south where local economies functioned on the reliance of black labourers. This was also seen as an infringement on the rights of landowners and local planters in that they perceived such moves to be damaging to their economies and industries. Vehement opposition to such proposals were felt throughout the southern states and Lincoln never really gained support there, except in the north where he swept election rallies and debates. Abraham Lincoln’s preceding attempts at the presidential race had proved to be fruitless, although they were politically motivating for him. In 1858, Lincoln lost the US senate race against rival democrat, Stephen A. Douglas while participating in a series of publicised debates on several topics running hot for the US economy and the socio-political fabric of that time. Lincoln spoke rigorously against expanding slavery in the southern states while also openly supporting laws that would permanently ban the concept of slavery from the US. As such, such ideas were met with full-on opposition from the senate, ending in a rapid defeat. However, the next attempt wouldn’t be the same again. In 1860, Lincoln successfully secured his ticket to the republican party presidential nomination and won decisively in the northern states. The south never really changed its opinion in terms of slavery and bonded labour and hence gave little support to the Lincoln administration as well as during elections. Lincoln’s massive victory in the northern states proved fatal however; seven of the southern states declared themselves independent and ‘rebelled’ against the union government. It was however, a different rebellion than seen on rest of the pages of history. By the rebellion of the southern states, historians refer to the assertion provided by them concerning the conditions provided by these states to the union that primarily related to the withdrawal of the emancipation measures proposed by the Lincoln administration. The south as it believed, relied on slave workers for the growth of the vast number of plantations and agricultural projects that were ongoing so the anti-slavery, anti-bondage proposals were seen as damaging to the local economy and in some contemporary minds’ of view, ‘dictatorial’ on the part of the Lincoln administration. The rebellion got never quelled in the beginning years of Lincoln’s appointment as president, at least politically. The disparity and conflict that arose in seven of these statesin subsequent periods of time eventually lead to an armed movement against the union government. This armed movement came to be known as the American Civil War of 1860-1865, categorised as one of the bloodiest conflicts in American history as famine, disease and gunfire took unprecedented toll never before seen in America. And there was dire need of leadership to end the nightmarish conflict. The civil war of 1860-65 was being decisively won by the southern states in its initial phases. As the confederatesgained territory, the pressure on Lincoln administration only increased. Lincoln however fought back with full political wit and acumen. On 12 April, 1861, a confederate attack on Fort Sumter finally prompted the north to rallybehind the union government. This was advantageous for the Lincoln administration to avoid any future chances of coups or a military surrender. However, still more needed to be done. In congress, internal politics existed. A faction called copperheads (anti-war democrats) actively sought to dislodge the Lincoln administration and some even plotted for his assassination. The republican radicals called for much harsher treatment of the south while the war democrats called for compromises and pacifist steps in the belief that south could be tamed through give-and-take measures. Despite all the chaos in the congress, Lincoln remained calm and focussed. His ultimate aim and strategy to deal with the current crisis was to subjugate the south militarily while convincing them to stop further bloodshed and rather join them by providing realistic arguments that were intended to present a realistic portrait of south’s roadmap to industrialisation and wealth. He proceeded with decisive political actions that would directly or indirectly weaken the south while strengthening his own. His supervision of the whole war event and selection of the best of generals, including Ulysses S. Grant, the successor of Lincoln as the next US president, keeping the British out of potential intervention in the war and making some major decisions like blockading confederate ports to impoverish them of any trade and supply of weapons and armament and repeatedly attempting to capture the confederate capital, Richmond. The whole war strategy of Lincoln proved advantageously fruitful and some of his decisions are still lauded with applause and taken as inspiration for leaders the world over, in spite of Lincoln never having received formal education in military affairs. The final chapter of the war ended at Gettysburg, where Lincoln gave a fitting speech, regarded as legendary by many, that finally united the torn nation. On 9th April, 1865, the confederate states finally surrendered as their commanding general Robert E. Lee handed over confederate standards to the union