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United States House of Representatives elections, 1848

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States House of Representatives elections, 1848

← 1846 August 7, 1848 – November 6, 1849[Note 1] 1850 →

All 233[Note 2] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
117 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party
 
Howell Cobb-crop.jpg
Robert Charles Winthrop - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader Howell Cobb Robert C. Winthrop
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Georgia 6th Massachusetts 1st
Last election 112 seats 116 seats
Seats won 113[Note 2] 108
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 8

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Free Soil Know Nothing
Last election 0 seats 1 seats
Seats won 9 1
Seat change Increase 9 Steady

Speaker before election

Robert C. Winthrop
Whig

Elected Speaker

Howell Cobb
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 31st Congress were held at various dates in each state between August 7, 1848 (Arkansas, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri) and November 6, 1849 (Mississippi). California also elected two Representatives at-large on November 11, 1849, in anticipation of statehood, and they were seated September 11, 1850.

The Democrats gained one seat, while the Whigs lost their majority they had gained just two years earlier in the election of 1846. This was the first election in the U.S. House that resulted in no party gaining an overall majority of seats.

The Mexican–American War, which ended with an American victory several months before the election, was a big factor in the election. Zachary Taylor, a general in the war, was elected president as a Whig, but the Democrats, who instigated the war, were rewarded for their victory by regaining the largest share of House seats. The anti-slavery Free Soil Party was a huge spoiler in this election, earning 9 seats in districts that generally supported Whig politicians. At the same time, the American (Know Nothing) Party continued to be a marginal force after their breakthrough in the 1844 elections, managing to win just 1 seat in 1848, just as they had previously in 1846.

When Congress assembled on December 3, 1849, no single party was able to win a majority of the vote for Speaker of the House. The Whigs split; the majority renominating Robert Charles Winthrop of Massachusetts but the southern Whigs split off to support Meredith Poindexter Gentry of Tennessee. The Democrats put forth Howell Cobb of Georgia, while the Free Soilers supported David Wilmot of Pennsylvania, author of the Wilmot Proviso.

The impasse continued until the 63rd ballot. Two dozen other candidates were offered in the hopes that someone else could gain a majority. The Democrats and Free Soilers attempted a compromise on the 40th ballot, but this was exposed by Edward Stanly, a Whig from North Carolina. After the 59th ballot, Stanly offered a proposal, which was accepted. The House would take three additional ballots. If no candidate won the majority, whoever placed first on the 63rd ballot would be declared the new Speaker. On December 22, Cobb was chosen on the 63rd ballot with 102 votes to 99 for Winthrop and 20 scattering.[citation needed]

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Transcription

Contents

Election summaries

Wisconsin was apportioned an additional seat in 1848,[1] and two more seats were added for the new state of California.[2]

113 9 1 1 108
Democratic FS I AKN Whig
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic Whig Free Soil Other
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Michigan District November 7, 1848
(Election Day)[Note 3]
3 2 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 5 1 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 34 1 Decrease10 32 Increase9 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 3[Note 4] 1 Decrease1 1 Increase1 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Arkansas At-large August 7, 1848 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 6, 1848 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida At-large October 2, 1848 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District October 2, 1848 8 4 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District August 7, 1848 7 6 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Iowa District August 7, 1848 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District September 11, 1848 7 5 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District November 13, 1848 10[Note 5] 0 Steady 8 Decrease2 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Missouri District August 7, 1848 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District October 10, 1848 21 11 Increase1 8 Decrease3 2 Increase2 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District October 10, 1848 24 9 Increase2 13 Decrease3 1 Increase1 1[Note 6] Steady
South Carolina District October 9–10, 1848 7 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District September 5, 1848 4 1 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
1849 elections
Alabama District August 6, 1849 7 5 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California At-large November 11, 1849[Note 7] 2 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1[Note 8] Increase1
Connecticut District April 2, 1849 4 2 Increase2 1 Decrease3 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Indiana District August 6, 1849 10 8 Increase2 1 Decrease3 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Kentucky District August 6, 1849 10 4 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana District November 5, 1849 4 3 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District October 3, 1849 6 3 Increase1 3 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi District November 5–6, 1849 4 4 Increase1 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District March 13, 1849 4 2 Steady 1 Steady 1 Increase1 0 Decrease1[Note 9]
North Carolina District August 7, 1849 9 3 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island District April 4, 1849 2 0 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District August 2, 1849 11 7 Increase1 4 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District August 6, 1849 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District April 26, 1849 15 13 Increase4 2 Decrease4 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total[Note 2] 232 113
48.7%
Increase1 108
46.6%
Decrease8 9
3.9%
Increase9 2
0.9%
Steady
House seats
Democratic
48.71%
Whig
46.55%
Free Soil
3.88%
Know-Nothing
0.43%
Others
0.43%

California

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
None New seat.
New member elected November 11, 1849 in anticipation of statehood.
Independent gain.
George W. Wright (Independent) 22%
Edward Gilbert (Democratic) 20.6%
Rodman M. Price 16.3%
P. A. Morse 8.3%
Lewis Dent 8.2%
E. J. C. Kewen 7.3%
W. M. Sheppard 7.2%
William E. Shannon 5.4%
Peter Halsted 2.4%
L. W. Hastings 0.9%
Pierson B. Reading 0.7%
W. H. Russell 0.4%
J. S. Thompson 0.3%
Kimball H. Dimmick 0.2%
None New seat.
New member elected November 11, 1849 in anticipation of statehood.
Democratic gain.

Florida

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large Edward C. Cabell Whig 1846 Incumbent re-elected October 2, 1848. Edward C. Cabell (Whig) 53.5%
William Pope Duval (Democratic) 46.5%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted during the 31st Congress
  2. ^ a b c Includes late elections
  3. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections as well.
  4. ^ Increase of 1 seat
  5. ^ One vacancy, in MA-04, for the duration of the 31st Congress (as no candidate received a majority of the vote after multiple elections).
  6. ^ 1 Know-Nothing
  7. ^ Seated September 11, 1850 after admission to the Union.
  8. ^ 1 Independent elected.
  9. ^ Previous election had 1 Independent

References

  1. ^ Stat. 235
  2. ^ Stat. 452

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 31 July 2018, at 15:27
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