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Unitary parliamentary republic

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A unitary parliamentary republic is a unitary state with a republican form of government in which the political power is vested in and entrusted to the parliament with confidence[clarification needed] by its electorate.[further explanation needed]

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List of unitary parliamentary republics

Country Formerly Parliamentary republic adopted Head of state elected by Cameral structure
 Albania One-party state[1] 1991 Parliament, by majority[1] Unicameral
 Armenia Semi-presidential republic 2018 Parliament, by majority Unicameral
 Bangladesh Presidential republic 1991[note 1] Parliament Unicameral
 Barbados Constitutional monarchy 2021 Parliament, by two-thirds majority if there is no joint nomination Bicameral
 Botswana British protectorate (Bechuanaland Protectorate) 1966 Parliament, by majority Unicameral
Bulgaria Bulgaria One-party state 1989 Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral
Croatia Croatia Semi-presidential republic 2000 Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral
 Czech Republic One-party state (part of Czechoslovakia) 1989 Direct election, by second-round system
(since 2013; previously parliament, by majority)
 Dominica Associated state of the United Kingdom 1978 Parliament, by majority Unicameral
 Estonia Occupied by the Soviet Union (one party state) 1918[note 2] Parliament, by two-thirds majority Unicameral
 Fiji Military dictatorship 2014 Parliament, by majority Unicameral
 Finland Semi-presidential republic 2000[note 3] Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral
 Greece Military dictatorship; Constitutional monarchy 1975 Parliament, by majority Unicameral
 Hungary One-party state 1990 Parliament, by absolute majority Unicameral
 Iceland Formerly part of Denmark; Constitutional monarchy 1944 Direct election, by first-past-the-post Unicameral
 Ireland Constitutional Monarchy (British Dominion) 1949[note 4] Direct election, by instant-runoff vote Bicameral
 Israel Protectorate (part of British Mandate of Palestine) 1948 Parliament, by majority Unicameral
 Italy Constitutional monarchy 1946 Parliament, by absolute majority Bicameral
 Kiribati Protectorate 1979 Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote Unicameral
 Latvia One-party state (part of Soviet Union) 1991[note 5] Parliament Unicameral
 Lebanon Protectorate (French mandate of Lebanon) 1941 Parliament Unicameral
North Macedonia North Macedonia One-party state (part of the Yugoslavia) 1991 Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral
 Malta Constitutional monarchy 1974 Parliament, by majority Unicameral
 Marshall Islands UN Trust Territory
(part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
1979 Parliament Bicameral
 Mauritius Constitutional monarchy 1992 Parliament, by majority Unicameral
 Moldova Semi-presidential republic 2001 Parliament, by three-fifths majority Unicameral
 Montenegro One-party state
(Part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)
1992 Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral
 Nauru Australian Trust Territory 1968 Parliament Unicameral
 San Marino Autocracy (part of the Roman Empire) 301 Parliament Unicameral
 Serbia One-party state (part of Yugoslavia) 1991 Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral
 Singapore Constitutional monarchy (part of Malaysia) 1965 Direct election (since 1993) Unicameral
Slovakia Slovakia One-party state (part of Czechoslovakia) 1989 Direct election, by second-round system
(since 1999; previously by parliament)
 Slovenia One-party state (part of Yugoslavia) 1991 Direct election, by second-round system Bicameral
 South Africa Constitutional monarchy 1961 Parliament, by majority Bicameral
 Suriname Military dictatorship 1987 Parliament, by majority Unicameral
Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan) One-party military dictatorship 1946[note 6] Electoral college, directly elected by the electorate Tricameral
 Trinidad and Tobago Constitutional monarchy 1976 Parliament Bicameral
 Vanuatu British–French condominium (New Hebrides) 1980 Parliament and regional council presidents, by majority Unicameral

See also


  1. ^ Was previously a parliamentary republic between 1971 and 1975.
  2. ^ Estonia was previously a parliamentary republic from 1918 until 1938, when a new constitution with a more presidential system was adopted; the country was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940-41 (and again in 1944-91) .
  3. ^ Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 ISBN 9780719078538), he quotes Nousiainen, Jaakko (June 2001). "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government: political and constitutional developments in Finland". Scandinavian Political Studies. 24 (2): 95–109. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.00048. as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister, and not by its president, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitution reduced the powers of the president even further.
  4. ^ Irish head of state from 1922 to 1949.
  5. ^ Latvia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1921 and 1934 when the then prime minister Kārlis Ulmanis took power in a coup d'état. In June 1940 Latvia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  6. ^ The Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China was passed on May 1, 1991 effectively transforming into a semi-presidential system. The Republic of China government was defeated in the Chinese Civil War in 1949-50 to the Chinese Communist Party retreating to the island of Taiwan, which became a de facto one-party state from 1949 to 1987.


This page was last edited on 10 September 2023, at 04:53
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