army. Sadly, just five days after the official surrender, a confederate sympathiser having entered the Ford’s Theatre, where Lincoln was with a small group of his friends and wife, Mary Todd, got shot on the head. He was assassinated after the passing of the historical Emancipation Act that would halt all activity of slavery across the country and categorise it as unlawful and punishable by law. The Act would symbolise the very first steps against racism in the US and equal rights for blacks in almost 5 decades to come. Exuberance and Progression of Theodore Roosevelt Among all the 44 individuals who have presided over the country’s presidential seat, only very few qualify as one of the greatest, according to citizen’s opinions and magazines that list down the most influential of all the presidents. Indeed, selecting the greatest among a group of 44 is not that straightforward, considering that every president has till date contributed to rebuilding and expanding America according to the situation that demanded serious decision-making. In the 20th century however, the list of the greatest US presidents starts from none other than Theodore Roosevelt, who brought about a plethora of socio-political reforms in addition to overhauling and greatly expanding military reforms that would permanently act as the anchor of growth of the US in the coming decades. Indeed, if the involvement of the US during the 2nd World War is noted, and thereafter the rise of US as the leading world power, then a considerable portion of that credit goes directly to Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States. Mr. Roosevelt’s achievements were many, both personal as well as on the political spectrum. Born a weak and sickly child, his story from transforming from an asthma suffering, physically weak, yet intelligent boy to a popular writer, historian and a courageous soldier during the Spanish-American War is an account of its own and is still considered as one of the most popular inspiring compilations for those struggling with several nuances in personal or professional lives. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. as his full name occurred, was born on October 27, 1858 and lived for a comparatively shorter life of 60 years till January 6, 1919 owing to deteriorating health while he was on an expedition in the Amazon Basin. President Theodore Roosevelt is much remembered for his ground-breaking reforms on the socio-political frontier while being an extremely active president who would tour Africa, Europe and Central America during his political career, besides being a zealous conservationist and naturalist as his private hobbies. Theodore Roosevelt belonged to a well-educated and a financially well-off family. His father, Theodore Sr. was a glass businessman and owned one of the popular glass manufactories of the US. He was mostly home-schooled owing to his weak health during childhood and serious asthma that would often give him near-death experiences. His parents took well care of him and tried treating on the birth inherited disorder, although in vain. Being bright in studies, he fared quite well in select subjects like geography, history and biology but struggled in subjects like mathematics and classical language. This was never the end for Roosevelt however, since at a very young age he developed a spirit of iron determination, primarily owing to his poor health that he successfully overcame in later stages of his life. Theodore upon reaching maturity took law as his choice of career while living a simple, disciplined and a strenuous life that involved lots of physical activity to cure his debilitating birth disorder of asthma. Roosevelt was successful in overcoming this disorder and learnt lessons that are now taught by coaches and psychologists for those who find several factors a struggling. Roosevelt dropped from law school to pursue politics, suggesting that ‘law was irrational’ and rather spent most of his time writing his popular book on The Naval War of 1812 (1882) in his university days. Roosevelt subsequently entered politics and sought to run for mayor of New York City after becoming the leader of the reform faction of the republicans in New York legislature. Following the unexpected demise of his wife and mother, Roosevelt unsuccessfully ran for mayor in 1886. This was the time of William McKinley as the presiding president when Roosevelt served as the Assistant Secretary of the Navy under him. Resigning after one year, Roosevelt joined the rough riders during the Spanish-American War, and returned as a war hero. The huge national popularity he won during the war earned him the post of governor of New York. But Roosevelt was a relatively new participant in the realm of politics and lacked the amount of trust needed to proceed further in the ranks. His previous experience although had earned him much respect, resulting in him becoming the vice president to William McKinley. The seat was prestigious, but it was powerless. Roosevelt used this position to work day and night on McKinley’s second running election to retain the post of president, resulting in a landslide victory across the nation. Sadly, news was received of McKinley’s sudden assassination. Theodore Roosevelt thus succeeded him as the 26th president of the United States. At this post, Roosevelt would prove himself as one of the leading figures of carving out the path for modern America. His policies that are based on the progressive system (also called as progressive policies) included a wide range of reforms on pensions, women’s suffrage, breaking of trusts, regulation of infrastructure and railroads and developing initial building blocks of providing pure food and drugs. Being a conservationist himself and championing the cause to maintain American resources and wildlife, Roosevelt declared a laundry list of national parks, sanctuaries and monuments to protect flora and fauna of the United States. A lot any of these parks and sanctuaries that still attract thousands today go back to Theodore Jr.’s time. Apart from the revolutionary changes injected in the socio-political spectrum, Roosevelt also sought to expand America’s military and naval might. He commissioned the construction of the Panama Canal and sent the Great White Fleet across the globe to showcase the growing strength of the American naval machine. Apart from that, Roosevelt also won the Nobel Peace Prize on his efforts on ending the Russo-Japanese War in 1906. Roosevelt’s political career was a success, although short lived because of certain reasons. Elected for a full term in 1904, Roosevelt would continue expanding his progressive policies and conserving nature as best as he could. However, his second term got bottlenecked due to political reasons and the steps he took previously were now being blocked in congress. Roosevelt frustrated by these events, prepared to groom his closest friend and aide, William Howard Taft, on becoming his successive president. His term end thus resulted in William Howard succeeding as president but all was still not well. Roosevelt’s expectation that William Howard would continue the previous policies as he had trained and told him, got frustrated by the mannerthrough which policies were being implemented. Frustrated by the course of events, Roosevelt retired to tour the Amazon Basin as a personal journey, having lost political power back in his home country to the democrats and divided republicans. In Brazil, Roosevelt nearly died of tropical disease but returned safely to oppose the next president Woodrow Wilson’s move to keep away involvement of the US in World War I. Although planning to run again for president in 1920, Roosevelt suffered great health problems resulting in his death in 1919. His face lies carved on Mount Rushmore alongside that of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln. Crisis During Franklin Roosevelt The 20th century saw some of the biggest and unprecedented conflicts in American history. Following the great civil war that raged on in the 1860s, America oversaw the Great Recession of the 1930s that witnessed nearly every 3rd American adult male becoming unemployed as also witnessing a serious surge in prices. Although the recession got extinguished, its ashes still prevailed and the environment still felt hot. The great war of 1914 raged on with many American soldiers martyred on the battlefield. It was then that Franklin Delano Roosevelt came to preside over as American president for four consecutive terms, finally meeting his death during office at his last term. Franklin D. Roosevelt or FDR as he’s popularly known, has often been ranked as one of the greatest presidents of all time after George Washington and Abraham Lincoln in leading the US through the great 2nd World War as also finally putting America at the leading global power for the next 7 decades and still counting. Franklin Roosevelt was born in a very educated and financially well off family of the famous Roosevelts from New York. Having being educated at some of the finest institutes of America, FDR attended the Groton School and Harvard College and married Eleanor Roosevelt at just the age of 23 with whom he had six children. His main focus was always politics and after graduating, soon entered the New York Senate as Assistant Secretary of Navy under president Woodrow Wilson. FDR ran for vice president in the following year of 1921 along with presidential candidate James M. Cox, but failed to secure a victory against Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge. It was also this year that FDR got struck with severe polio that would disable him for the rest of his political and personal life as both his legs stopped functioning, thus forcing him to a wheelchair. The detection of polio was at its initial report, heart-breaking and tense for FDR as he tried dealing with the disorder that would affect all his future life. Having not backing down, FDR still persisted to retain his political standing, instead relying on wheelchair to complete his everyday tasks and duties. By this time, FDR had also become one of the leading political figures and a leader of his democratic party, so a deliberate exit from politics would mean a total disaster and withdrawal. FDR in 1928 ran for governor of New York and won. In the following years during the great depression, he would pass laws and enact programs to combat the economic strife at least in New York. In 1932, FDR finally applied for his ticket for president and successfully defeated the incumbent president Herbert Hoover to at a landslide victory. From here on, FDR’s economic measures would always be remembered as one of the most defining events of modern American history. Renewed by the massive victory in spite of permanent limitations forced upon him by polio, FDR would instil optimism and energetic zeal in the nation to renew its spirit despite ongoing depression phases. In his first hundred days of office, FD enacted and created a list of enactments and laws to permanently combat the effects left by the recession. These enactments included measures to curb unemployment (relief programs), economic recovery and reform through regulating trade, finance, the wall street and infrastructure. These measures proved so fruitful that during the peak months of the 2nd World War, unemployment in the US had gone down to almost 2%, one of the lowest in decades. Besides, workers flocked to industrial plants for manufacturing arms and arsenal that would aid the military in the coming months. FDR’s primary focus during his first term was recovering the economy if the US needed to expand its military and political clout over the horizon. For this, he gave out a number of subsidies and programs to support the agricultural output of the country and encourage labour union growth side-by-side regulating finance and trade. Unemployment fell greatly and so did the economy recover as if it boomed out of nowhere. His repeal of the Prohibition Act in 1933 greatly added to his already solid popularity among the electorate thus giving him another landslide victory in 1936 for a second term. Some of his economic legacy that still survives and functions actively includes measures like the Securities and Exchange Commission, Wagner Act, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security, the latter being one of the most commonly heard terms in the country. FDR’s legacy also lies equally to the effort laid down by him to lead the United States in the great war against Nazi Germany. In its initial phases, FDR sought to keep US away from the war and remain neutral, acting instead as an ‘arsenal of democracy’ by supplying equipment and manpower to allied powers primarily to the UK. However, events would decide otherwise. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour on 7 December, 1941, Roosevelt through congressional approval on the very next day, declared war on imperial Japan and within a few days, on Germany and its allies of Italy and satellite states. The 2nd World War had finally entered its peak. Within a matter of days, Roosevelt in spite of his polio disability worked actively with British premiere Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin against axis powers in Europe and south-east Asia. Roosevelt’s war strategy came out as fruitful and decisive as he implemented it on two fronts resulting in the total defeat of axis powers and formation of the first nuclear bomb for thwarting Imperial Japan. His legacy also led to the formation of United Nations and Bretton Woods Conference that would decide the economic order for pretty much the whole world still seen today. However, Roosevelt in spite of having an illustrious political career, suffered greatly in his personal life. Following his marriage to Eleanor Roosevelt, FDR was doubted to be having extra-marital affairs with certain women who worked closely with him in the White House. Some of these women included his secretaries and aids, and even the Princess of Sweden, Martha who stayed at the White House for a couple of days during the great war. The unfolding of these events greatly disturbed the already calm relationship between him and his wife, with Eleanor ultimately moving to her own place after several months of distrust. The relationship between the two got so greatly disturbed that FDR on rapidly worsening health during his fourth term, requested Eleanor to come back and join him, with the latter refusing instantaneously. Thus, although certain blots remained in his private life, Roosevelt rooted out corruption from the system, gave every American the bread he/she deserved while also spearheading the resistance against Nazi Germany. The history of the presidents of United States is as intriguing and nostalgic as anything could be. American presidents have been more than just presidents, they remain as a living example of true workmanship and the drive to steer forward a civilisation. Although there have ben 44 presidents so far, a lot many of them have been exceptionally illustrious and hence the approach of ranking them among top three becomes a tedious task, since there have definitely been more than just 3 presidents to remember. But, this cannot be forgotten that each president has laid down effort to build something or the other that is seen in modern day. From the high rises of New York to the bustling flyovers and cities of America, everything is a legacy of an American president. As the world order shifts again, great new challenges arise for the next presidents to come. Perhaps the greatest challenge will be the approach that needs to be met for USA to occupy the top position again. Only time will tell of the future events that lay ahead.


Election summaries

Following the 1880 Census, 32 new seats were apportioned.[2] Three States lost 1 seat each, 13 States had no change in apportionment, 14 States gained 1 seat each, 6 States gained 2 seats, 1 State gained 4 seats, and 1 State gained 5 seats. Several States that gained one or more seats did not redistrict immediately, electing the new Representatives at-large, while one state (Maine) which lost a Representative also delayed redistricting, electing all of its Representatives at-large for this Congress only.

196 3 4 2 2 1 117
Democratic ID Rj I Gb IR Republican
State Type Total
Democratic Republican Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 Steady 7 Increase 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas District
+ at-large[Note 8]
5 Increase 1 5 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District
+ 2 at-large[Note 8]
6 Increase 2 6 Increase 4 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Colorado At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 Steady 3 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 Steady 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District
+ at-large[Note 8]
10 Increase 1 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 20 Increase 1 9[Note 9] Increase 3 11 Decrease 2 0
Indiana District 13 Steady 10 Increase 5 3 Decrease 5 0 Steady
Iowa[Note 10] District 11 Increase 2 3 Increase 2 7 Decrease 1 1[Note 11] Increase 1
Kansas District
+ 4 at-large[Note 8]
7 Increase 4 0 Steady 7 Increase 4 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 Increase 1 9[Note 9] Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 Steady 5 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[Note 10] At-large[Note 12] 4 Decrease 1 0 Steady 4 Increase 1 0 Decrease 2[Note 11]
Maryland District 6 Steady 4 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 12 Increase 1 3 Increase 2 9[Note 5] Decrease 1 0 Steady
Michigan District 11 Increase 2 6 Increase 6 5 Decrease 4 0 Steady
Minnesota District 5 Increase 2 0 Steady 5 Increase 2 0 Steady
Mississippi District 7 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 1[Note 13] Increase 1
Missouri District 14 Increase 1 14 Increase 6 0 Decrease 1 0 Decrease 4[Note 11]
Nebraska District[Note 14] 3 Increase 2 0 Steady 3 Increase 2 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
New Jersey District 7 Steady 3 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
New York District
+ at-large[Note 8]
34 Increase 1 21 Increase 1 13 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1[Note 13]
North Carolina District
+ at-large[Note 8]
9 Increase 1 7[Note 9] Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Ohio[Note 10] District 21 Increase 1 15 Increase 10 6 Decrease 9 0 Steady
Oregon[Note 10] At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+ at-large[Note 8]
28 Increase 1 12 Increase 5 15 Decrease 3 1[Note 11] Decrease 1
Rhode Island District 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 Increase 2 6 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 Steady 8 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Texas District 11 Increase 5 10 Increase 5 0 Steady 1[Note 13] Steady[Note 15]
Vermont[Note 10] District 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Virginia District
+ at-large[Note 8]
10 Increase 1 6 Decrease 1 0 Decrease 2 4[Note 7] Increase 4[Note 16]
West Virginia District 4 Increase 1 3 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 9 Increase 1 6 Steady 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Total 325 Increase 32 199[1][Note 4]
Increase 59 118[1][Note 5]
Decrease 26 8[1]
Decrease 2
House seats

There were a total of 8 Representatives elected from third parties, 4 from the Virginia-based Readjuster Party, 2 from the declining Greenback Party, and 2 Independents. The previous election of 1880 had had 10 Greenbacks and 1 Independent.

  House seats by party holding plurality in state     80+ to 100% Democratic       80+ to 100% Republican     60+ to 80% Democratic       60+ to 80% Republican     Up to 60% Democratic    Up to 60% Readjuster    Up to 60% Republican
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+ to 100% Democratic
  80+ to 100% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Readjuster
  Up to 60% Republican
  Net gain in party representation     6+ Democratic gain       6+ Republican gain     3-5 Democratic gain    3-5 Readjuster gain    3-5 Republican gain     1-2 Democratic gain    1-2 Independent gain    1-2 Republican gain     no net change
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Readjuster gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Independent gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates

In 1882, five states, with 39 seats among them, held Congressional elections before the rest of the Union:


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
California 1 William Rosecrans Democratic 1880 Incumbent re-elected. William Rosecrans (Democratic) 59.5%
Paul Neuman (Republican) 38.8%
James McMillan Shafter (Prohibition) 1.5%
H. S. Fitch (Greenback) 0.2%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Lost re-election
Democratic gain.
James Budd (Democratic) 50.5%
Horace F. Page (Republican) 48.1%
J. L. Coles (Prohibition) 1.2%
F. J. Woodward (Greenback) 0.2%
California 3 Campbell P. Berry Democratic 1879 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Barclay Henley (Democratic) 51.3%
John J. De Haven (Republican) 45.8%
H. S. Graves (Prohibition) 2%
W. O. Howe (Greenback) 0.9%
California 4 Romualdo Pacheco Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pleasant B. Tully (Democratic) 54.4%
George L. Woods (Republican) 43.3%
M. V. Wright (Prohibition) 1.5%
Isaac Kinley (Greenback) 0.8%
California at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
None (New seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
John R. Glascock (Democratic) 26.5%
Charles A. Sumner
(Democratic) 26.5%
William W. Morrow (Republican) 22.4%
Henry Edgerton (Republican) 22.3%
A. B. Hotchkiss (Prohibition) 0.8%
Jesse Yarnell (Prohibition) 0.8%
Warren Chase (Greenback) 0.3%
Stephen Maybell (Greenback) 0.3%
None (New seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected. Robert H. M. Davidson (Democratic) 51.5%
Emory F. Skinner (Republican) 32.2%
D. L. McKinnon (Independent Republican) 16.3%
Florida 2 Horatio Bisbee, Jr. Republican 1880[Note 17] Incumbent re-elected. Horatio Bisbee, Jr. (Republican) 50.5%
Jesse J. Finley (Democratic) 49.5%

South Carolina

District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 John S. Richardson Democratic 1878 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Samuel Dibble (Democratic) 56.9%
J. B. Campbell (Greenback/L) 43.1%
South Carolina 2 George D. Tillman
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected. George D. Tillman (Democratic) 67.8%
E. M. Brayon (Greenback/L) 31.9%
Others 0.3%
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected. D. Wyatt Aiken (Democratic) 84.6%
T. H. Russell (Greenback/L) 15.4%
South Carolina 4 John H. Evins Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected. John H. Evins (Democratic) 71.8%
D. R. Elkins (Greenback/L) 27.2%
South Carolina 5 None (open seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
John J. Hemphill (Democratic) 56.0%
E. B. C. Cash (Greenback/L) 44.0%
South Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
George W. Dargan (Democratic) 64.7%
Edmund H. Deas (Republican) 21.7%
A. H. Bowen (Greenback/L) 13.6%
South Carolina 7 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Edmund W. M. Mackey (Republican) 64.8%
Samuel Lee (Independent Republican) 35.2%

See also


  1. ^ Five states held early elections between June 5 and October 10.
  2. ^ Included 1 Independent Democrat (and 2 "Readjuster Democrats" – see Readjusters elsewhere).
  3. ^ a b Dubin (p. 263) counts 192 Democrats, 5 Readjusters, 2 Independent Democrats, 119 Republicans, 1 Liberal, 2 Greenbacks and 2 Independents (along with 2 vacancies) at the start of the 48th United States Congress.
  4. ^ a b Includes 3 Independent Democrats elected to IL-02, KY-01, and NC-07.
  5. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Republican, Theodore Lyman, elected to MA-09.
  6. ^ There were two "Readjuster Democrats" elected to the previous congress in 1880.
  7. ^ a b Includes 4 Readjusters elected to VA-02, VA-04, VA-09, and VA-AL.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h New seat or seats added without immediate redistricting.
  9. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Democrat.
  10. ^ a b c d e Elections held early.
  11. ^ a b c d Greenback Party
  12. ^ Changed from districts.
  13. ^ a b c Independent.
  14. ^ Changed from at-large.
  15. ^ Previous election had 1 Greenback.
  16. ^ Previous election saw 2 "Readjuster Democrats" elected to VA-07 and VA-09.
  17. ^ Seated after successful electoral challenge.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Martis, pp. 136–137.
  2. ^ 22 Stat. 5


External links

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